Source: MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
STATE SEED TESTING LABORATORY
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0087592
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MONB00318
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Armstrong, H.
Recipient Organization
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BOZEMAN,MT 59717
Performing Department
Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology
Non Technical Summary
The MSU Seed Laboratory provides testing services for State and Federal agencies, private seed companies, MSGA, farmers and ranchers. These services provide users with vital information on seed quality and help determine market prices. The service provided by the Montana state University Seed Testing Laboratory help maintain the seed industry throughout the Rocky Mountain region as well as the great plains. Our results provide the basis for prices to be set on seed in commerce. The regulatory testing prevents seed with noxious weed seed from being sold in Montana and Wyoming.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2021540108020%
2021541108020%
2021550108020%
2021621108020%
2021640108020%
Goals / Objectives
1)Service Testing: Provide a seed testing facility in Montana where basic seed testing services can be preformed for the public and government agencies (BLM, NFS, MDOT, WDOT, MDA, WDA, etc.). Tests include but are not limited germination, purity and noxious weed seed analysis, tetrazolium viability, barley stripe mosaic virus, Ascochyta, and seed identification. Provide a seed testing facility for Montana Seed Growers Association to provide testing services applicable to MSGA seed certification. 2)Regulatory testing: Provide seed inspection service for the Montana Department of Agriculture and Wyoming Department of Agriculture (via MOU) for seed offered for sale in Montana and Wyoming respectively. 3)Research: As necessity dictates, participate in research leading to development of new testing procedures for evaluation of seed quality and characterization of the factors affecting seed quality. Provide support for other researchers working on seed problems.
Project Methods
All testing will be done in accordance with the Association of Official Analysts (AOSA) Rules for Testing Seed (2000 revision).

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Montana State University Seed lab is a seed testing facility provides 1) Service Testing: basic seed testing services can be performed for the public and government agencies (BLM, NFS, MDOT, WDOT, MDA, WDA, etc.). Tests include but are not limited germination, purity and noxious weed seed analysis, tetrazolium viability, barley stripe mosaic virus, Ascochyta, and seed identification. The Seed lab provides seed testing for Montana Seed Growers Association applicable to MSGA seed certification. 2) Regulatory testing: Provide seed inspection service for the Montana Department of Agriculture and Wyoming Department of Agriculture (via MOU) for seed offered for sale in Montana and Wyoming respectively. 3) Research: As necessity dictates, participate in research leading to development of new testing procedures for evaluation of seed quality and characterization of the factors affecting seed quality. Provide support for other researchers working on seed problems. Service sample tested averaged between 5000-6000 during recent years of this project. Some specific impacts include: 1) Determination of the causal organism of larval damage in basin wild-rye and western wheatgrass may result in up to a 33% potential increase in seed production due potential scouting and preventative measures to limit damage due to the Orange blossom wheat midge. 2) Camelina sativa is an emerging oil-seed crop that has a large potential impact as a crop and a valuable asset to crop rotation. Standardized testing protocols must be instituted prior to expansion into adjoining states 3) Potential AOSA rule changes should be developed within the next two years. These rule changes will increase harmony in rules between AOSA and the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The MSU Seed Laboratory provides testing services for State and Federal agencies, private seed companies, MSGA, farmers and ranchers. These services provide users with vital information on seed quality and help determine market prices. The service provided by the Montana state University Seed Testing Laboratory help maintain the seed industry throughout the Rocky Mountain region as well as the Great Plains. Our results provide the basis for prices to be set on seed in commerce. The regulatory testing prevents seed with noxious weed seed from being sold in Montana and Wyoming. The Seed Industry for which the Montana State Seed Laboratory provides support is an approximately $150 million (conservative estimate) business. The types of seed vary from specialized crop types - Monkey Flower to crops with very common uses - small grains and legumes. This results in a broad but specialized industry. The need for expedient, accurate results is extremely important for everyone involved, whether a small farmer testing their own seed to replant or a large company involved in international shipments. The Montana State Seed Laboratory provides user services, which develop information to determine the monetary values of seed lots for the local, state, national and international seed market. In addition, these services also provide information of the quality between like seed lots.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Service sample tested 01/2006-12/2006 were 5026. Larval damaged wild-rye caryopsis pure seed definitions were confirmed during Federal Seed Schools in 2006. Orange Blossom wheat midge was determined to be the causal agent to damage to basin wild-rye and western wheatgrass. A rule was proposed to include Camelina sativa as a new species in the Rules For Testing Seed. Seed weights, pure seed definitions and germination protocols were proposed. The seed lab concluded the third year of a spring planting farmers drill box survey. The seed lab provided purity and germination information of samples provided in a tri-county area. This information was utilized in field plantings at the Northern Ag. Research Center. Summary results are expected in 2007. The seed lab assisted in determining purity, germination and seed count information in a scab nursery conducted by Bill Grey. Results will be presented during the AOSA/SCST meeting to be held in Cody, WY. The Montana State Seed Lab is co-hosting the meeting with the Wyoming Seed Analysis Lab. The seed lab is now offering on line access to seed lab test results via the Pure Harvest lab software system.

Impacts
Determination of the causal ogranism of larval damage in basin wild-rye and western wheatgrass may result in up to a 33% potential increase in seed production due potential scouting and preventative measures to limit damage due to the Orange blossom wheat midge. Camelina sativa is an emerging oil-seed crop that has a large potential impact as a crop and a valuable asset to crop rotation. Standardized testing protocols must be instituted prior to expansion into adjoining states.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Service samples tested 01/2005-12/2005 was 5122. The lab is working to redefine pure seed definitions of grass seed infested by larvae during anthesis, pure seed definitions for transparent achene's of Asteraceae via regional referees with members of AOSA and SCST. Preliminary germination test duration results for Pascopyrum smithii has been presented at the annual meeting by the Wyoming state seed lab. Krascheninnikovia lanata, winterfat, has a utricle which is obscured by dense hairs which interfere with mechanical planting. Delinted utricles are approximately 75% of the normal utricle weight. Purity tests using the current AOSA purity and noxious weights lead to a 20% over-examination. Utricle weights from three fields over four years were determined and results were presented at the annual AOSA/SCST meeting.

Impacts
AOSA rules change proposals will occur at the 2007 annual meeting

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Service samples tested 01/2004-12/2004 was 5139, a 10% reduction from the previous year. The lab is continueing work toward modification of the pure seed definition in Artemisia tridentata through the Association of Official Seed Analysts. The lab is continueing to provide supplimental information in conjunction with the Wyoming State Seed Lab to modify the germination test duration of Pascopyron smithii. Members of the lab presented classes at the Idaho Seed Analyst workshop

Impacts
Potential AOSA rule changes should be developed within the next two years. These rule changes will increase harmony in rules between AOSA and the Internation Seed Testing Association (ISTA).

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Service samples tested 01/2003 through 12/2003 was 5761, a 25% reduction from the prior year. Neal Foster, Lab Director, left the laboratory in February, 2003. Harold Amstrong assumed Lab Director duties in July, 2003. The laboratory is jointly working toward modification of the pure seed definition in Artemesia tridenta through the Association of Official Seed Analysts. Germination test duration is progressing in Pascopyron smithii, current lengthy test conditions appear to result in decreased viability and increased variability. This work is in cooperation with the Wyoming State Seed Lab.

Impacts
Potential AOSA rule changes should be developed within the next two years. These rule changes will increase harmony in rules between AOSA and the Internation Seed Testing Association (ISTA).

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Progress report 01/2002 through 12/2002 Samples recieved for testing in 2002 numbered 6984 compared with 2001-7169, 2000-6917, 1999-6236, 1998-5597, 1997-5157, 1996-4524, 1995-4704, 1994-4914. In 2002 the Wyoming Legislature approved funding for a new state seed laboratory at Powell, Wyoming. This laboratory is expected to be functional in the fall of 2003. Consequently the MOU between Montana and Wyoming will be allowed to expire in the year 2003. In February, 2003 Neal Foster, Lab Director, accepted a position at Oklahoma State University. A search is currently underway to fill this position.

Impacts
Expected impact from the opening of a seed lab in Wyoming should be negligible.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Service testing is divided into two main areas, testing of common seed and certified seed (Montana Seed Growers Association (MSGA) and Wyoming Seed Certification (WSC)). Testing procedures differ somewhat between these two areas because MSGA samples have different requirements that are applied to certified seed standards set by the MSGA board of directors. Common seed when tested for purity is divided into two portions, the purity portion, based on 2,500 seeds and the bulk portion based on 25,000 seeds. In common seed the purity portion is used to determine the percentages of pure seed, inert matter, other crop seed and weed seed along with the rate and occurrence of crop and common weed seed, while the bulk portion is used to determine the rate and occurrence of noxious weed seed. In certified seed samples, the purity portion is used to determine the percentages of pure seed, inert matter, crop seed and weed seed. The bulk portion of MSGA samples (twice that of common seed - 50,000 seeds) is used to determine the rate and occurrence of other crop seed, common weed seed and noxious weed seed. This difference in testing procedures allows for greater control of certified seed, as addressed in the standards for certified seed. Approximately 45% of the Seed Laboratory service testing services are performed for out of state customers. These customers are primarily but limited to the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains States. The Montana Department of Agriculture routinely samples seed being offered for sale to ensure truth in labeling. These samples are analyzed by the Seed Laboratory free of charge for the Montana Department of Agriculture. Once the samples have been analyzed and the analysis report generated a second tolerance report is generated. This report compares the labeled information with the second analysis and the tolerances for each portion are given. This allows the MDA to issue stop sales according to the results. Recently the Wyoming State Seed laboratory closed - 1999. As a result of this the Montana State Seed Laboratory receives most of their common and certified seed samples as well as regulatory work. The common and certified seed samples are done on a fee basis. The regulatory work is performed for the Wyoming Department of Agriculture through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). This regulatory work is performed on a fee per sample basis. Seed analysis and tolerance reports are provided as part of this agreement.

Impacts
The Seed Industry for which the Montana State Seed Laboratory provides support is an approximately $150 million (conservative estimate) business. The types of seed vary from specialized crop types - Monkey Flower to crops with very common uses - small grains and legumes. This results in a broad but specialized industry. The need for expedient, accurate results is extremely important for everyone involved, whether a small farmer testing their own seed to replant or a large company involved in international shipments. The Montana State Seed Laboratory provides user services, which develop information to determine the monetary values of seed lots for the local, state, national and international seed market. In addition, these services also provide information of the quality between like seed lots.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
There is a slight change in the way sample numbers are calculated, we changed from calander to fiscal year. Samples recieved for testing in 2000 numbered 6917 as compared to 1999-6236, 1998-5597, 1997-5157, 1996-4524, 1995-4704, 1994-4914 and 1993-3738. The majority of sample increase is due to the reseeding of burned land throughout the rocky mountian region. Also the MSU seed lab has entered into an MOU agreement with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture to furnish testing services for their regulatory work.

Impacts
The service provided by the Montana state University Seed Testing Laboratory help maintain the seed industry throughout the Rocky Mountain region as well as the great plains. Our results provide the basis for prices to be set on seed in commerce. The regulatory testing prevents seed with noxious weed seed from being sold in Montana and Wyoming.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Samples received for testing in 1999 totaled 6394 compared to 5925 in 1998, 5501 in 1997,4700 in 1996, 4601 in 1995, 4839 in 1994 and 4755 in 1993. The majority of sample increase is due to the Conservation Reserve Program, which caused a large increase in native grass seed samples, not only from Montana but surrounding states as well. Part of the increase was also due to an increase in samples from mid to large farm seed companies and smaller companies and individuals dealing in native seed not destined for the CRP program. Due to the increase in difficult mixes for CRP turn around time on grass seed has been a week in some cases but cereals and legumes remained at two or three days. Also the closing of the Wyoming State Seed Laboratory in Chyenne has increased our sample load. The new computer program has been implimented and has worked very well. This program will allows greater efficiency in interstate and international seed shipment movement. Also data for Montana Seed Growers Association will be electronically transferred. Summary reports are being developed to better assess the overall quality of Montana seed. In the past year the Seed Lab has been involved in AOSA/SCST projects on bluegrass viability, side-oats grama blowing point, multiple seed unit factors for Newhy wheatgrass and streambank/thickspike wheatgrass. Involvement in these projects will lead to rule changes that will build more uniformity between laboratories.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Samples received for testing in 1998 totaled 5937 compared to 5501 in 1997,4700 in 1996, 4601 in 1995, 4839 in 1994 and 4755 in 1993. The majority of sample increase is due to the Conservation Reserve Program, which caused a large increase in native grass seed samples, not only from Montana but surrounding states as well. Part of the increase was also due to an increase in samples from mid to large farm seed companies and smaller companies and individuals dealing in native seed not destined for the CRP program. Due to the increase in difficult mixes for CRP turn around time on grass seed has been a week in some cases but cereals and legumes remained at two or three days. The final problems are being worked out of the new Seed Lab computer program and should be implemented in early 1999. This program will allow greater efficiency in interstate and international seed shipment movement. Also data for Montana Seed Growers Association will be electronically transferred. Summary reports are being developed to better assess the overall quality of Montana seed. In the past year the Seed Lab has been involved in AOSA/SCST projects on bluegrass viability, side-oats grama blowing point, multiple seed unit factors for Newhy wheatgrass and streambank/thickspike wheatgrass. Involvement in these projects will lead to rule changes that will build more uniformity between laboratories.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Samples received for testing in 1997 totalled 5501 compared to 4700 in 1996, 4601 in 1995, 4839 in 1994, and 4755 in 1993. The majority of the sample increase is due to the Conservation Reserve Program which caused a large increase in the native grass seed samples, not only from Montana but from surrounding states as well. Due to the increase in difficult samples, turn around time has been up to a week in some cases for grasses but cereals and legumes remain at two or three days. The Seed Lab computer program is in the process of being redone, which will allow a hookup with the Montana Seed Growers Association to electronically transfer sample information. It will also help in interstate and international shipments of seed. Summary reports are being developed to better assess the overall quality of Montana seed. In the past year the Seed Lab has been involved in AOSA/SCST projects on canola germination time and temperature, sideoats grama blowing points, multiple seed unit factors for NewHy wheatgrass and streambank/thickspike wheatgrass. Involvement in these projects will lead to rule changes that will build more uniformity between laboratories.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Samples received for testing in 1996 totaled 4700 compared to 4601 in 1995, 4839in 1994 and 4755 in 1993. Sample turnaround time has remained expedient with only a 2- or 3- day lag time during peak business time. The computer system has been updated to give customers the number of seeds per pound of incidental crop and weed seeds. Future projects include a hookup with Montana Seed Growers Association which will allow their sample data to be transfered electronically; also the development of a joint seed analysis report designed between the seed laboratory and MSGA. A new price structure took effect March 1, 1996. This fee increase has allowed the seed laboratory to remain financially sound and expand user services. On January 1, 1997, the seed laboratory began to give seeds per pound on all small grain and large seeded legumes received for purity testing. This allows producers to accurately calibrate seeding rates to achieve the desired plant population. Currently the seed laboratory is involved in projects to develop a standard bloeuing point for side-oats grama, and a multiple unit factor for Newhy hybrid wheatgrass and thickspike/streambank wheatgrass. The seed laboratory also participated in a refereed project on chickpeas to determine the affect of calcium nitrate on collar rot during germination.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

    Outputs
    Samples received for testing in 1995 totaled 4601 compared to 4839 in 1994 and 4755 in 1993. The slight decrease in samples was probably due to the late winter wheat harvest, which caused much of the subsequent crop to be planted untested. Sample turn around time has been drastically reduced, anywhere from 2 to 14 days depending on the type of seed and tests requested. This reduction in time is due to the implementation of a new computer system and changes in procedures. A fee increase was proposed at the MSTA and MSGA annual meetings. After a six month probationary period (to see if service improved) the price increase proposal was given to the Montana Department of Agriculture in July 1995. The new fee schedule should be effective March or April 1996. This fee increase should allow the seed laboratory to remain financially sound and possibly expand our services offered into seed quality (seeds per pound, test weight, kernel weight, etc.) and vigor testing. The seed laboratory participated in referee samples between seed laboratories on leafless peas, ryegrass seedling abnormalities, super sweet corn germinations and the use of Handbook 25 "The Uniform Classification of Crop and Weed Seeds." Currently the seed laboratory is involved in projects to develop a multiple unit factor for Newhy hybrid wheatgrass, a calibration sample for side-oats grama and germination studies on Beardless and Altai wildrye.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

      Outputs
      NO PROGRESS TO REPORT, LAB MANAGER RETIRED.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

        Outputs
        The 1993 year had an unexplainable up-swing in sample numbers received for testing (1992 = 3,473 vs. 1993 = 4,755). The 1,282 additional samples (37 percent increase) were spread out over the course of the year and were handled by the same work staff, giving us substantial additional income and making us still financially sound at the end of the year. With the loss of experiment station financial support on one classified position and the reclassification of two other positions, the lab will have a projected $1,500 negative balance for 1994 unless additional income is found, such as a price increase for the tests performed.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

          Outputs
          This has been identified as a "Service" project with no research component. 1992was about average with 3473 samples received for testing. The Lab is financially sound and was fortunate enough to have a substantial dollar carryover to help meet unforeseen expenses in 1993.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

            Outputs
            1991 was an average year for testing seed samples with a total of 3746 samples received (down slightly from 1990). A new fee schedule went into effect March 1 allowing for an average 50% increase. This allowed the lab to end the fiscal year in the black. An extensive feasibility study was done regarding moving the Seed Lab to Great Falls and merging with the State Grain Inspection Lab. This resulted in a tremendous show of support by the state agricultural community to leave the lab "as is," in their association with MSU and the AES. A perceived break in "quality of service" now performed was the biggest turning point.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

              Outputs
              1990 proved to be an average year for testing seed samples through the lab. The total number of samples received (4,291) has leveled off to a plateau, following a marked up surge in 1987 when 4,666 samples were tested due to the onset of the CRP Government Farm Program (1988: 4,560 samples, 1989: 4,347 samples). No noticeable trends or problems were seen in the samples tested. The Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) testing program continues to identify those lots infected but with fewer lots infected among the 1990 year than in 1989.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

                Outputs
                1989 marked the third and final "phase out" year for the Seriological method of testing for Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV). This was so all barley seed in the Mont. Certification Program had the opportunity to complete three production generations (providing it had 0% infection) without being eliminated from the program by the more sensitive ELISA test. It is estimated that the Seriological test saved Montana producers in excess of $50 million in field losses the first five years it was used. Similarly, the new ELISA test has revolutionized the detection method to where seed lots with even minute amounts of the disease are being eliminated (infection levels the Seriological test couldn't detect). Subsequently, Montana barley seed offered for sale can now truly claim to be BSMV free, another major marketing advantage for the Montana producers. None of the surrounding states or Canada have a BSMV testing program even though the disease is very prevalent throughout the same area. ELISA is a faster, more effective and cost efficient testing method developed in 1986 by the Seed Testing Lab and Dr. Tom Carroll, Department of Plant Pathology, Mont. State Univ. In 1989, 4,347 seed samples were received by the Lab on which nearly 10,000 individual tests (germination, purity, TZ and BSMV) were completed. Sample numbers and work load at the lab have leveled off to a near yearly average (peak in 1987 due to CRP Program). Quality of seed for the year was above average.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                  Outputs
                  Nothing to report.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                    Outputs
                    Nothing to report.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                      Outputs
                      Twelve species indigenous to the Rocky Mtns and Great Plains Regions were evaluated for seed viability with 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride. Specific staining techniques were developed for each species. Treatments included presoaks, seed coat puncture, seed coat removal, scarification, seed bisection. Species tested were: Yarrow**, bluebunch wheatgrass**, shadscale saltbush, Nuttall saltbush, Goshem prairie sandreed**, rubber rabbitbrush, basin wildrye**, Indian ricegrass, purple prairie clover, prairie coneflower**, alkali sacaton**, needleandthread. Temperature, light environment, prechill, days of germination were evaluated to determine the optimum germination method for six species (**). Minimum weight for purity analysis, minimum weight for noxious weed seed examination and approximate number of seeds/oz. has been established on starred (**) species.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 10/01/84 to 09/30/85

                        Outputs
                        Germination work on nine indigenous species (Yarrow, bluebunch wheatgrass, Nuttall saltbush, Goshen prairie sandreed, basin wildrye, Indian ricegrass, purple prairie clover, prairie coneflower, alkali sacaton) has been completed and the data analyzed. The above information, along with purity and tetrazolium testing data, will comprise an M.S. thesis with expected completion date of June 1986. In 1986, some follow-up work will be initiated on three of the above-named species and germination testing will continue on shadscale saltbush, rubber rabbitbrush and needleandthread.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/84 to 09/30/84

                          Outputs
                          Seed of 12 indigenous plant species (previously noted) are being studied in depth to determine the best procedure to test by tetrazolium (for total viability), purity, and germination. Tetrazolium testing methods have been established for all 12 species, but extensive germination research on three species (needleandthread, rubber rabbitbrush and shadscale) was curtailed temporarily for lack of an adequate supply of seed. Four factors are being considered in the germination studies: seed age, prechill effect, temperature effect, length of germination time (expressed in days). For each species, seed aged from less than 1 year on up to as much as 7 years was compared to see if germination increases or decreases with time (years), particularly where it is typical for most of these species to have a high level of dormancy in recently harvested seed. Three prechill (stratification) regimes are being compared (0, 5, 10 days) before being transferred into a germinator. Germination temperature regimes being compared are: 30 registered trademark C with 24 hours of light; 25 registered trademark C with 8 hours of light, 20 registered trademark C with 8 hours of light, 20 registered trademark C with 0 hours of light, 15-25 registered trademark C with 8 hours of light at the higher temperature. All prechill treatments are replicated four times within each temperature regime. All germination counts are made every 7 days for a total of 28 days.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                            Outputs
                            Recommended tetrazolium (TZ)testing procedures were completed on 10 native species: yarrow, prairie coneflower, purple prairie clover, needle-and-thread, Secar bluebunch wheatgrass, prairie junegrass, Magnar basin wildrue, Goshen prairie sandreed, rubber rabbitbush, alkali sacaton, Nuttall saltbush, and shadescale. Replicated germination trials on the same 10 species have been run on a thermogradient plate using various age seed, light and dark conditions, and various stratification times and temperatures. Results from the thermogradient plate arenow being used as guidelines for replicated trials in the germinators using alternating and constant temperatures. A study was completed on "seed spacing and fungicide effects on western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) germination," the results of which were presented as a technical paper at the annual meeting of the AOSA, Ottawa, Canada. Due to the extended period of time (28 days) necessary for western wheatgrass to germinate, the seeds are quite prone to moldduring the process. Germination results using wider seed spacings (50 seeds/sandwich box and rolled towels) were found to be highly significant over close spacing (100 seeds/box). The fungicide seed treatment "Arasan" was found to be very beneficial on the close seed spacings. Total viability of treated seeds (% germination plus % dormant) was significant over untreated seeds regardless of growth media of seed spacing.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              Project was started by investigating reclamation needs for new native species in Montana. Four coal companies and two seed companies named and ranked 10 native plant species important toward their reclamation needs in Montana. With the ranking as guidelines, seed of the following species were collected: yarrow, prairie coneflower, purple prairie clover, needle-and-thread, Secar bluebunch wheatgrass, prairie junegrass, Magnar basin wildrye, Goshen prairie sandreed, rubber rabbitbrush, alkali sacaton, Nuttall saltbush, and shadescale. Standard purity analyses were performed on all samples and from the pure seed portion a tetrazolium test determined the percent viable seed. The pure seed from each sample will next be utilized toward a series of germination experiments involving light and/or darkness, various temperatures, preconditioning, and growth hormones. The results will hopefully be a guideline for seed laboratories to germinate the above species in such a way that maximum germination percentages can be obtained as a routine laboratory test. A graduate research assistantship for a M. S. in Agronomy has been assigned to this project.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications