Source: OCEANIC INSTITUTE MAKAPUU POINT submitted to
SHRIMP AQUACULTURE PROJECT,AZ,HI,LA,MA,MS,SC AND TX
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0218833
Grant No.
2009-38808-19851
Project No.
HAWW-2009-04228
Proposal No.
2009-04228
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
UK
Project Start Date
Aug 1, 2009
Project End Date
Jul 31, 2011
Grant Year
2009
Project Director
Moss, S. M.
Recipient Organization
OCEANIC INSTITUTE MAKAPUU POINT
41-202 KALANIANAOLE HWY
WAIMANALO,HI 96795
Performing Department
(N/A)
Non Technical Summary
Shrimp are the most preferred seafood in the US. In 2007, per capita consumption of shrimp was 4.1 pounds. Although the domestic demand is high, domestic production is low, especially from farmed shrimp. In 2007, US shrimp farmers produced an estimated 6.0 million pounds, representing 0.08% of total world production for that year. The disparity between domestic demand and domestic supply has resulted in a reliance on imported products and a growing federal trade deficit in shrimp. Imported shrimp may be inferior to domestically grown shrimp and there are human health concerns about antibiotic residues which may be present in some imported products. The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with inspecting seafood imported into the US, but this agency is only able to inspect a small percentage of products that are for US markets. In light of a growing federal trade deficit in shrimp products, and concerns about food safety, there are compelling reasons to support a US shrimp farming industry. Expanding the US shrimp farming industry using traditional approaches is not feasible due to concerns about environmental pollution, disease transmission, and cost of production. Traditionally, shrimp have been cultured in coastal ponds where flow-through water exchange is used to maintain acceptable water quality. However, influent water can serve as a vector for virulent shrimp pathogens and pond effluent can adversely affect coastal water quality. In addition, expanding shrimp farms in coastal areas may cause multiple-use conflicts and traditional shrimp farms are restricted to more southern latitudes because of the warm-water requirements of the shrimp. This restriction increases transport costs to major markets and increases the number of "food miles", which is a measure of environmental impact. In order for the US shrimp farming industry to expand, US shrimp farmers must rely on advanced technologies modeled after other successful US agribusinesses, such as the poultry and swine industries. These industries are based on the production of Specific Pathogen free (SPF), selectively bred animals which are reared under biosecure conditions and fed formulated diets designed to meet their nutritional needs. The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) will focus its research efforts on developing these technologies and transferring them to US stakeholders. The USMSFP will disseminate SPF, selectively bred shrimp to US hatcheries and US broodstock suppliers. Shrimp will be selectively bred for rapid growth and disease resistance, using advanced breeding technologies and disease diagnostic tools developed by USMSFP researchers. USMSFP researchers will confirm SPF status, identify new shrimp pathogens, develop ways to mitigate their impact and will develop biosecure production technologies to rear shrimp under super-intensive conditions with minimal water use. This will allow US shrimp farmers to grow shrimp at inland locations away from sensitive coastal areas, and with a small environmental footprint. The integration of these advanced technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to produce high-quality shrimp at competitive prices for a US market.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
40%
Developmental
40%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3033721108032%
3073721101010%
3073721106013%
3113721110010%
3113721110115%
3113721116010%
3113721117010%
Goals / Objectives
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program USMSFP was formed in 1984 to conduct shrimp aquaculture research and to transfer technologies developed from this research to industry stakeholders in an effort to support a domestic shrimp farming industry. US shrimp farmers must rely on advanced technologies to offset advantages enjoyed by foreign producers. Most foreign producers have a competitive cost advantage due to cheaper land and labor, and less restrictive laws to protect the environment. However, production methods used by many foreign shrimp farmers are not environmentally sustainable or economically viable in the long term. Massive shrimp diseases continue to plague the global shrimp farming industry resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenue, and shrimp products exported from some foreign producers contain antibiotics. Antibiotic residues in farmed shrimp products have direct human health consequences. In 1988, the USMSFP began to focus its research efforts on developing technologies that have been used successfully in other US agricultural industries, particularly the poultry and swine industries. These industries rely on the production of Specific Pathogen free SPF, selectively bred animals which are reared under biosecure conditions and fed formulated diets designed to meet their nutritional needs. The USMSFP has provided US farmers with the tools and knowledge to apply these technologies on their farms. Specifically, the USMSFP has disseminated SPF, selectively bred shrimp to US hatcheries and US broodstock suppliers. Shrimp have been selectively bred for rapid growth and disease resistance, using breeding technologies and disease diagnostic tools developed by USMSFP researchers. SPF status is confirmed using these disease diagnostic tools, and USMSFP researchers continue to identify new shrimp pathogens and develop ways to mitigate their impact. In addition, USMSFP researchers have developed biosecure production technologies to rear shrimp under super-intensive conditions with minimal water use. These technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to grow shrimp at inland locations away from sensitive coastal areas, and with a small environmental footprint. Also, these technologies will allow US shrimp farmers to produce shrimp closer to major markets, thereby reducing transport costs and the number of "food miles", which is a measure of environmental impact. Among the USMSFP members, Oceanic Institute has the primary responsibility of managing the shrimp breeding program and in maintaining the SPF status of the breeding stocks. Tufts University has the lead in molecular immunology and gene marker development. The University of Arizona and the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory focus on disease research and the development of disease diagnostic tools. Waddell Mariculture Center and Texas AgriLife Research work on developing biosecure production systems, nutritional research, and assisting local shrimp farmers. Finally, Nicholls State University focuses on waste remediation in pond and raceway culture systems. The integration of these advanced technologies should allow US shrimp farmers to produce high-quality shrimp at competitive prices.
Project Methods
The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program's FY09 Implementation Plan supports research that addresses challenges which constrain the US shrimp farming industry. The Plan targets three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. Stock improvement efforts will focus on improving shrimp growth and survival in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) under super-intensive conditions, and improving shrimp survival after exposure to Taura syndrome virus (TSV). For the first time, efforts will be made to assess shrimp survival after exposure to Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP). Genetic correlations in shrimp family survival among these three pathogens will be determined. Disease control efforts will be made to characterize hemocytes from shrimp families with different susceptibilities to TSV, using monoclonal antibodies. This work may lead to the development of molecular markers for disease resistance. USMSFP researchers will continue to work with national and international organizations to disseminate information about shrimp health and diseases, provide disease diagnostic services to industry stakeholders, and develop and refine disease diagnostic procedures for viral and bacterial pathogens. Efforts will be made to better understand the epidemiology of TSV and NHP, and work will continue on the pathology of several viral and bacterial pathogens. This will include investigating the genetic diversity of major shrimp viruses and determining if antibiotic resistant bacteria emerge after using medicated feeds. Disease control efforts also will include evaluating the efficacy of commercially available immunostimulants and feed additives which have purported shrimp health benefits. Sustainable culture technology efforts will continue to focus on reducing production costs in super-intensive RAS. Work will be done to improve the accuracy of standing crop estimates, better understand the microbial ecology of these systems, and refine technologies to treat solid wastes. In addition, shrimp nutrition work will continue. Efforts will be made to determine the essential amino acid requirements for shrimp and to better understand the effects of feed processing on feed nutrition. Finally, efforts will continue to develop SPF, domesticated stocks of Penaeus setiferus in response to industry requests to explore the potential of bait shrimp production in the U.S.

Progress 08/01/09 to 07/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: During the FY09 No Cost Extension period, USMSFP Technical Committee members and the USMSFP Director met with the Industry Stakeholder Group (ISG) in Las Vegas, Nevada. ISG members included: 1) Mr. Russ Allen (owner of Seafood Systems, Inc. and President of the United States Shrimp Farming Association), 2) Mr. Fritz Jaenike (Manager of Harlingen Shrimp Farms), 3) Mr. Guy Furman (co-owner of Marvesta, an indoor RAS company in Maryland), 4) Dr. Jim Anderson (formerly with Magnolia, an indoor RAS company in Kentucky), 5) Ms. Traci Holstein (Shrimp Improvement Systems), and 6) Dr. Tom Zeigler (Ziegler Brothers, Inc.). During the meeting, there were discussions between ISG members and members of the USMSFP Technical Committee covering a range of issues including RAS management, recommendations for future USMSFP research, and the status of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. ISG members provided valuable suggestions for making USMSFP activities more relevant to U.S. shrimp farmers. In addition, ISG members suggested revising and updating the USMSFP web site to showcase recent USMSFP research and to highlight industry accomplishments, and holding informal meetings with members of the U.S. shrimp farming industry at annual WAS-sponsored Aquaculture America conferences. In addition, the ISG made several recommendations regarding USMSFP research tasks including: 1) continued research to improve shrimp growth through selective breeding; 2) continued research on pathogens relevant to RAS systems (e.g. Vibrio, Fusarium); 3) investigating the long-term effects of water re-use in RAS systems; and 4) assessing the suitability of low-salinity, inland sites for shrimp farming. In response to ISG input, the Director of the USMSFP worked with the Technical Committee members to incorporate many of the ISG suggestions in the FY10 Implementation Plan. In addition, ISG members and USMSFP Technical Committee members discussed opportunities for collaborative research, as well as joint funding opportunities from USDA (AFRI) and other federal agencies. PARTICIPANTS: The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/NIFA-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Mr. Dustin Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Abhineet Sheoran from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (SCDNR); Dr. Addison Lawrence from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Dr. Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Shaun Moss (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance. Tufts conducted work on molecular immunology, including the characterization of shrimp hemocytes. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. SCDNR and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to shrimp production, such as Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues and on characterization/control of pathogenic bacteria. The Principal Investigators are all recognized world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the global shrimp community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities. TARGET AUDIENCES: Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from USMSFP research via the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It is recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs from the USMSFP reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops and special sessions conducted yearly at the World Aquaculture Society-sponsored Aquaculture America conferences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The USMSFP focused on three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. During the reporting period, the USMSFP maintained 47 select families of Specific Pathogen Free Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as well as a population of L. vannamei from the Kona Reference Line. Select and Kona families were stocked in a 75-m2 Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) in OI's Nucleus Breeding Center (NBC) at a density of 303 shrimp/m2 and shrimp were grown for 83 days. Mean harvest weigh was 20.4 g, mean survival was 85.3%, and production was 5.3 kg/m2-m3. Progress was made by USMSFP scientists to develop a library of Vibrio bacteria from several sources (e.g. biofilms, oysters tissue, coastal waters from the Gulf of Mexico) to be used to identify potential pathogens in shrimp production systems. This approach was then used to positively identify a pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from an indoor shrimp farm in Texas. In addition, USMSFP scientists developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which could be used to identify and characterize novel shrimp hemocyte subsets. Twenty nine MAbs were produced which reacted with either hemocyte surface or granular antigens. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the antibodies into seven groups. However, no new MAbs were found which could further differentiate the hemocyte subsets that were previously identified in earlier USMSFP research. Research on sustainable culture technology was conducted to determine if four measures of water-column solids (suspended solids in Imhoff cones, TSS, VSS, and turbidity) could predict shrimp production in a RAS. Results indicated that about 62% of the variation in shrimp production could be explained by concentrations of volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the water column and that VSS concentration was the best predictor of shrimp performance among the four variables evaluated. In addition, a winter growout trial was conducted at SCDNR where final production was 5.63 kg/m3, survival was 59%, mean harvest weight was 18.8 g, and growth rate was 0.89 g/wk. Research also was conducted to evaluate two types of biofloc management strategies; low solids management and high solids management. After a 13-week trial, there was a significant treatment effect on water quality (e.g. TSS, VSS, turbidity, nitrite, nitrate), but no significant effect on shrimp survival, FCR, or final biomass. However, shrimp growth in the low solids management treatment grew significantly faster and had a larger harvest weight. Results from this trial indicate that simple engineering and management decisions can impact water quality and shrimp growth. In addition, efforts were made to refine solids waste management by evaluating a bench-scale Sequence Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat shrimp culture water from a super-intensive RAS. TAN, nitrite-N, and nitrate-N were significantly lowered in 18 days, and COD was reduced by 66% by end of trial. SBR appears to be effective at removing carbon and nitrogen from RAS water and reducing sludge volume.

Publications

  • Bharadwaj AC, Browdy C, Patnaik S, Lawrence AL. 2010. New perspectives on copper requirements and availability for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenseus vannamei). Aquafeed 3(1):6-10.
  • Browdy CL, Bharadwaj AS, Patnaik S, Lawrence AL. 2010. Perspectives on copper requirements and availability for marine shrimp. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society European Annual Conference, October 5-8, 2010, Porto, Portugal. pp. 1444-1445.
  • Brunson JF, Haveman JM, Durant E, Weldon DT, Leffler JW. 2011. Effect of solids removal on production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a minimal exchange, biofloc-based system. U.S. Aquaculture Society, New Orleans, LA, February 28-March 3, 2011.
  • Fox JM, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Forster I, Ju ZY, Dominy W. 2010b. Estimation of feed level of methionine by Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) using covalently-attached and crystalline sources in low-protein semi-purified diets. In: Cruz-Suarez E, Ricque-Marie D, Tapia-Salazar M, Nieto-Lopez MG, Villarreal-Cavazos DA, Gamboa-Delgado J. (eds.), Proceedings of the X Simposio Internacional de Nutricion Acuicola, Monterrey, Mexico. pp 233-250.
  • Kearns JP, Lawrence AL. 2010. Extrusion of micro aquatic and shrimp feeds. Aquafeed Spring Issue: 2-6.
  • Lawrence AL. 2010. Recent research from Texas Agrilife Research Mariculture Laboratory at Port Aransas, Texas A&M System. Book of Abstracts, X Simposio Internacional de Nurticion Acuicola, November 8-10, 2010, Monterrey, Mexico. pp. 111-113.
  • Lawrence AL, Kuhn DD, Patnaik S, Boardman GD, Marsh L, Flick Jr GJ. 2010. Understanding why biofloc replacement of fish meal in feeds increase shrimp growth. Book of Abstracts, Tahiti Aquaculture, December 6-11, 2010, Papeette, Tahiti. pp. 55-56.
  • Lawrence AL, Kuhn DD, Patnaik S, Boardman GD, Marsh L, Flick GJ. 2010. What makes biofloc great for shrimp. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 565.
  • Kuhn DD, Boardman GD, Lawrence AL, Marsh L, Flick GJ. 2009. Microbial floc generated in bioreactors is a superior replacement ingredient for fish meal or soybean meal in shrimp feed. Aquaculture, 296:51-57.
  • Logan AJ, Lawrence AL, Dominy WD, Tacon AGJ. 2010. Single-cell proteins from food by-products provide protein in aquafeed. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 13(4):56-57.
  • Ray AJ, Seaborn G, Wilde SB, Lawson A, Browdy CL, Leffler JW. 2010. Characterization of microbial communities in minimal-exchange, intensive aquaculture systems and the effects of suspended solids management. Aquaculture, 310:130-138.
  • Ray AJ, Lotz JM, Brunson JF, Leffler J W. 2011. Accurate shrimp sampling method assists stocking process for growout. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 14(4): 24-25.


Progress 08/01/09 to 07/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: An important goal of the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is to provide products, technologies, and services to the U.S. shrimp farming industry. During the reporting period, the USMSFP distributed 180,882 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, to U.S. industry stakeholders, as well as to research and educational organizations in the U.S. These shrimp consisted of nauplii, postlarvae, and broodstock from the Growth, TSV-Resistant, and Kona Reference lines. Shrimp from the Growth line have been selected for rapid growth and high survival when grown at super-intensive densities in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), whereas shrimp from the TSV-Resistant line have been selectively bred for high survival after exposure to different isolates of Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Shrimp from the Kona line represent an important research tool as a "control" animal. Of the shrimp that were distributed, 107,770 went to U.S. industry stakeholders, including broodstock producers and shrimp farmers, whereas 73,112 shrimp went to research and education organizations, including USMSFP members. The USMSFP continued to provide disease-challenge services to U.S. shrimp breeding companies in an effort to improve selectively bred lines for disease resistance. A scientist from the USMSFP participated in the development of codes and policies about shrimp health and disease for the World Organization for Animal Health (formerly OIE) and drafted chapters for the revised Aquatic Animal Health Code and for a diagnostic manual. A USMSFP lab continued to serve as an OIE Reference laboratory for Crustacean (Penaeid) Diseases and as a USDA APHIS Approved Diagnostic Laboratory for Shrimp Diseases. During the reporting period, this lab processed 378 disease diagnostic cases from domestic and foreign clients. A total of 4,213 individual shrimp specimens were examined using histology and 6,940 individual assays were performed using PCR/RT-PCR methods. An assay usually consisted of 1 - 5 pooled specimens so this translated into ~ 20,000 individual shrimp samples. In addition, because this lab is an OIE Reference Laboratory and an APHIS designated laboratory for crustacean pathogens, it has been implementing "Ring tests" since 2003. During the reporting period, 16 labs from five countries participated in these tests and most exhibited high proficiency in diagnosing shrimp diseases. Also, during the reporting period, 18 participants from seven countries enrolled in the University of Arizona's annual Shrimp Pathology Short Course. The USMSFP continued to develop a standard practical diet to use in feed- and nutrition-related research. During the reporting period, several diets were evaluated and all supported excellent shrimp growth and survival. These diets have "open" formulations and will be provided to any U.S. feed company pro bono. The USMSFP's commitment to information dissemination to U.S. stakeholders was reflected in its publications and workshops. The USMSFP also maintained contact with the industry through a special session conducted at the World Aquaculture Society conference. PARTICIPANTS: The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium was formed in 1984 to identify and solve problems that constrain the profitability and expansion of the U.S. marine shrimp farming industry. The Consortium oversees the USDA/NIFA-sponsored U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). This program allows leading investigators and their institutions, working in partnership with industry, to engage in focused, results-oriented projects directed at developing profitable and environmentally sustainable shrimp farming in the U.S. Member institutions and Principle Investigators include: Dr. Jeff Lotz from the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL); Mr. Dustin Moss from Oceanic Institute (OI); Dr. Abhineet Sheoran from Tufts University (Tufts); Dr. John Leffler from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Waddell Mariculture Center (SCDNR); Dr. Addison Lawrence from Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M System (TALR); Dr. Donald Lightner from the University of Arizona (UAZ); and Dr. Quenton Fontenot from Nicholls State University (NSU). Dr. Shaun Moss (OI) was the project director, with responsibility for coordination of research activities and planning, and overall technical and financial oversight of the Consortium. The USMSFP, through work of the seven Consortium institutions, has provided U.S. stakeholders with direct access to high health, genetically improved shrimp, as well as advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. OI had primary responsibility for shrimp genetic improvement, including selection for fast growth and TSV resistance. Tufts conducted work on molecular immunology, including the characterization of shrimp hemocytes. UAZ and GCRL were involved primarily in disease research, including developing diagnostic tools and providing disease diagnostic services. SCDNR and TALR worked on a variety of issues directly relevant to shrimp production, such as Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) management and feeds development, and NSU focused on solid waste disposal issues and on characterization/control of pathogenic bacteria. The Principal Investigators are all recognized world leaders in their respective fields and have numerous peer-reviewed publications. In addition, Dr. Donald Lightner has taken a leadership role in his service to the world community as a member of the Aquatic Animals Health Standards Commission, Office des International Epizootics (OIE), of Paris, France. Support for and maintenance of the OIE reference lab at UAZ has been crucial to meeting global needs in terms of the management of existing and emerging pathogens. Opportunities for training and professional development included the UAZ Shrimp Pathology Workshop and the training of graduate students from member universities. During the reporting period, a total of four Masters and two Ph.D. degrees were awarded among the various institutions supported by the grant. TARGET AUDIENCES: Traditionally, the USMSFP has focused its research efforts on the U.S. shrimp farmer as the primary target audience. However, due to the globalization of shrimp aquaculture, it has become necessary to expand the list of stakeholders to include feed manufacturers, U.S. grain producers, aquaculture equipment suppliers, broodstock suppliers, U.S. investors in foreign shrimp farms, and the U.S. seafood industry. The U.S. consumer also has benefited from USMSFP research via the global shrimp market. This global view has encompassed and fostered the development of a U.S. shrimp broodstock industry where the primary business is to export broodstock shrimp to foreign hatcheries. The USMSFP has supported the U.S. shrimp broodstock industry by providing SPF, selectively bred shrimp to relevant U.S. stakeholders. Importantly, the USMSFP has continued to develop shrimp families which perform well in biosecure, recirculating aquaculture systems. It is recognized that the dissemination of information, publications, and other outputs from the USMSFP reach a global market, and it is not practical to limit the flow of information, technologies, and products to the U.S. alone. Nevertheless, information dissemination is to the U.S. industry first, prior to publication, through workshops and special sessions conducted yearly at the World Aquaculture Society-sponsored Aquaculture America conferences. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The USMSFP focused on three major objectives: Stock Improvement, Disease Control, and Sustainable Culture Technology. During the reporting period, the USMSFP produced 93 families of SPF Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Of these, 47 families were from the TSV-Resistant line, whereas 46 were from the Growth line. TSV-Resistant shrimp were selectively bred for high survival after TSV exposure, as well as for rapid growth. The USMSFP now has shrimp families that exhibit ≥ 95% survival after TSV exposure and growth rates ≥ 1.5 g/wk, and these shrimp have been distributed to U.S. industry stakeholders. Growth line shrimp experienced high selection intensity for rapid growth in recirculating aquaculture systems. The USMSFP now has shrimp families that exhibit growth rates ≥ 2.0 g/wk when stocked at ≥ 400 shrimp per square meter. Significant progress was made by USMSFP scientists in developing disease diagnostic tools including a polyclonal antibody detection method for IHHNV, a RT-LAMP method to detect IMNV, a new real-time PCR method to detect and quantify NHP-B, and a multiplex PCR method to detect rickettsia-like bacteria. Research continued on emerging shrimp diseases including one from Brazil which is histologically consistent with Reovirus infections, as well as microsporidia infections identified in P. monodon. Frozen commodity shrimp pose a risk for pathogen introduction into the U.S. and the USMSFP continues to monitor a variety of imported products for viruses. During the reporting period, 59 cases were submitted for inspection and IHHNV was the only pathogen detected. In an effort to understand the innate immune response of shrimp, the USMSFP began characterizing shrimp hemocytes using monoclonal antibodies. The origin, movement, and genetic diversity of TSV, IHHNV, HPV, and other viral pathogens were investigated using phylogenetic analysis. In an effort to better understand the epidemiology of shrimp disease, the USMSFP continued to develop mathematical models for TSV which incorporated the relationship between time and TSV load, as well as TSV load and transmission. The USMSFP developed microarrays and quantitative PCR to identify differentially expressed genes between TSV-resistant and TSV-susceptible shrimp lines. This could lead to a better understanding of the genetic mechanism for disease resistance in shrimp and may lead to marker-assisted selection for disease resistance. Research on sustainable culture technology focused on further refinement of super-intensive, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). During this period, the USMSFP conducted a number of production trials at several USMSFP institutions with varied success and production of 5.99 kg/m2 was achieved. Progress was made in developing ways to manage and dispose of solid waste from RAS and to better understand the impact of in situ solids on shrimp performance and water quality. Feed formulation, processing, and management have critical impacts on shrimp production and the USMSFP continued to assess the use of biofloc as a potential shrimp feed additive, and evaluated the dietary methionine requirement for juvenile shrimp.

Publications

  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. Review of IMN, infectious myonecrosis in penaeid shrimp. (In Chinese) Chinese Journal of Marine Sciences 33: 89-91.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2010. A real-time PCR for the detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) of penaeid shrimp. Journal of Fish Diseases 33: 507-511.
  • Anuta JD, Patnaik S, Lawrence AL, Mustafa A, Gatlin D III, Lightner D. 2010. Dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotics (Previda) on survival, histology, immune response and gut biota of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 1142.
  • Anuta JD, Patnaik S, Lawrence AL, Mustafa A, Gatlin D, Lightner D. Dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic (Previda) on survival, histology, immune response and gut biota of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Aranguren LF, Salazar M, Lightner D. Determination of resistance of two population of Penaeus vannamei to NHP-B. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Boopathy R, Roy D, Fontenot Q. 2010. Carbon Limitation during Denitrification Process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Treating Shrimp Aquaculture Wastewater. Aquaculture America 2010 Conference. San Diego, CA. March 1-5, 2010.
  • Boopathy R, Shields S, Browdy C. 2009. Effect of a Bacterial Amendment (Mera Bac W) on Organic Waste Digestion and Control of Vibrio harveyi Populations in Shrimp Aquaculture. World Aquaculture 2009 Conference. Veracruz, Mexico, September 25-29, 2009.
  • Browdy CL, Venero J, Jintasataporn O, Tabthipwon P, Triwutanon O, Shields S, Boopathy R. 2010. Lab Evaluation Methods Quantify Probiotic Benefits. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13. 56-58.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009. Development of a method for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and nucleic acid lateral flow hybrid assay. Journal of Fish Diseases 32: 911-924.
  • Andrade TPD, Lightner DV. 2009. New hybrid assay can detect IMNV in resource-poor settings. GAA. July/August, pp. 68-69. Andrade TPD, Srisuvan T, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay using TaqMan probe for detection and quantification of Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Aquaculture 264: 9-15.
  • Browdy, C.L., Venero, J.A., Stokes, A.D., Leffler, J.W. 2009. Superintensive Biofloc Production Systems Technologies for Marine Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Technical Challenges and Opportunities. In G. Burnell and G. Allan (eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
  • Cantrell RN, Arce SM, Moss SM. 2009. Evaluation of an experimental platform to assess shrimp maturation diets. Asia Pacific Aquaculture, November 4-6, 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Cao Z, Wang SY, Breland V, Moore AM, Lotz JM. 2010. Taura syndrome virus loads in the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei following infection are related to differential mortality. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91:97-103. Correia ES, Samocha TM, Wilkenfeld JS, Morris TC, Wei L. 2010. Intensive nursery of the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in greenhouse-enclosed raceways using low and high protein diets under no water exchange. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 225, Aquaculture America 2010, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, CA.
  • Cote I, Lightner DV. 2010. Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by the Belize-02 isolate of Taura syndrome virus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 88: 157-160.
  • Cote I, Poulos BT, Redman RM, Lightner DV. 2009. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against Taura syndrome virus. Journal of Fish Diseases 32: 989-996.
  • Davidson EW, Synder J, Lightner DV, Ruthig G, Lucas J, Gilley J. 2010. Exploration of potential microbial control agents for the invasive crayfish, Orchonectes virilis, in Arizona, USA. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 20: 297-310.
  • Deng DF, Ju ZY, Dominy W, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, J Fox. 2010. Methionine supplement form affects feed leaching but not shrimp growth. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13(4): 40-41.
  • Deng DF, Ju ZY, Dominy D, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Fox J. 2010. Effect of protein bound and crystalline methionine on growth performance of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at 26 C. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 274.
  • DuRant, E. 2010. Cumulative physical and biochemical characteristics of a minimal exchange, superintensive Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture system. South Carolina Fisheries Workers Association and the South Carolina American Fisheries Society 2010, Charleston, SC. February 9-10, 2010.
  • Heres AA, Nunan LM, Lightner DV. Histopathological, biological and molecular characteristics of the pathogenic Spiroplasma penaei isolated from the hemolymph of infected Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Houghton RL, Chen J, Pantoja C, Poulos BT, Lightner DV. 2009. Rapid test detects NHP in penaeid shrimp. GAA. July/August, pp. 66.
  • Kearns JP, Lawrence AL. 2010. Extrusion of micro aquatic and shrimp feeds. Aquafeed Spring Issue: 2-6.
  • Kent, M. 2010. Can Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei consume and digest suspended biofloc microalgal species South Carolina Fisheries Workers Association and the South Carolina American Fisheries Society 2010, Charleston, SC. February 9-10, 2010.
  • Kent, M. 2010. Isolating Key Contributors of Microbial Biofloc to Litopenaeus vannamei Growth: Can Shrimp Consume, Digest, and Receive Supplemental Nutrition from Common Biofloc Microbes MS Thesis, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC. Available from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1475806)
  • Kent, M.R., Browdy, C.L., Venero, J., Shuler, A., Seaborn, G., Battey, C., Leffler, J.W. 2010. Consumption and digestion of suspended microalgal species common in biofloc culture systems by juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Society 2010, San Diego, CA. March 2-6, 2010.
  • Forster I, Dominy W, Lawrence AL, Castille F, Patnaik S. 2010. Optimization of a research diet for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using mixture model methodology. Aquaculture 298: 260-266.
  • Forster IP, Ju ZY, Deng DF, Dominy WG, Grey M, Conquest L, Lawrence AL. 2010. Recent shrimp nutrition research at the Oceanic Institute. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 340.
  • Fox JM, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Forster I, Ju ZY, Dominy W. 2010. Methionine requirements estimated for white shrimp. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13(2): 29-30.
  • Hanson TR, Posadas B, Samocha TM, Stokes AD, Losordo T, Browdy CL. 2009. Economic factors critical to the profitability of super-intensive biofloc recirculating shrimp production systems for marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Pages 267-283. In: Browdy CL, DE Jory (Eds). The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the special session on sustainable shrimp farming. World Aquaculture Society, Button Rouge, LA.
  • Hanson TR, Posadas B, Samocha TM, Stokes AD, Losordo T, Browdy CL. 2009. Economic factors critical to the profitability of super-intensive biofloc recirculating shrimp production systems for marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 382, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, September 25-29, 2009. Veracruz, Mexico.
  • Hassan K. 2009. Optimization of Sequencing Batch Reactor for the Treatment of Shrimp Aquaculture Wastewater. Master of Science in Marine and Environmental Biology, Nicholls State University.
  • Haveman, J. 2010. Input considerations for the sustainable production of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei in a hyper-intensive, minimal-exchange raceway. South Carolina Fisheries Workers Association and the South Carolina American Fisheries Society 2010, Charleston, SC. February 9-10, 2010.
  • Heres A, Lightner DV. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogenic bacteria Spiroplasma penaei based on multilocus sequence analysis. Journal Invertebrate Pathology 103: 30-35.
  • Heres A.A. 2009. Histopathological, biological and molecular characteristics of the pathogenic Spiroplasma penaei isolated from the hemolymph of infected Pacific white shrimp. PhD dissertation, Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
  • Klim B. Master of Science. 2009. Effect of short-chain fructooligosaccharide on the growth, survival, and immune response of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Florida
  • Kuhn D, Lawrence AL, Boardman G, Patnaik S, Marsh L, Flick G. 2010. Sustainable biofloc technology: using bioreactors to treat aquacultural effluents while producing bioflocs for shrimp feed. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 543.
  • Kuhn DD, Boardman GD, Flick GJ Jr, Lawrence AL. 2010. Suspended-growth biological processes clean RAS wastewater. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13(1): 45-47.
  • Kuhn DD, Flick GJ Jr., Boardman GD, Lawrence AL. 2010. Biofloc: Novel sustainable ingredient for shrimp feed. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13(3): 75-76.
  • Kuhn DD, Lawrence AL, Boardman GD, Patnaik S, Marsh L, Flick GJ Jr. 2010. Evaluation of two types of bioflocs derived from biological treatment of fish effluent as feed ingredients for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 303: 28-33.
  • Lawrence AL, Kuhn D, Patnaik S, Boardman G, Marsh L, Flick G. 2010. What makes biofloc great for shrimp. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 565.
  • Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Castille FL, Dominy W. 2010. Shrimp research for 2008 from Texas Agrilife Research Mariculture Laboratory at Port Aransas, Texas, Texas A&M System. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 563.
  • Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Gatlin D III, Buentello A, Riaz M. 2010. Evaluation of fish and shrimp by-products as partial and complete replacement for fish meal in diets in of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 564.
  • Lotz JM. Evolutionary context for shrimp health management. Integrated Technologies for Advanced Shrimp Production. Honolulu, HI. October 2009. Lotz JM. 2010 Highlights of shrimp research: Gulf Coast Research Laboratory. Aquaculture 2010. Annual meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. March 1 - 5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Arce S, Moss SM. 2009. Chapter 16: Specific pathogen-free shrimp stocks in shrimp farming facilities as a novel methods for disease control in crustaceans. pp. 384-424 in Shellfish Safety and Quality. S.E. Shumway and G.E. Rodrick. (Eds). Woodhead Publishing Limited, CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, USA.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM, Pantoja CR, Navarro SA, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Noble BL, Nunan LM. 2009. Emerging non-viral infectious and non-infectious diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. pp. 31-37, in: C.L. Browdy and D.E. Jory (eds.) The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, World Aquaculture 2009, World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
  • Lightner DV, Redman RM. 2009( In Press). The global status of significant infectious diseases of framed shrimp. Proceedings of Integrated Technologies for Advanced Shrimp Production. Aquaculture Interchange Program, 2009 Workshop, October 13-15, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii. Special publication of the Asian Fisheries Society Journal.
  • Mine S, Boopathy R. 2010. Use of Short Chain Organic Acids to Control Shrimp Pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. 110th General Meeting of American Society for Microbiology. San Diego, CA May 23-27, 2010.
  • Leffler, J.W., Haveman, J., DuRant, E., Lawson, A., Weldon, D. 2010. Oxygen demand, ecological energetics and nutrient dynamics in minimal exchange, superintensive, biofloc systems culturing Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Society 2010, San Diego, CA. March 1-5, 2010.
  • Leffler, J.W., Seaborn, G., Wirth, E., Browdy, C.L. 2009. Human health benefits and risks associated with consumption of farmed and wild shrimp and red drum. National Environmental Public Health Conference 2009. Atlanta, GA. October 26-28, 2009.
  • Leffler, J.W., Venero, J.A., Ray, A.J., Lewis, B.L., Lawson, A., Haveman, J., Browdy, C.L. 2010. Managing the composition of biofloc communities to nutritionally supplement plant-based diets for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. World Aquaculture Society 2010, San Diego, CA. March 1-5, 2010.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases. 6th Edition. Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris: Disinfection of Crustacean Farms, Section C of Methods for Disinfection of Aquaculture Establishments. Chapter 1.1.3. (Co-author); General Introduction OIE Manual, Chapter 2.00 (Co-author); Diseases of crustaceans, General Information, Chapter 2.3.00; Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis, Chapter 2.3.02; Infectious Myonecrosis Virus, Chapter2.3.03; Taura Syndrome, Chapter 2.3.05.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Aquatic Animal Health Code. 12th Edition. Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris: Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis, Chapter 9.2; Infectious myonecrosis, Chapter 9.3; Taura syndrome, Chapter 9.4; White spot disease, Chapter 9.5; White tail disease, Chapter 9.6; Yellow head disease, Chapter 9.7.
  • Lightner D. Emerging significant infectious and noninfectious diseases of farmed shrimp. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Redman RM, Hasson KW, Menon JP. 2009. Case reports of melamine-induced pathology in penaeid shrimp fed adulterated feeds. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 86: 107-112.
  • Lightner DV. 2009. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) and Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) Stocks for Shrimp Aquaculture. pp. 33-36, in: INDAQUA 2009 Souvenir. Exposition on aquaculture to highlight the development and advancement of aquaculture in India. Held 21-23 January 2009 at Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.
  • Logan A, Patnaik S, Lawrence AL. 2010. Effect of single-cell protein as a feed ingredient on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei in an indoor growth trial operated at high recirculation. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 625.
  • Moss DR, Moss SM, Lotz JM. 2009. Relationship between viral load and survival of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, infected with Taura syndrome virus. The 10th International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 30.
  • Moss DR, Otoshi CA, Arce SM, Holl CM, Cantrell RN. 2010. Shrimp research activities at Oceanic Institute. World Aquaculture Society, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Moss SM, Moss DR, Arce SM, Otoshi CA. 2009. Family performance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, evaluated at commercial shrimp farms in southern Thailand. The 10th International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture, Bangkok, Thailand, p. 54.
  • Moss SM. 2010. The U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program: A 25-year retrospection and a glimpse into the future. World Aquaculture Society, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Muller IC, Andrade TPD, Tang-Nelson KFJ, Marques MRF, Lightner DV. 2010. Genotyping of WSSV geographical isolates from Brazil and comparison to other isolates from the Americas. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 88: 91-98.
  • Mustafa A, Patnaik S, Gatlin D III, Lightner D, Dunsford B, Lawrence AL. 2010. Effects of dietary supplementation of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) modulation of stress, immune response, gut microflora, digestive tract histology, growth and survival in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in a recirculating system. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5,2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 704.
  • Mustafa A, Patnaik S, Gatlin D III, Lightner D, Dunsford B, Lawrence AL. 2010. Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharide on modulation of stress, immune response, gut microflora, digestive tract histology, growth and survival in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei culture in a recirculating system. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 705.
  • Mustafa A, Patnaik S, Gatlin III D, Lightner D, Dunsford B, Lawrence A. Modulation of stress, immune response, gut microflora, digestive tract, histology, growth and survival in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Mustafa A, Patnaik S, Gatlin III D, Lightner D, Dunsford B, Lawrence A. Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on modulation of stress, immune response, gut microflora, digestive tract histology, growth and survival in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Ray AJ, Shuler AJ, Leffler JW, Browdy CL. 2009. Microbial ecology and management of biofloc systems. p. 255-266. In: Browdy CL, Jory DE, editors. The Rising Tide, Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture 2009. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
  • Ray AJ, Venero JA, Browdy CL, Leffler JW. 2010. Simple settling chambers aid solids management in biofloc system. Global Aquaculture Advocate 13 (E2): 28-30.
  • Rocker JM, Lotz JM. 2010. Comparison of the intra-host genetic variability Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in acute and chronic infections in Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 2010. Annual meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA.
  • Roy D. 2009. Performance of Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) in Treating Synthetic and Shrimp Aquaculture Production Wastewater. Master of Science in Marine and Environmental Biology, Nicholls State University.
  • Mustafa A, Patnaik S, Gatlin III D, Lightner D, Dunsford B, Lawrence A. Effects of dietary supplementation of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on modulation of stress, immune response, gut microflora, digestive tract histology, growth and survival in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Navarro SA, Nunan L, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. Development of a PCR diagnostic assay for the detection and differentiation of emerging rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) affecting a P. monodon shrimp farm in Tanzania. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Navarro SA, Tang FJK, Lightner DV. 2009. An improved Taura syndrome virus (TSV) RT-PCR using newly designed primers. Aquaculture 293(2): 290-292.
  • Patnaik S, Lawrence AL, Forster I, Dominy W, Leffler J. 2010. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth and survival of L. setiferus in indoor tanks with high rates of recirculation and removal of uneaten feed and wastes. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 758.
  • Patnaik S, Lawrence AL. 2010. Estimated production of greater than 16-20 kg/m3 of Litopenaeus vannamei in an outdoor tank system. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 759.
  • Patnaik S, Lawrence AL, Forster I, Dominy W, Leffler J. 2010. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth and survival of L. setiferus in indoor tanks with high rates of recirculation and removal of uneaten feed and wastes. World Aquaculture Society 2010, San Diego, CA. March 1-5, 2010.
  • Ray AJ, Lewis BL, Browdy CL, Leffler JW. 2010. Suspended solids removal to improve shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production and an evaluation of a plant-based feed in minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems. 2010. Aquaculture 299: 89-98.
  • Ray AJ, Seaborn G, Drake M, Browdy CL, Leffler JW. 2010. The effects of fish-based versus plant-based feeds and solids management on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei flesh characteristics. World Aquaculture Society 2010, San Diego, CA. March 1-5, 2010.
  • Ray AJ, Shuler AJ, Browdy CL, Leffler JW. 2009. Microbial ecology and management of biofloc systems. Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 3-6, 2009.
  • Samocha TM, Advent B, Correia ES, Morris TC, Wilkenfeld JS. 2010. Growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in super intensive mixotrophic raceway culture with zero discharge using Taeration technology for aeration and extended CO2 degassing. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 877, Aquaculture America 2010, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, CA.
  • Samocha TM, Correia ES, Hanson T, Wilkenfeld JS, Morris TC. 2010. Intensive raceways without water exchange analyzed for White Shrimp Culture. Global Aquaculture Advocate July/August: 22-24.
  • Samocha TM, Correia ES, Wilkenfeld JS, Morris TC, Wei L. 2010. From flow through to zero exchange - a summary of the intensive nursery and grow-out studies with the Pacific White Shrimp at the Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab at Flour Bluff, Corpus Christi, Texas. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 874, Aquaculture America 2010, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, CA.
  • Samocha TM, Correia ES, Wilkenfeld JS, Morris TC, Wei L. 2010. High-density production of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in recycled culture water under zero-exchange conditions using settling tanks, foam fractionators and dissolved oxygen monitoring systems as management tools. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 875, Aquaculture America 2010, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, CA.
  • Samocha TM, Haslun JA, Strychar KB, Correia ES, Wilkenfeld JS. 2010. Preliminary characterization of microbial and algal communities in a zero water exchange super-intensive system for production of food-size Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 876, Aquaculture America 2010, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, CA.
  • Samocha TM, Wilkenfeld JS, Morris TC, Hanson TR. 2009. Use of intensive-nursery and grow-out system under limited or no water exchange - summary of recent findings from the Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Laboratory at Flour Bluff. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 304, Aquaculture America 2009, February 15-18, 2009. Seattle, WA.
  • Samocha TM. 2009. Advances in shrimp nursery technologies. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), p. 766, World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, September 25-29, 2009. Veracruz, Mexico.
  • Sanchez DR, Lawrence AL, Gatlin DM III. 2010. The effect of phytoplankton and feeds with different dietary levels of fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol on growth and survival of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 880.
  • Sanchez DR, Lawrence AL, Gatlin DM III. 2010. The effects of phytoplankton and feeds with different levels of marine animal meals on growth and survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in indoor aquaria. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 879.
  • Tang K, Dongchun Y, Lightner D. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) and Hepatopancreatic Parvovirus (HPV) in penaeid shrimps. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Tang KFJ, Wertheim JO, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. Evolutionary history of Taura syndrome virus. Global Aquaculture Advocate. September/October, 104-105.
  • Wing DR, Lawrence AL, Patnail S, Lightner DV, Mustafa A, Gatlin D. Effects of Pristine Aqua* fiber used as a feed additive on growth, survival, immune response, histology and gut flora of Litopenaeus vannamei in indoor growth trial operated at high recirculation. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.
  • Yan D, Tang KFJ, Lightner DV. 2009. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) in penaeid shrimp. Journal Invertebrate Pathology 102: 97-100.
  • Vinatea, L., Galvez, A.O., Browdy, C.L., Stokes, A., Venero, J., Haveman, J., Lewis, B.L., Lawson, A., Shuler, A., Ray, A., Leffler, J.W. 2010.Photosynthesis, water respiration and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in a super-intensive raceway culture with zero water exchange: Interaction of water quality variables. Aquacultural Engineering 42(1): 17-24.
  • Vinatea, L., Galvez, A.O., Venero, J., Browdy, C., Leffler, J. 2009. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in heterotrophic media and zero water exchange. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 44(5):534-538.
  • Walker SJ, Neill WH, Lawrence AL, Gatlin DM III. 2009. Effect of body weight and salinity on ecophysiological performance of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 380: 119-124.
  • Weldon, D. 2010. Effect of density on growth and survivorship of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei in a biofloc system. South Carolina Fisheries Workers Association and the South Carolina American Fisheries Society 2010, Charleston, SC. February 9-10, 2010.
  • Wertheim JO, Tang KFJ, Navarro SA, Lightner DV. 2009. A quick fuse and the emergence of Taura syndrome virus. Virology 390(2): 324-329.
  • White-Noble BL, Lightner DV, Tang KFJ, Redman R. 2010. Lab challenge for selection of IMNV-resistant white shrimp. GAA. July/August, pp. 71-73.
  • Wing D, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Lightner DV, Mustafa A, Gatlin DIII. 2010. Effects of hemicelluloses fiber used as a feed additive on growth, survival, immune response, histology and gut flora of Litopenaeus vannamei in indoor growth trials operated at high recirculation. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 1092.
  • Wing D, Lawrence AL, Patnaik S, Lightner DV, Mustafa A, Gatlin D III.2010. Effects of the feed additive pristine aqua on growth, survival, immune response, histology and gut flora of Litopenaeus vannamei in indoor growth trials operated at high recirculation. Book of Abstracts (CD-ROM), World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference, March 1-5, 2010, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 1093.
  • Wing DR, Lawrence AL, Patnail S, Lightner DV, Mustafa A, Gatlin D. Effects of hemicellulose fiber used as a feed additive on growth, survival, immune response, histology and gut flora of Litopenaeus vannamei in indoor growth trial operated at high recirculation. World Aquaculture Society March 1-5, 2010. San Diego, California, USA.