Source: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CRISIS MANAGEMENT PLAN TO PROTECT FOOD PRODUCTS IN A FOODSERVICE OPERATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0214995
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OKL02689
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2008
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2009
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Leong, J.
Recipient Organization
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
STILLWATER,OK 74078
Performing Department
Human Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The situation or problem the project addresses. There is a need to describe a crisis management plan in order to identify the crisis management process that may be in place when responding to a foodborne illness, or a biosecurity threat that may occur in the foodservice industry. The purpose of the project. The goal of this study is to determine the foodservice managers? perceived level of importance and performance relative to preparedness, implementation, response, recovery, organizational effectiveness, and organizational development related to resolving a food safety, foodborne illness, or food biosecurity crisis.
Animal Health Component
34%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
33%
Applied
34%
Developmental
33%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5035010302010%
5035010310010%
5036010310010%
5036010302010%
5045010302015%
5046010310015%
5045010310015%
5046010302015%
Goals / Objectives
Objective 1: Identify the perceived importance and performance ratings of preparedness, implementation, response, and recovery. Objective 2: Identify the perceived importance and performance ratings of sanitation management best practices to protect the microbial quality of foods. Objective 3: Determine the impact of preparedness, implementation, response, and recovery strategies on organizational development. Objective 4: Determine the impact of preparedness, implementation, response and recovery on organizational effectiveness. Objective 5: Identify the leadership traits needed to facilitate the implementation of crisis plan.
Project Methods
A survey research design was selected to fulfill the objectives of the study relative to crisis management plans, sanitary practices, and leadership characteristics. The sample population is the foodservice firms listed in the Foodservice Operators Guide of Chain Restaurants (2007). Each respondent, who was selected randomly, will be sent a cover letter and asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The proposed survey sections are as follows: (a) Importance and performance perceptions of preparedness, implementation, response, and recovery attributes; (b) Importance and performance perceptions of sanitation management best practices; (c) Importance of desirable leadership traits; and (d) Demographic profile of the foodservice operation and foodservice manager. An importance and performance measure will be used to identify the perceptions of the respondent for each of the categories. A Likert-type scale is used to measure the importance and performance attributes of each element. The data will be aggregated and reported in tables providing means, standard deviation, and frequencies for each of the sections related to: (1) preparedness plan, (2) implementation of preparedness plan, (3) response to the food safety crisis, (4) recovery from a food safety crisis, (5) organizational development, (6) organizational effectiveness, sanitation management practices, leadership traits, and (7) demographic profile. The personal demographic information related to the foodservice operation will be presented for each category in the form of one-way frequencies and percentages relative to demographics and foodservice operations characteristics. Factor analysis (principle component analysis) will be used to determine the underlying dimension for the crisis management dimensions relative to preparedness, implementation, response, and recovery. Regression analysis will be used to determine the level of organizational effectiveness in providing a crisis management strategy. The notion of organizational development (planned change) may be evident in the corporation's willingness to refocus and re-engineer their present crisis management program. The dependent variables are (a) organizational effectiveness, and (b) organizational development. The independent variables will be the factors derived for each section of preparedness (renamed factors), implementation, response, and recovery attributes. The results may indicate which attribute (independent variable) of each category that contributed the most to organizational effectiveness and organizational development, namely, the willingness to endure the process of organizational changes to safeguard the personnel and assets of the corporation.

Progress 08/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Events - We were invited to present the results of this project to the 2009 Family and Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Development Specialists - Statewide In-Service Orientation on 29 January 2009. At this hourly workshop, the Oklahoma Specialists shared their foodservice experiences relative to working with homemakers, churches, businesses, caterers, school lunch programs, head start programs, shelters, elderly congregate meal programs, and foodservice operations. The additional information from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Food and Drug Administration relative to the FDA Model Food Codes, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points was discussed. The question and answer session focused on the best practices used in the industry to mitigate the incidents of the onset of a foodborne illness and preventative measures. Activities- The project was presented in September 2009, to the students of Oklahoma State University, School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration. The HRAD 3353 Purchasing in the Hospitality Industry class was given the information to further discuss the importance of implementing a crisis management programs to enhance food safety and food protection. The class discussion emphasized the use of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) by manufacturers, e.g., good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and the HACCP practices used by foodservice distributors. The discussion followed as to the precautions that foodservice operators should take when receiving perishable food products for the distributors. Proper receiving, storing, and issuing of perishable foods was emphasized. Dissemination - Presentation to 2009 Family and Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Development Specialists- Statewide In-Service Orientation on 29 January 2009. The specialists were given the PowerPoint slide presentation, information from the Be Food Safe, which is directly related to the Fight BAC food handling safety initiative, i.e., clean, separate, cook, and chill, provided information for homepage linkage to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration current 2005 Model Food Codes, and the homepage linkage to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service website. Dissemination activities - Call for Posters of OAES Research Projects by the College of Agriculture for the Oklahoma Legislature to be displayed in the Oklahoma Capitol Building March, 2009. PARTICIPANTS: Principal Investigators: Jerrold K. Leong, Ph.D., FMP, Dr. Murat Hancer, Ph.D., Dr. David Njite, Ph.D. , Arlene Garrick, M. S., Michelle Black, M. S. (Doctoral Students) Oklahoma State University, College of Human Environmental Sciences, School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration. Dr. Barbara Brown, Ph.D., R.D., Department of Nutritional Sciences, and Dr. Glenn Muske, Ph.D. Department of Design Housing and Merchandising, Oklahoma State University, College of Human Environmental Sciences. The faculty members are knowledgeable relative to food safety, service management, technology, nutrition, entrepreneurship, and foodservice and lodging administration. Their level of expertise is high and they are committed to providing best practices related to the hospitality and lodging industry. TARGET AUDIENCES: The results of the research project would clearly benefit the foodservice operators faced with the risk of experiencing a foodborne due to poor food handling practices when preparing food products for consumption. The information would be valuable to the Agriculture Extension Specialists who work with small business operators, business, and industry professional engaged in the distribution and retail sale of food products. The grocery industry professionals may be directly affected by the results found in the successful implementation of a crisis management plan to protect perishable foods from contamination. Lastly, the student in a hospitality education program would benefit greatly if the principles of hazard analysis and critical control point plan were taught in a sanitation management curriculum. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The goal of the study is to determine the foodservice profession's perceptions of the success of implementing a crisis management plan. There is a need to describe a crisis management plan in order to identify the steps needed to respond to a foodborne illness incident, protect the food supply in a foodservice operation, and to mitigate any incident that may threaten the quality of food product prior to being served to the guest. Discussion: The respondents felt that having a vision to enact a preparedness plan was the first step in establishing a crisis management plan. This was followed by effectively managing the implementation process. Cooperation was needed in the response phase, and post-evaluation of the crisis to address future issues was critical. Moreover, organizational effectiveness was the quickness of the response to mitigate the crisis and bring the level of business operation back to normalcy. The important sanitation management concerns were: proper hand washing and hand spray sanitizing techniques, temperature of cooked foods, good food production practices, proper thawing techniques, proper cleaning and sanitizing methods, cross-contamination, proper cook-hold temperature guidelines, integrated pest management program, overall sanitary conditions of the operation, and proper heating and cooling of food products. Change in Knowledge: The 2009 FCS and 4-H Youth Development Specialists Conference participant's knowledge level was expanded. The results help to simulate discussion of how to use the important sanitation management best practices used in the hospitality industry. The discussion focused on the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles to protect the food supply in the receiving, storing, and issuing stages, proper food production techniques, post-production holding, serving, and the care of leftover food products. The protection of foods is a critical factor for the consumer relative to the improved consumer well-being and reduces the incidence of a foodborne illness outbreak. Impact on Students' Awareness of Food Safety Practice in the Hospitality Industry: The discussion in the HRAD 3353 Procurement in the Hospitality Industry focused on the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles to protect the food supply in the distribution channel. The discussion focused on the identification of the potential hazards that relates to foodborne illness and precautions taken to preserve food quality. The food defense systems relative to a crisis management plan would protect food sources from adulteration. The principles of proper inspections, quality assurance, and quality control in the receiving, storing, and issuing stages were emphasized. The proper food production techniques, post-production holding, serving, and the care of leftover food products were discussed and food safety critical limits were emphasized. Impact on Foodservice Industry Operators: The findings will reinforce the notion of training and using best practices and guiding principles in safe food handling.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: There has been an increase in the incidents of foodborne illnesses in the United States from food consumed at-home and away-from-home. The incident of a foodborne illness in the foodservice industry is a hazard that can be controlled with preventative measures. The level of awareness through continuous quality improvement programs to resolve food safety and biosecurity threats is of paramount importance to the food industry. Furthermore, the biosecurity measures and procedures mandated by USDA and Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) are important to the foodservice operator in safeguarding the food supply and protecting the public from food-borne illness, sickness, and death. A survey was developed and sent to a random sample of foodservice establishments in the United States. The goal of this survey is to help determine the foodservice managers' perceived level of importance and performance relative to preparedness, implementation, response, recovery, organizational effectiveness, and organizational development related to resolving a food safety, foodborne illness, or food biosecurity crisis. Because the foodservice operation's duties are integrally involved with the ordering, receiving, storing, issuing, production, and service of food products to their guests, the data being collected is essential in order to better understand how prepared foodservice organizations are to meet an unforeseen food safety, biosecurity, and foodborne illness threat. The surveys are being collected and will be anaysed. In addition, School of Hotel and Restaurant students who may be entering the foodservice industry were asked to participate in the the study. The research team would like to compare the results received from the students with those responses from the industry. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Jerrold Leong, PI, Dr. Murat Hancer, Collaborator, and Dr. David Njite, Collaborator. TARGET AUDIENCES: The targeted audience are professionals in the foodservice industry. In addition, School of Hotel and Restaurant students who may be entering the foodservice industry were asked to participate in the the study. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The data from the surveys are being collected and will be anaysed by the research team.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period