Source: UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT MAYAGUEZ submitted to
BETTER HORTICULTURAL PRACTICES FOR CROPS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN PUERTO RICO: PINEAPPLE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0182636
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
PR00390
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1999
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Martinez, S.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT MAYAGUEZ
P. O. BOX 9000
MAYAGUEZ,PR 00681
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
In Puerto Rico, as well as in other pineapple-growing areas, a continuous rise in production costs is evident, which calls for higher yields per unit area, better quality fruits, and less postharvest losses. The purpose of this research is to maintain a economically feasible pineapple production enterprise in southwestern Puerto Rico.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20510201020100%
Knowledge Area
205 - Plant Management Systems;

Subject Of Investigation
1020 - Pineapple;

Field Of Science
1020 - Physiology;
Goals / Objectives
Pineapple continues to be an important fruit crop in Puerto Rico. In 1991-92, 67,076 tons of pineapple fruits were produced in Puerto Rico with a farm value of $12.8 million. In recent years the pineapple industry in Puerto Rico has presented a decrease in production gaining third place among the fruit commodities. Pineapple production in Puerto Rico is centered in three major areas. Each one of these areas is different from the others in cultivars, horticultural practices, and crop management. At present, the pineapple industry in Puerto Rico depends on four cultivar: Red Spanish, Smooth Cayenne, PR-167 (in the northern part of the Island), and Cabezona in the southwestern part, at Lajas. The Cabezona cultivar is grown without irrigation or mechanization, in about 300 ha in southwestern Puerto Rico. Currently, this commodity has experienced a decrease in production area to about 100 ha. This decrease is caused, by low market prices, absence of market plans, poor horticultural practices, and the reduction of fruit size and weight. The average fruit size has been reduced, in the last decade, to an average weight of 3 to 4 kg/fruit. Cabezona fruits were reported to weight up to 7 kg per fruit. Recently the size, form, and weight of Cabezona have been reduced, to the point that it looks more like one of the others commercial cultivars grown in the island. This condition was caused when another cultivar (PR 1-67) was introduced to the Lajas area in 1975. PR 1-67, a cross between Red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne, was introduced because it was adapted to grow in arid conditions without irrigation. PR 1-67 vegetative seed mixed with Cabezona and has replaced Cabezona, to the point that PR 1-67 is grown as Cabezona today. There are various practices in use today that should be improved to produce Cabezona pineapple crop economically. Research is needed to make recommendations on management practices for commercial pineapple growing in southwestern Puerto Rico. Some horticultural practices that deserve attention are true Cabezona seed selection, plant density, weight and type of planting materials, leaf slashing (pruning), crop rotation, growth regulators, planting date, and forcing flowering. Research should also be conducted to determine postharvest practices for Cabezona fruits. Most previous research conducted in Puerto Rico on pineapple management has been with Red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne varieties, mainly on fertilizers and plant densities. 1. To select, evaluate, propagate, and disseminate Cabezona pineapple vegetative material for increase fruit average weight and maintain cultivar identity in the growing area. 2. To determine the effect of planting season, slips size, leaf pruning, growth regulators, and crop rotation on field yield, quality and fruit size of Cabezona. 3. To determine harvesting index and postharvest management guide-lines for commercial Cabezona production and the effect of ethylene absorbents, degreeners, and waxes on market life and quality losses during storage and transportation of fresh fruits.
Project Methods
Cabezona is a triploid pineapple cultivar, which make it easy to identify by laboratory tests. Plants will be selected and identified according with cultivar description. Plants with high weight fruit and variety identity will be selected and propagated by tissue culture. Plants will be planted and evaluated at Lajas Substation under field conditions similar to commercial farms. Plant material will be used to conduct field experiments regarding Objectives 2 and 3. Selected plant material will be available to farmers and growers, and educational activities will be developed to simulate farmers to use selected plant material. Starting in the fall of 2000, four field trials on planting season (fall, winter, spring, and summer) with Cabezona will be conducted at Lajas Substation. To evaluate the effect of leaf pruning on fruit size, quality and yield at lease two experiments will be established at Lajas Substation. Using an split plot design commercial plantv growth regulators will be evaluate for ripening delay and slip production on the same field experiment were pruning is tested. Two pruning dates (183 and 365 days after planting) will be compared with a non-pruned and double pruned (183 and 365 days after planting) treatments. Leaf analyses, fruit size, yield, and slips production will be recorded and statistically analyzed. Fruits from field trials included on Objective 2 will be used to determine harvesting index and postharvest management guidelines for Cabezona. Harvested fruits will be classified into four different stages: shipping green, one-fourth ripe, half-ripe, and completely ripe. Fruits will be sorted for apparent ripeness, size, and damage prior to packing. Carton boxes with venting holes will be use to place the fruits under controlled conditions. Storage conditions during transit will be established. Storage temperatures of: 5C, 7.2C, and, 10C will be used as treatments. The same trial will be conducted at different time periods (7, 14, 21, 28 days after harvesting), after that fruits will be evaluated by sensorial panel and laboratory analyses to determine pH, Brix and total acidity of juice. Another experiment will be established to determine the effects of using waxes, ethylene absorbents, and temperature treatments on extend fruit market life.

Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/05

Outputs
During the year 2000 two tissue culture plants of Cabezona pineapple cultivar were obtained from the National Germplasm Repository in Hawaii. Plants were propagated at the Tissue Culture Laboratory in Rio Piedras by Enid Lizardi and were identified as Ht-1, Ht-2. Plants were also collected from selected farms in Lajas. Fields were evaluated and screened to select fruits according to variety description. Crown tissue of this material was used for tissue culture propagation and was identified as I-A, I-B and I-C. In 2001, approximately 6,000 pineapple plantlets were produced from Lajas material and 9,000 from the Hawaii material. Results show that the treatments with BA and 2,4-D concentrations of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/l and 0.025 to 0.2 mg/l successively showed the best shoot production. Two field experiments of Cabezona pineapple were established in the Lajas Agricultural Substation during December 2002 using vegetative material produced by tissue culture technique. A complete randomized design was used with a planting distance of 0.45 m between plants in a single row and 1.86 m between rows. Experiments were in two different soil types: Mariana, the soil type where most of the commercial production of Cabezona is grown in Lajas, and Fraternidad, one of the most common soils in Lajas Valley. The experiments were managed according to the recommendations of the Agricultural Experiment Station-Technological Package for Pineapple Production, and the Agricultural Extension Service. Data of plant development and growth was recorded during all the growing cycle from 2003 to 2004. The information was recorded in three phases: phase I (transplant to flower induction); phase II (flower induction to harvest); and phase III (slips harvest and characterization). Most of the plants started flowering 45 days after induction, and fruits were harvested during June and July 2004. Results obtained show significant differences within the treatments in fruit characteristics, such as weight, brix, form, diameter and height in the two experiments. Also significant differences were observed regarding fruit crown characteristics and slip production. When fruit harvest was finished the 'mother' plants were conditioned for the second harvest (slips) that were used in the next experiments. The slips harvested were planted in two experiments at Lajas in order to evaluate the second generation (F2) of the material obtained by tissue culture technique, and to select the most promising Cabezona material. Complete randomized design was used with planting distance of 0.45 m between plants in a single row and 1.86 m between rows. Experiments were carried out in different soil types (Mariana and Fraternidad). The experiments were managed as the previous experiments. We are now recording the data in the new fields; therefore, results are not available at this moment.

Impacts
One of the most important problems in the production of Cabezona pineapple in Puerto Rico is the lack of availability of high quality vegetative seed for the establishment of future fields, a problem that limits the area that can be planted and the quality of the fruit obtained. The data recorded as a result of this research project will provide valuable information to the Cabezona growers in order to increase the planting area and improve the yield and quality of the pineapple produced.

Publications

  • Aviles-Rodriguez,L.N. and Montalvo, 2000. Situacion actual y perspectivas del cultivo de pina Cabezona en Lajas. Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences, Caguas, P.R. November 16. Oral Report and Abstract.
  • Lizardi, E., J. Escudero, L. Aviles, S. Martinez -Garrastazu and E. Rodriguez, 2002. Micropropagacion de pina 'Cabezona' [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] utilizando diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. Annual Meeting of the Puertorrican Society of Agricultural Sciences, Isabela, P. R. November 15.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Two field experiments of "Cabezona" pineapple were planted at Lajas Agricultural Substation in December 2002. Vegetative material used for planning was produced by Mrs. Enid Lizardi in the Tissue Culture Laboratory facilities in Rio Piedras Agricultural Station. Pineapple plants were identified as Ht-1, Ht-2 (germplasm from Hawaii Plant Reservoir) and I-A, I-B (germplasm from the Victor Martinez farm in Lajas. Data was recorded during year 2004 in two "Cabezona" pineapple experiments established in Lajas Substation. The information recorded was about phase II of the experiment (from flowering induction to harvest), and included: 1) flowering time from induction; 2) harvest time; 3) fruit characteristics (weight, size, form, appearance and ph); 5) crown slip characteristics (number, size and appearance). Information was also recorded about phase III (slip harvest). The flowering induction was done by February 2, 2004, by using Ethrel at 1.5 quart per acre dose. Most of the plants started flowering at 45 days after induction. Harvest of fruits was conducted during June and July 2004. When it was finished, the mother plants were conditioned (including fertilization, pest and weed control) in order to be prepared for the second harvest (slips) that were going to be used in the next experiments (2004-2005). The slip harvesting was done during November 2004. By November 21 and 22, two new experiments were established in order to evaluate the second generation (F2) of the material obtained from tissue culture technique. Complete randomized design was used with planting distance of 0.45 m between plants in a single row and 1.86 m between rows. Experiments were located at two sites with different soil types: Mariana, the soil type where most of the commercial production of "Cabezona" is grown in Lajas; and Fraternidad, one of the most common soils in the Lajas Valley. General management of the experiments follows the recommendations of the Technological Package for Pineapple Production, and the recommendations made by the Agricultural Extension Service .

Impacts
One of the most important problems limiting the production of "Cabezona" pineapple in Puerto Rico is the availability of propagation material (vegetative). This project studies the viability of using tissue culture plants as propagative material. The data obtained in this research project will provide valuable information to the "Cabezona" farmers in order to improve economical fruit production.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
During the year 2003 data were recorded in two Cabezona pineapple experiments established in Lajas Substation December 2002. Information about transplant resistance, plant height, plant diameter, number of leaves, plant vigor, foliage color and susceptibility to insects and diseases was recorded. Plant flowering induction will be done during the year 2004, and information will be recorded about the plants response to this management practice, and about their general development, fruit production and vegetative seed production. The material (vegetative seed) used for the establishment of these experiments was produced by Enid Lizardi at the Tissue Culture Laboratory facilities at the Rio Piedras Agricultural Station. Pineapple plants were identified as Ht-1, Ht-2 (germplasm from Hawaii Plant Reservoir) and I-A, I-B (germplasm from Victor Martinez farm in Lajas). A complete randomized design was used. Planting distance was 0.45 m p between plants in a single row and 1.86 m between rows. Experiments were planted in two different soil types, Mariana the soil type where most of the commercial Cabezona pineapple is grown in Lajas; and Fraternidad, one of the most common soils in the Lajas Valley. General management of the experiments is according to the recommendations of the Technological Package for Pineapple Production, and the recommendations made by the Agricultural Extension Service

Impacts
One of the most important problems limiting the production of Cabezona pineapple in Puerto Rico is the seed (vegetative) availability. The data obtained in this research project will provide valuable information to the Cabezona farmers in order to increase fruit production economically.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Two field experiments of "Cabezona" pineapple were planted at the Lajas Agricultural Substation during December 2002. Vegetative material used for planting was produced by Mrs. Enid Lizardi at the Tissue Culture Laboratory facilities in Rio Piedras Agricultural Station. Pineapple plants were identified as Ht-1, Ht-2 (germplasm from Hawaii Plant Reservoir) and I-A, I-B (germplasm from the Victor Martinez farm in Lajas). Plants were received in Lajas by October 2002 and placed in the greenhouse facilities for one month before their transplant to the field. Two growing containers were used, black trays of 70 cells (cell size 5.08 cm) and pots (15.24 cm wide and 10.16 cm deep). A complete randomized design was used in the experiments. Planting distance was 0.45 m between plants in a single row and 1.86 m between rows. Experiments were with two different soil types, Mariana series, the soil type of most of the commercial production of "Cabezona" located in Lajas, and Fraternidad series, one of the most common soil series in the Lajas Valley. General management of the experiment is done according to the recommendations of the "Conjunto Tecnologico para la Produccion de Pina", and the recommendations of made to the farmers by the Agricultural Extension Service agent in Lajas, Agro. Jose Montalvo. Data of the plants development and growth are being recorded during all the growing cycle.

Impacts
One of the most important problems limiting the production of "Cabezona" pineapple in Puerto Rico is the seed (vegetative) availability. The data obtained in this research project will provide valuable information to the "Cabezona" farmers in order for them to improve their production.

Publications

  • Lizardi, E., J. Escudero, L. Aviles, S. Martinez-Garrastazu y E. Rodriguez, 2002. Micropropagacion de pina "Cabezona [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] utilizando diferentes concentraciones de hormonas. Reunion Cientifica Anual SOPCA. 15 de noviembre de 2002. Isabela, Puerto Rico.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Approximately 16,000 pineapple plantlets (Annanas comusus L. Merr.) var. cabezona collection from selected farmers in Lajas, Puerto Rico and the USDA National Germplasm Repository were produced using tissue culture technique. About 6,000 pineapple plantlets were produced from the Lajas collection and 9,000 from the USDA Repository. The medium used for in vitro propagation was Murasige & Skoog (MS), basic formula supplemented with 0.1 mg/l of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 0.5 mg/l benzyl adenine (BA). Also apical and auxiliary meristem were cultured in MS, basic medium, supplemented with growth regulators (2,4-D and BA) in different concentrations. Preliminary results indicated that the treatments with BA and 2,4-D concentrations between 0.25-0.5 mg/l and 0.025 - 0.2 mg/l successively showed the best shoot production.

Impacts
As soon as selected Cabezona pineapple seed become available to farmers, production will increase by an estimated 25 percent, which will represent better conditions for farming in terms of more yield and uniform fruits.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Two tissue culture plants of Cabezona pineapple cultivar were obtained from the National Germplasm Repository. Plants are been propagated at the Tissue Culture Laboratory at Rio Piedras Center. Plants from selected farms were collected and crown tissue was used to tissue culture propagation. Pineapple fields were evaluated and screened to select fruits according to variety description. A farmers survey shows that 23 farmers full time and 10 part time produced 175 acres of Cabezona at Lajas area with a farm value of $0.75 million. Their main problems are: Seed production quality and quantity, Horticultural practices, and land competition for others uses as housing and development.

Impacts
As soon as selected Cabezona pinepple seed will become available to farmers production will increase by an estimated 25 percent, which will represent better conditions for farming.

Publications

  • Aviles-Rodriguez, L.N. and Montalvo, J.. Situacion actual y perspectivas del cultivo de pina Cabezona en Lajas. Oral Report and Abstract of Memorias de la Reunion Anual de la Sociedad Puertorriquena de Ciencias Agricolas, Caguas P.R. November, 16, 2000.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
A request for pineaple, Cabezona cultivar, was filed with the National Germplasm Repository to obtain Cabezona material for Objective 1 procedure. A meeting with Cabezona producers was held to inform and obtain information regarding cultivar and horticultural practices. Cabezona farm census was initiated and cultivar material will be collected to conduct laboratory procedures for cultivar identification. Materials and equipment have been purchased for laboratory procedures.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period