Source: UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA submitted to
IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AND WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR ARIZONA CROPS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0178505
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ARZT-136777-H-22-116
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2004
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Martin, E. C.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
(N/A)
TUCSON,AZ 85721
Performing Department
AGRI & BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Non Technical Summary
The current drought being experienced in the western United States has intensified pressure on the agricultural sector to conserve water use. Estimates are that Arizona is in the 4th or 6th year of drought. Concurrent with the drought is the increased demand from urban areas for quality water. The purpose of this project is to provide crop water data in conjunction with sound irrigation management strategies that will enable growers to more efficiently use their water resources. This will in-turn result in less water applied and a more efficient use of the State's limited water resources.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1020210202025%
1110210202025%
2050210202025%
4050210202025%
Goals / Objectives
The purpose of this research is to continue to develop more accurate information on crop water use for crops grown in Arizona and to utilize these data to help improve methods of on-farm irrigation scheduling and water management. The specific objectives are: 1. Continue to develop water use data on economically critical crops for Arizona 2. Continue to work on developing new and better software to aid growers in scheduling their irrigation and improve on-farm water management 3. To evaluate current parameters used for irrigation scheduling (i.e., weather data, ET equations, etc.)
Project Methods
Field work will continue to verify and develop crop water use data. Utilizing the weigh lysimeters in conjunction with TDR and neutron probe data, data on daily crop water use will be gathered. These data will be used in conjunction with AZMET data (Brown, 1998) to develop crop curves that can be used with the AZSCHED program. Work will also continue on the development of the AZSCHED program. The program can now address row crops but there have been several requests from tree crop producers that their crops be added to AZSCHED. Unfortunately, the use of tree crops presents a somewhat different perspective since the crops are grown year round but have a definitive growth cycle. The accumulation of heat-units is somewhat different from the more traditional crops and the application of irrigation (usually in liters per tree, not millimeters) is also different. Changes will be made that will allow for both crop types and irrigations methods to be used.

Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The current drought being experienced in the western United States has intensified pressure on the agricultural sector to conserve water use. In Arizona, the drought situation has forced the Governor to form a Governor's Drought Task Force (GDTF). The GDTF is producing procedures that will be the foundation for action in a drought crisis. Estimates are that Arizona is in the 4th or 6th year of drought. Lake Mead, a major water source for the southwest is at its lowest level in 34 years. Concurrent with the drought is the increased demand from urban areas for quality water. Cities such as Las Vegas and regions such as Southern California are looking for alternative water sources. Recently, the Imperial Irrigation District struck a deal with San Diego county whereby 277,000 acre-feet of water a year, enough for the needs of 2 million people, will be transferred from agricultural water use to use by the cities in the county. Coupled with this are landmark tribal settlements where the courts have begun to adjudicate water rights for several Native American tribes in the southwest. Although crop water use values are available for many crops grown in the southwest, these data are not current. Most of the data come from Erie et al (1982). The data presented in this publication are based on work performed in the late 1950's - early 1960's. Although the data provide an excellent baseline, much has changed since then. Cultural practices such as short season cotton have become much more prevalent in recent years. In the early 1960's, it was not uncommon for a cotton crop to be planted mid-March and go until late September/early November. Today, most growers plant in early April and have completed their crop by mid-August. Changes such as these must be investigated to assess the impact on crop water use patterns. Using crop water data in conjunction with sound irrigation management strategies, growers will be able to more efficiently use their water resources. This will, in-turn, result in less water applied and a more efficient use of the State's limited water resources. Work completed during this time period included revision of the AZSCHED irrigation scheduling program. Revisions of the computer code continued with over 300 copies distributed. The new program is equipped to work with tree crops and also use gallons per tree. Data has been collected at a citrus grove in Yuma and we are working with the BOR, Yuma Office, to develop new citrus crop curves and import the data into the new AZSCHED Version 2. The WERA 202 proposal was accepted and the final report for the old WCC 202 was completed. Work has also been done on evaluating the use of alternate row irrigation and yearly laser leveling as techniques to significantly improve water use efficiency. Although the final season is not yet complete, preliminary results show that alternate row irrigation can reduce water applications without yield reduction in surface irrigation cotton production. PARTICIPANTS: University of Arizona: Cooperative Extension, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Department of Plant Sciences, Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science; United States Department of the Interior: Bureau of Reclamation, National Park Service; United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, Arid Lands Agricultural Research Center; Arizona Department of Water resources, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Arizona State Natural Resource Conservation Service, Arizona Natural Conservation Districts. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience was two-fold. There were, of course, the growers in the State of Arizona, as well as their employees. Also, policy makers and governmental agents and officials that needed education on agricultural water issues. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Work done on this project has helped growers increase their water use efficiency, increasing the yield per unit of water applied. Although, this is hard top measure due to the changes in cropping patterns, acreage actually farmed and new systems installed, overall agricultural water use has declined. However, much of this may be due to loss of acreage. Work on this project helped to obtain funding from the Arizona Department of Water Resources for further research and demonstration ($65k) and the Bureau of Reclamation ($48k) for tree demonstration and research. These grants will be used to better understand the impacts of conservation on yield and water applied and to better schedule landscape irrigation systems.

Publications

  • Basso, B., M. Bertocco, L. Sartori and E. C. Martin. 2006. Analyzing the effects of climate variability on spatial pattern of yield in a maize/wheat/soybean rotation. European J. Agron. 26:82-91.
  • Jia, X. and E.C. Martin. 2004. Temperature adjustment for reference evapotranspiration calculation in arid area. J. Irrig. Drain., ASCE. 130(5): 384-390.
  • Martin E.C. and K.A. Tanksley. 2005. Effects of Dairy Manure and Compost Applications on Alfalfa Yield and Environmental Impact in Arizona. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Measuring water in surface irrigation ditches and gated pipe. University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. Pub. AZ1329. 12 pp.
  • Martin, E.C. and Baretto, A. 2007. Determining Application and Run Time Amounts for Drip Irrigation. University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. Pub. 1430 4pp.
  • Martin, E.C., D.C. Slack, T. A. Tanksley and B. Basso. 2005. Effects of dairy manure and compost application on alfalfa yield and environmental impact in Arizona. Agron. J. 98: 80-84.
  • Martin, E.C., K.O. Adu-Tutu, and W.B. McCloskey. 2004. Conservation tillage effects on infiltration and irrigation advance times in Arizona cotton. In: Proc. of the Beltwide Cotton Confernces; 2004 January 5-9; San Antonio, TX.
  • Martin, E.C., K.O. Adu-Tutu, W.B. McCloskey, S.H. Husman, P. Clay and M. Ottman. 2005 Effects of no-till on Infiltration and Advance Times in Surface Irrigation. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.
  • Martin, E.C., R. Freitas, M. Karpiscak, C. Gerba, J. Jannusch, D.C. Slack and M. Ottman. 2005. Effects of Manure and Compost Application on Levels of Bacterial Populations and EDC Concentration in Plant Matter, Soil, and Soil Water. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.
  • Martin, E.C., W. Stephens, R. Wiedenfeld. H.C. Bittenbender, J.P. Beasley, Jr., J.M. Moore, H. Neibling and J.J. Gallian. 2007. Sugar, Oil and Fiber Crops. In: ASA Monograph No. 30, Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. R.J. Lascano and R.E. Sojka, eds. ASA, CSA, SSS Publishing, Madison, WI. pp. 279-336.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Progress has been made on the development of AZSCHED V2, which will help with scheduling irrigation for tree crops and can be used with drip irrigation systems. Work has also begun on evaluating the use of alternate row irrigation and yearly laser leveling as techniques to significantly improve water use efficiency. Although only in its second year, preliminary results show that alternate row irrigation can reduce water applications without yield reduction in surface irrigation cotton production.

Impacts
Growers will more efficiently use their water resources. This will result in a higher Yield:Water Applied ratio, called Water Use Efficiency.

Publications

  • Basso, B., M. Bertocco, L. Sartori and E. C. Martin. 2006. Analyzing the effects of climate variability on spatial pattern of yield in a maize/wheat/soybean rotation. (In Press)
  • Martin, E.C. and Baretto, A. 2006. Determining Application and Run Time Amounts for Drip Irrigation. (In Press).
  • Martin, E.C., D.C. Slack, T. A. Tanksley and B. Basso. 2005. Effects of dairy manure and compost application on alfalfa yield and environmental impact in Arizona. Agron. J. 98: 80-84.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Work continues with the AZSCHED irrigation scheduling program. Revisions of the computer code have continued with over 300 copies distributed. The new program is equipped to work with tree crops and also use gallons per tree. Data has been collected at a citrus grove in Yuma and we are working with the BOR, Yuma Office, to develop new citrus crop curves and import the data into the new AZSCHED Version 2. The WERA 202 proposal was accepted and the final report for the old WCC 202 was completed.

Impacts
Growers will more efficiently use their water resources. This will result in a higher Yield:Water Applied ratio, called Water Use Efficiency.

Publications

  • Martin, E.C., T. A. Tanksley, D.C. Slack and B. Basso. 2005. Effects of dairy manure and compost application on alfalfa yield and environmental impact in Arizona. Agron. J. (In Press)
  • Martin, E.C. 2005. Sugar, Oil and Fiber Crops. In: ASA Monograph, Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. (Accepted).
  • Martin E.C. and K.A. Tanksley. 2005. Effects of Dairy Manure and Compost Applications on Alfalfa Yield and Environmental Impact in Arizona. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.
  • Martin, E.C., K.O. Adu-Tutu, W.B. McCloskey, S.H. Husman, P. Clay and M. Ottman. 2005 Effects of no-till on Infiltration and Advance Times in Surface Irrigation. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.
  • Martin, E.C., R. Freitas, M. Karpiscak, C. Gerba, J. Jannusch, D.C. Slack and M. Ottman. 2005. Effects of Manure and Compost Application on Levels of Bacterial Populations and EDC Concentration in Plant Matter, Soil, and Soil Water. Presented at the 2005 Annual International Meeting of the ASAE. July 17-21, Tampa, Fl.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Work has continued on the AZSCHED irrigation scheduling program. To date, over 200 copies have been distributed. We are now working on AZSCHED V2, which will allow for the use of new units (gallons/liters) to accommodate growers using drip irrigation. Work has also begun to investigate the water use of citrus. A study being coordinated with the BOR in Yuma, AZ, will help determine new crop coefficients for citrus. This will include orange and lemon crops. A new grant secured with the Arizona Department of Water Resources will study the true effects of field slope and alternate row irrigation on yield and irrigation water applied in a cotton production system. Finally, a proposal for a new WERA committee has been submitted and approval is expected some time this year. This is a continuation of the WCC202 group looking at the application of real time weather data for use with irrigation scheduling models.

Impacts
Growers will more efficiently use their water resources. This will result in a higher Yield:Water Applied ratio, called Water Use Efficiency.

Publications

  • Jia, X. and E.C. Martin. 2004. Temperature adjustment for reference evapotranspiration calculation in arid area. J. Irrig. Drain., ASCE. 130(5): 384-390.
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Measuring water in surface irrigation ditches and gated pipe. University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. Pub. AZ1329. 12 pp.
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Sugar, oil and fiber crops. In: ASA Monograph, Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. (Accepted)
  • Martin, E.C., K.O. Adu-Tutu, and W.B. McCloskey. 2004. Conservation tillage effects on infiltration and irrigation advance times in Arizona cotton. In: Proc. of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences; 2004 January 5-9; San Antonio, TX.
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Measuring water flow from the ditch to gated pipe. In: Proc. of the 4th Annual 4-Corners Irrigation Workshop. E.C. Martin and M. ONeill (eds.) July 10-11, Shiprock, New Mexico.
  • Oliveira, A., E.C. Martin, D.C. Slack and A.D. Folta. 2004. Head Lettuce Water Use and Crop Coefficients. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering. (In Press)


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Work has been completed on AZSCHED V1.18. This program is available on the web for download for free (http://ag.arizona.edu/crops/irrigation/irrigation.html). Accompanying the program is a Users Manual explaining the details of the program. Information at this site also includes crop water use data and other irrigation information resources. Work has also begun on AZSCHED V2, which will include tree crops and the use of gallons per tree (liters per tree) for those wanting to use drip or low flow tree irrigation systems. Information was also compiled on the drought and the effects on growers. A Four Corners workshop was done in June, 2003, and a local Central Arizona workshop was held in Jan. 2004. These types of activities will continue as the Southwest continues to experience a lack of significant rainfall.

Impacts
Growers will more efficiently use their water resources. This will result in a higher Yield:Water Applied ratio, called Water Use Efficiency.

Publications

  • Martin, E.C. and K. Tanksley. 2003. Application of manure and compost to production alfalfa. In: Proc. of the USDA-CSREES National Water Quality Coordinators Conference. Jan. 12-15, 2003. Tucson, AZ.
  • Martin, E.C., K.O. Adu-Tutu, W.B. McCloskey, S.H.Husman, P.Clay and M. Ottman. 2003. Reduced Tillage Effects on Irrigation Managements in Cotton. In the: Cotton Report, Series P-134. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension, pp. 179-286.
  • Adu-Tutu, K.O., W.B. McCloskey, S.H.Husman, P.Clay, M. Ottman and E.C. Martin. 2003. Effects of Reduced Tillage and Crop Residues on Cotton Weed Control, Growth and Yield. In the: Cotton Report, Series P-134. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension, pp. 235-250.
  • Jia, X. and E.C. Martin. 2004. Temperature adjustment for Reference Evaporation Calculation in Central Arizona. J. of Irrig. and Drain. Engr. ASCE. (Accepted).
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Sugar, Oil and Fiber Crops. In: ASA Monograph, Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. (Accepted).
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Measuring Water in Surface Irrigation Ditches and Gated Pipe. University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. 12 pp. Pub. # 1329. 9pp.
  • Martin, E.C., H. Detwiler and D.C. Slack. 2003. AZSCHED V1.13 (Arizona Irrigation Scheduling) System. Users Handbook. University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. Pub. # 1321. 17pp.
  • Martin, E.C. 2004. Measuring water flow from the ditch to gated pipe. In: Proc. of the 4th Annual 4-Corners Irrigation Workshop. E.C. Martin and M. ONeill (eds.) July 10-11, Shiprock, New Mexico.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Work has continued on AZSCHED, the irrigation scheduling model. The first windows version is now ready for release and will be available via the web at the end of March. A new version is already being planned that will include tree crops and other crops of interest in Arizona. Also, a new irrigation web page has been developed and will also be available at the end of March. The website contains information on crop water use, how to obtain AZSCHED, Arizona Drip Irrigation, and irrigation news and issues. The site is housed under the ACIS (Arizona Crop Information Site) that is visited by hundreds each month. The website will be http://ag.arizona.edu/crops/irrigation/irrigation.html

Impacts
We expect growers to become more aware of their irrigation water applications and to reduce or more effectively use their irrigation water.

Publications

  • Eusuff, T.H. and E.C. Martin. 2003. Evaluation of Water Saving Potential for Drain-Back Level Basin Irrigation Systems. Applied Engineering in ASAE. (In review)
  • Martin, E.C. 2002. Sugar, Oil and Fiber crops in ASA Monograph Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. (in review)
  • Martin, E.C. 2002. Water Quality and Animal Feeding Operations in Arizona: A Producer's Notebook.
  • Oliveira,A.S., Martin, E.C.,Slack, D.C., Pegelow, E.J. and Folta, A.D. 2003. Subsurface drip irrigation of head lettuce in Central Arizona I. Water use and crop coefficient. Agricultural Water Management. (In review)
  • Oliveira, A.S., Martin, E.C., Slack, D.C., Pegelow, E.J. and Folta, A.D. 2003. Subsurface drip irrigation of head lettuce in Central Arizona II. Matching Kc and ETo estimates for irrigation scheduling. Agricultural Water Management. (In review)


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Work has continued on the AZSCHED computerized irrigation scheduling program. Delivery of the Beta version has been completed to CES personnel and work with producers is now taking place. A finished version should be released by year's end. Work has begun looking at irrigation management under minimum tillage conditions. With support from a SARE project, advance times and infiltration data are now being collected.

Impacts
Increase the water use efficiency of growers in the state. Through the use of irrigation scheduling programs, such as AZSCHED, growers will be able to better evaluate their methodology and perhaps see areas where improvements can be made. Furthermore, work on the interaction of conservation tillage and irrigation should help those growers considering using this practice with their surface irrigation systems.

Publications

  • Martin, E.C. 2001. Methods of Dtermining when to irrigate. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1220. CALS, Univ. of Arizona.
  • Martin, E.C., A.S. de Oliveira, A.D. Folta, E.J. Pegelow and D.C. Slack. 2001. Development and Testing of a Small Weighing Lysimeter System to Assess Water Use in Shallow Rooted Crops. Transactions of the ASAE. 44(1):71-78.
  • Martin, E.C., R.D. Gibson, J. Watson, P. Brown, R.L. Roth. 2001. Instructors's Guide: Bilingual Workshop for Irrigators. Extension Publication #1278, CALS, Univ. of Arizona.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
In this past year, efforts have focused on water requirements for crops in Arizona. Work was completed for an M.S. project on the use of proposed criteria for the alteration of weather data used to determine reference ET. This work produced a Master's thesis and is being continued for a second year to better understand how these criterium effect weather data in Central Arizona. Work was also initiated on water use research for melons and head lettuce. The melon project is being conducted in conjunction with work being done in Yuma to determine the crop water requirements for cantaloupe. Collaboration work is also being done with Yuma researchers to verify the crop coefficient curve presently used in AZSCHED for head lettuce. These two projects will continue in the next year. Finally, an Alpha version of the new Windows-based AZSCHED has been released. This version is only being used by University personnel and grower/agency cooperators. It is hoped that by the end of the summer, a final version will be available for distribution.

Impacts
We continue to see and growth and interest in alternative irrigation methods/systems. Drip systems continue to grow in Arizona, indicating a transfer of knowledge to the growers that alternative systems can reduce water use and save money. Also, growers are implementing alternative management schemes, such as alternate row irrigation, higher flow rates, etc. to help improve the efficiency of their surface systems.

Publications

  • Hanson, B.R., G. Fipps, and E.C. Martin. 2000. Drip Irrigation of Row Crops: What is State of the Art? In: Proc. of the 4th Decennial National Irrigation Symposium of the ASAE. Nov. 14-16, Phoenix, AZ.
  • Martin, E.C. 2000. Determining the Amount of Water Applied. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ 1157. College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. (Peer-Reviewed).
  • Martin, E.C. 2000. Methods of Measuring for Irrigation Scheduling - WHEN. Cooperative Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. (Accepted - Peer Reviewed).
  • Martin, E.C., A.S. de Oliveira, A.D. Folta, E.J. Pegelow and D.C. Slack. 2001. Development and Testing of a Small Weighing Lysimeter System to Assess Water Use in Shallow Rooted Crops. Transactions of the ASAE. (Accepted).
  • Martin, E.C., D.J. Hunsaker, E.M. Barnes and P.M. Waller. 2000. Growing Crops in the Desert. In: Resource Magazine. ASAE. Vol 7(11). November 2000.
  • Martin, E.C., R. Wegge and M. Sheedy. 2000. Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity III. In the: 2000 Cotton Report, Series P-121. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 171-177.
  • Martin, E.C., R.D. Gibson, J. Watson, P. Brown, R.L. Roth. 2000. Instructors's Guide: Bilingual Workshop for Irrigators. Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. (Accepted - Peer Reviewed).
  • Martin, E.C., S.H. Dittmar, P. C. Ellsworth, J. C. Silvertooth, W.B. McCloskey, M.W. Olsen, R.L. Roth and R.E. Tronstad. 2000. 1999 Demonstration Project of Arizona Irrigated Cotton Production. In the: 2000 Cotton Report, Series P-121. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 35-43.
  • Martin, E.C., T. Eusuff. 2000. Saving Water Using Drain-Back Level Basins. In: Proc. of the 4th Decennial National Irrigation Symposium of the ASAE. Nov. 14-16, Phoenix, AZ.
  • Jia, Xinhua. 2000. Temperature Adjustment for Reference Evapotranspiration Calculations in Central Arizona. Master's Thesis. Dept. of Ag. & Biosystems Engr. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
In the first year of this project, work has continued on irrigation management strategies. Work has just been completed on the evaluation of a Drain-Back, level basin irrigation system. Work also continues on the evaluation of parameters used for adjustments of ETo calculations in arid regions. Another project looking at irrigation, nitrogen leaching and durum wheat production is in the mid-season. This project is looking at the effects of late season nitrogen fertilizer applications on durum wheat protein content and the potential for nitrate leaching.

Impacts
No impacts have been recorded yet.

Publications

  • Martin, E.C., K.C. Obermyer, E.J. Pegelow, M. Sheedy and S. Dittmar. 1999. Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity. In the: 1999 Cotton Report, Series P-116. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 189-197.
  • Martin, E.C., K.C. Obermyer, E.J. Pegelow, and J. Watson. 1999. Using Drainage Lysimeters to Evaluate Irrigation and Nitrogen Interactions in Cotton Production. In the: 1999 Cotton Report, Series P-116. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 204-210.
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1999. Vegetable Water Use - Dry Onions. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1131, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. 2pp.
  • Moser, H.S., J.C. Silvertooth, E. Martin and P. Brown. 1999. Timing of First Post-Planting Irrigation of Pima Cotton. In the: 1999 Cotton Report, Series P-116. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 183-188.
  • Dittmar, S.H., P. C. Ellsworth, E.C. Martin, J. C. Silvertooth. 1999. 1998 Demonstration Project of Arizona Irrigated Cotton Production. In the: 1999 Cotton Report, Series P-116. The University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension. pp. 18-28.
  • Martin, E.C., 1999. Irrigators Slide Chart/Carta de Regar: A bilingual slide chart used to determine water applied and/or set times for surface irrigation. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1135, Water Series 21. College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona.
  • Martin, E.C. 1999. Measuring Water Flow and Rate on the Farm. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1130, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. 4pp.
  • Martin, E.C. and Slack, D.C. 1999. Heat Unit-based Irrigation Scheduling for Arid Environments In Water Management, Purification, and Conservation in Arid Climates, M.F.A. Goosen and W.H.Shayya, eds., Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co. pp281-291.
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1999. Vegetable Water Use - Carrots. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1134, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. 2pp.
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1999. Vegetable Water Use - Western Head Lettuce. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1132, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. 2pp.
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1999. Vegetable Water Use - Cauliflower. Cooperative Extension Publication, AZ1133, College of Agric., Univ. of Arizona. 2pp.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Work has been done in the past year regarding both irrigation management and crop water requirement for Arizona crops. In the area of irrigation management, work is being conducted on evaluating a new surface irrigation system that would allow for smaller applications of water and increase irrigation efficiency. This new system is called Drain-Back, level basin irrigation. Work is also being done on evaluating the requirements for weather data to compute reference evapotranspiration data for irrigation scheduling. Traditionally, weather stations where the minimum daily temperature did not approach the dew point temperature were considered too arid. The reason for this would be either not enough fetch or poor water management. However, in the Arizona desert, we are trying to investigate that even under the most ideal conditions, our minimum temperature does not approach dew point temperature. Other projects such as best management practices in cotton, irrigation uniformity of high frequency irrigation and developing a water management plan for Western Navajo are ongoing.

Impacts
We have seen an improved interest in water management in the last year. We believe this is partially due to our efforts and partially due to the economic constraints on agricultural production.

Publications

  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1998. Vegetable Water Use - Dry Onions. Cooperative Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. Of AZ. (In Press)
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1998. Vegetable Water Use - Western Head Lettuce. Cooperative Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. Of AZ. (In Press)
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1998. Vegetable Water Use - Carrots. Cooperative Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. Of AZ. (In Press)
  • Martin, E.C., E.J. Pegelow, and D.C. Slack. 1998. Vegetable Water Use - Cauliflower. Cooperative Extension Publication, College of Agric., Univ. Of AZ. (In Press)
  • Rasse, D.P., J. T. Ritchie, W. R. Peterson, T.L. Loudon and E.C. Martin. 1998. Impact of N management on yield and nitrate leaching in inbred maize systems. J. Environ. Qual. (Accepted).