Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0211313
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00865
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2007
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Petrie, S.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
COLUMBIA BASIN AGRICULTURAL RES CTR
Non Technical Summary
Dryland crop production systems in Oregon are based primarily on winter wheat grown in rotation with tillage-based summer fallow. This system has evolved and proven to be economically successful for more than 100 years. However, tillage based fallow leads to increased soil erosion and adversely affects soil biological, chemical and physical properties and increased cost for inputs is making the system less economically viable. Pests, such as diseases, nematodes and weeds, continue to extract an economic, environmental, and social cost. By utilizing contemporary research tools in agronomy, soil science, plant nutrition and pest management this program will develop improved practices for dryland cropping systems that will enhance the potential use of alternative crops, reduce soil erosion, reduce the economic, social, and environmental costs of crop pests, and maintain or increase soil biological, chemical and physical properties. Our ultimate goal is to make significant contributions toward providing a stable, sustainable, and healthy supply of food, fuel, and fiber for the nation while strengthening the rural communities of Oregon and conserving the soil and water resources.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1021599106020%
1111599106020%
2051599106020%
2121599108020%
2131599114020%
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this program is utilize existing research and Extension tools and to develop and apply improved tools of agronomy, plant pathology, soil science, and weed science and biology to address the challenges facing dryland crop producers. The work will: (1) Identify sustainable dryland cropping systems and suitable alternative crops (Machado-Agronomy); (2) Improve wheat production efficiency by integrating genetic resistance and/or tolerance into existing cultural management strategies for crown rot diseases and plant-parasitic nematodes that limit wheat yields in Oregon (Smiley-Plant Pathology); (3) Improve effectiveness of weed management systems for dryland cereals while improving sustainability of direct-seed systems and minimizing development of herbicide resistant weed populations (Ball-Weed); (4) Develop improved soil and water management practices that protect the soil resource and maintain or increase crop yields. (Wysocki-Soil and Water Management); and (5) Develop improved nutrient management recommendations for existing soft white winter wheat and alternative cereal crops (Petrie-Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management).
Project Methods
We will utilize laboratory, greenhouse, and field research to identify and implement improved practices for soil and water management; biology and management and diseases, nematodes and weeds; plant nutrition, and potential alternate crops.

Progress 04/01/07 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research at the Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center (CBARC) investigate ways to increase nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, sequester more or emit less soil carbon, increase cropping intensity, increase fuel use efficiency in farming, and reduce nitrous oxide emissions; all possible strategies that have the potential to help mitigate climate change. Pest management research included improved integrated pest (disease, insects, and weeds) management and implications for invasive species. Faculty from CBARC are also active participants in an USDA/AFRI Coordinated Agriculture Project entitled Regional Approaches to Climate Change: Pacific Northwest Agriculture. The research-extension-education team from Idaho, Washington, and Oregon are working to improve the long-term profitability of the cereal production systems in the Pacific Northwest under ongoing and projected climate change, while contributing to climate change mitigation by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. They are experimenting with different farming systems to identify the ones that will maintain or increase crop productivity while storing the most carbon; using the least amount of water, nitrogen and energy; emitting the least amount of greenhouse gases; and that can best withstand the shifts in temperature and water supply that may come with climate change. They are conducting the studies on their universities' research fields and on private farms in the tri-state area; these were selected because each has its own climate and soil conditions. The oldest long term cropping experiments in the western US are located at Pendleton (intermediate rainfall of 10-12 in/year) and we use these to examine the conventional winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system as well as winter and spring wheat grown every year using both conventional and no-till practices and crop diversification of the rotations with camelina and canola. We compared conventional fertilizer, manure, and different residue management on soil C storage and soil quality. At our Moro location (low rainfall <9 in/year), we study diversification of conventional winter wheat summer fallow with high residue triticale, winter canola, safflower, along with reduced tillage. We also study flexible cropping systems in which planting decisions are based on soil moisture. The cross-cutting aspect of the project is designed to integrate information from cropping systems modeling and alternative production trials to generate on-farm Life Cycle Assessment for current and projected cropping systems within the study region. Petrie oversees efforts to communicate the research findings to stakeholders through meetings with growers, public talks at research sites, and web-based techniques, including social media. Stakeholder concerns and interests will also be conveyed to researchers. PARTICIPANTS: Oregon Wheat Commission; Oregon Wheat Growers League; USDA-ARS; University of Idaho, Washington State University; OSU Dept of Agricultural & Resource Economics: Susan Capalbo, John Antle, Penny Diebel; OSU Dept of General Agriculture and Education: Jonathan Velez. TARGET AUDIENCES: Dryland wheat growers; County Agricultural Extension agents; field representatives for input suppliers; NRCS field staff; field scientists. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Governmental policies, including incentives and regulations, can positively influence the likelihood that growers will have the knowledge, economic ability, and willingness to adopt the practices that increase our ability to use dryland cropping systems to mitigate climate change and, in turn, are more resilient to the changes that do occur. In turn policy analysis and impact assessment needs to be able to predict or assess the rate of adoption of new technologies and management practices, which are highly dependent on spatial characteristics, economic variables, and other changes in environmental and policy factors. As a result of this project, the people who produce our food will be better equipped to reduce their carbon footprint and to face the challenges associated with climate change. Agriculture is a sector important to Oregon's economy; Oregon farmers and ranchers grossed $4.3 billion in sales last year, according to a report by the OSU Extension Service. About $354 million of that was in wheat. In terms of tonnage, wheat is the No. 1 export through the Port of Portland, which officials say is the largest volume wheat-export harbor in the United States. Farmers won't be willing to change unless the economics are favorable and the benefits outweigh the costs, but short-term considerations shouldn't be the only focus. Collaborating OSU agricultural economists, Susan Capalbo and John Antle, will interview growers and ask them about their management strategies, costs, concerns and priorities. They'll compile their answers with the data on cropping methods and evaluate the likelihood of farmers adopting certain techniques under various climate and policy scenarios, including when incentives are offered. "Agriculture has traditionally been looked at in terms of maximizing net returns or minimizing costs," Capalbo said, "but we need to look at managing the ecosystem so it's resilient to change and sustainable in the long run."

Publications

  • Kruger, C., S.E. Petrie, G. Yorgey, S. Kantor, E. Allen, and T. Zimmermann. 2012. Blending traditional and contemporary agricultural extension methods to address broad-based stakeholder needs for agriculture and climate change in Pacific Northwest Cereal Cropping Systems. Agron. Abstr.
  • Rood, Jonquil, J. Campbell, D. Thill, D. Ball, L. Bennett, J. Yenish, J. Nelson, R. Rood, B. Shafii, and W. Price. 2012. Tillage Affects Imazamox Carryover in Yellow Mustard. Weed Technology. Vol 26(2): 308-315.
  • Machado, S., L. Pritchett, and S. Petrie. 2012. Winter Wheat. Chemical Fallow Can Replace Conventional Tillage Winter Wheat - Summer Fallow in North-Central Oregon. American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), and Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) Annual Meetings, Cincinnati, OH, October, 2012.
  • Machado, S., L. Pritchett, and S. Petrie. 2012. Developing Sustainable and Profitable Cropping Systems for North-Central Oregon. Western Society of Crop Science Annual Meeting. Pullman, WA. July 2012.
  • Johnson, R.C., S.E. Petrie, M.C. Francini, and M. Evans. 2012. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower. Crop Sci. Accepted for publication 4-23-12
  • Sanford D. Eigenbrode, John Abatzoglou, Ian Burke, John Antle, Erin Brooks, Susan Capalbo4 Paul Gessler, David Huggins, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Chad Kruger, Brian Lamb, Stephen Machado, Phil Mote, Kathleen Painter, William Pan, Steven Petrie, Timothy Paulitz, Claudio Stockle, Jonathan Velez, Von Walden, Jeffry Wulfhorst, and Kattlyn Wolf. 2012. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems. Agron. Abstr.
  • Kruger, C., S.E. Petrie, G. Yorgey, S. Kantor, E. Allen, and T. Zimmermann. 2012. Blending traditional and contemporary agricultural extension methods to address broad-based stakeholder needs for agriculture and climate change in Pacific Northwest Cereal Cropping Systems. Agron. Abstr.
  • Sanford D. Eigenbrode, John Abatzoglou, Ian Burke, John Antle, Erin Brooks, Susan Capalbo4 Paul Gessler, David Huggins, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Chad Kruger, Brian Lamb, Stephen Machado, Phil Mote, Kathleen Painter, William Pan, Steven Petrie, Timothy Paulitz, Claudio Stockle, Jonathan Velez, Von Walden, Jeffry Wulfhorst, and Kattlyn Wolf. 2012. Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Inland Pacific Northwest Cereal Production Systems. Agron. Abstr.
  • Smiley, R., T. Paulitz, and J. Marshall. 2012. Controlling root and crown diseases of small grain crops. PNW Extension Bulletin 639. 9 pages
  • Smiley, R.W. 2012. Profitability of fungicide, insecticide and nematicide seed treatments for spring wheat. Oregon Wheat 64(6):10-13.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Funding was secured from the Oregon Agricultural Research Foundation to conduct oilseed field research in partnership with the USDA-ARS at Pullman, WA. Trials were established in the 2007-08 through 2010-11 crop years at the Pendleton and Sherman Stations of CBARC in Oregon and at two locations in Washington using winter and spring-type safflower lines. Trials were sown in September, October, December, February, March and April using a small plot drill to assess winter hardiness and yield potential. Weeds were controlled using pre-plant herbicides and hand-weeding was conducted as needed while the crop was growing. Fertilizer was applied uniformly as needed, based on the results of soil test data. No insects or diseases were evident in the trial areas. We measured flowering date, plant height, and seed yield. The results of this research were communicated to growers and others at the Pendleton and Sherman Station field days in 2008, 2010, and 2011; the combined average attendance at the field days was more 275 people. The results of the research were also summarized in articles in the popular press as well as agriculturally-oriented newspapers. This work formed the basis of a poster paper at the annual meeting of the American Society of Agronomy and a technical paper has been submitted to Crop Science. PARTICIPANTS: Oregon Wheat Commission; Oregon Wheat Growers League; USDA-ARS TARGET AUDIENCES: Dryland wheat growers; County Agricultural Extension Agents; Field representatives for input suppliers; NRCS field staff; Other scientists PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Based on the results of this research, winter safflower is a potential alternative crop for the dryland regions of north central and northeastern Oregon. All safflower lines germinated and emerged well at all sowing dates. Fall-sown, winter hardy lines survived all years, except 2009-10 when air temperatures of -5 to -10 degrees F in mid-December in the absence of adequate snow cover killed all the plants that were sown in the fall at both Oregon sites. For comparison, some winter wheat varieties exhibited winter injury and much of the winter barley was killed by the cold temperatures. Spring-type lines failed to survive any crop year. Safflower sown in the fall flowered an average of 16 days earlier than when sown in the spring. Yields of winter lines sown in the fall approached 2,000 lbs of seed per acre under optimum conditions at the Pendleton Station and 1,500 lbs of seed per acre at the Sherman Station and averaged 66% greater than when sown in the spring. Winter hardy safflower lines averaged greater seed yield than spring safflower lines. Yields were positively correlated with crop year precipitation and stored soil moisture.

Publications

  • Johnson, R.C, S. Petrie, M. Fancini, and M. Evans. 2012 Yield and Yield Components of Winter-Type Safflower. Crop Science (submitted and in review).
  • Riar, D.S., D. Ball, J. Yenish, I. Burke. 2011. Light-activated, sensor-controlled sprayer provides effective postemergence control of broadleaf weeds in fallow. Weed Technology. 25:447-453.
  • Rood, J., J. Campbell, D. Thill, D. Ball, L. Bennett, J. Yenish, J. Nelson, R. Rood, B. Shafii, and W. Price. 2011. Tillage affects imazamox carryover in Yellow Mustard. Weed Technology. (in press).
  • Smiley, R.W., G.P. Yan, and J.N. Pinkerton. 2011. Resistance of wheat, barley and oat to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest USA. Nematology 13:539-552.
  • Smiley, R.W., J.M. Marshall, and G.P. Yan. 2011. Effect of foliarly-applied spirotetramat on reproduction of Heterodera avenae on wheat roots. Plant Disease 95:983-989.
  • Machado, S. 2011. Soil organic carbon dynamics in the Pendleton long-term experiments: Implications for biofuel production in the Pacific Northwest. Agron. J. 103:253-260.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Dryland wheat trials were established after summer fallow in the 2008-09 and 2009-10 crop years at the Pendleton and Sherman Stations. A base nitrogen (N) rate sufficient to supply adequate N for a dry year was applied to all treatments and then supplemental N was applied at two dates in the spring, late March (two to four tillers) and mid April (when plants were jointing). N sources included solution 32 applied as a broadcast spray, dribbled on the surface, or injected with a spike wheel, and urea broadcast on the soil surface. At Pendleton, applying 90 lbs of N per acre as anhydrous ammonia prior to planting, the standard practice, resulted in grain yield of 82.5 bushels per acre. There was little response to N applied in April. The spring broadcast N application techniques, as either a broadcast spray of solution 32 or as dry urea, resulted in comparable yields and slightly greater test weights than the standard N treatment. The average yield from the dribble band and spoke wheel injection treatments was somewhat less than the yield from the other application techniques. The reason for the slightly lower yield is not clear; it is possible that the N applied using these techniques did not move laterally enough to supply N to all the plants. However, the yields from the spoke wheel injector application were similar to the two broadcast treatments at the later application date and the dribble band application resulted in the lowest yield. The N rates at each site year varied due to differences in yield potential and soil test N. At the Sherman Station, the split N applications increased wheat yields at Moro compared to applying all the N prior to planting in the fall. For example, applying a total of 90 lbs of N per acre using a split N application in March increased yield compared to applying the entire 90 lbs of N per acre prior to planting, regardless of the N source used or the application technique. There was less response to N from the April application. Extremely dry conditions in September and October of 2008 resulted in uneven emergence at both sites that affected the yield and N response. Increasing N application rates increased leaf N concentration at both sites, and increased yields slightly at Moro but not at Pendleton where there was little response to N because of the dry conditions. Increasing leaf N was correlated with increased grain yield and grain protein. Soil samples were collected in one foot increments to four feet after harvest at both locations. Soil N levels were low after all treatments but did increase slightly at higher N application rates. Timely fall precipitation in 2009 resulted in good stands and data from the 2009-10 crop are still being analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Oregon Wheat Commission, Oregon Wheat Growers League, USDA-ARS TARGET AUDIENCES: Dryland wheat growers, County Agricultural Extension Agents, Field representatives for input suppliers, NRCS field staff, Other scientists PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The greatest economic return was obtained from the standard practice. There were no consistent differences in yield or economic return for the different application techniques. Using split N applications also increased the economic return compared to the standard practice. At both sites, the average yields were reduced at the highest N application rate, which resulted in marked reductions in the economic return. Leaf samples were collected to determine if information from plant analysis could be used to guide N fertilizer management. Leaf N concentration at both tillering and jointing was increased as the rate of spring N increased. Leaf N concentration at jointing was a good predictor of both grain yield and grain protein. Grower knowledge regarding improved N management strategies has been increased. The preliminary results from this research have been conveyed to growers at the Pendleton Station Field Day in 2010 (200 attendees), through an article in Oregon Wheat magazine which is distributed to all Oregon wheat growers, and in county agent newsletters. Greater than normal fall and early winter precipitation in the 2010-11 crop year, coupled with normal fallow year moisture, has increased the wheat yield potential, sparking renewed interest in spring topdressing. The preliminary information from this research allowed us to make accurate recommendations for topdressing N.

Publications

  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Physiologic leaf spots. p. 153. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Albinism. pp. 139-140. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Smiley, R.W., J.A. Gourlie, K.E.L. Rhinhart, and H. Yan. 2010. Evaluation of seed treatments to control lesion nematodes in spring wheat, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports 4:CF001.
  • Solomon, D, J. Lehmann, K. K. de Zarruk, J. Dathe, J. Kinyangi, B. Liang, and S. Machado. 2010. Speciation and Long- and Short-term Molecular-level Dynamics of Soil Organic Sulfur. Studied by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy. J. Environ. Qual. 40: doi:10.2134/jeq2010.0061
  • Filichkin, T.P., M.A. Vinje, A.D. Budde, A.E. Corey, S.H. Duke, L. Gallagher, J. Helgesson, C.A. Henson, D.E. Obert, J.B. Ohm, S.E. Petrie, A.S. Ross, and P.M. Hayes. 2010. Phenotypic variation for diastatic power, B-amylase activity, and B-amylase Thermostability vs. allelic variation at the Bmy1 locus in a sample of North American barley germplasm. Crop Sci. 50:826-834.
  • Lutcher, L. K., W. F. Schillinger, S. B. Wuest, N. W. Christensen, and D. J. Wysocki. 2010. Phosphorus Fertilization of Late-Planted Winter Wheat into No-Till Fallow. Agronomy Journal 102:868-874
  • Young, F. L., D. A. Ball, D. C. Thill, J. R. Alldredge, A. G. Ogg Jr., and S. S. Seefeldt. 2010. Integrated Weed Management Systems Identified for Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Technology. Vol. 24(4): 430-439.
  • Riar, D. S., D. A. Ball, J. P. Yenish, S. B. Wuest, and M. K. Corp. 2010. Comparison of Fallow Tillage Methods in the Intermediate Rainfall Inland Pacific Northwest. Agronomy Journal, Vol. 102(6): 1664-1673.
  • Tarasoff, C. S., D. A. Ball, C. Mallory-Smith, T. G. Pypker, and K. M. Irvine. 2010. Site characteristics associated with Nuttall's and Weeping alkaligrass in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Science, Vol. 84 (4): 351-360.
  • Bennett, L. H. D. A. Ball, and D. S. Riar and J. P. Yenish. 2010. Efficacy of postemergence herbicides with a light activated, sensor controlled sprayer in chemical fallow. Proceedings 2010 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 16.
  • Rauch, T., D. Thill, I. Burke, D. Pittman, J. Yenish, R. Rood, D. Ball, L. Bennett. 2010. Winter wheat varieties response to mesosulfuron applied under adverse environmental conditions. Proceedings 2010 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 23.
  • Yan, G.P., and R.W. Smiley. 2010. Distinguishing Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cyst morphology. Phytopathology 100:216-224.
  • Bockus, W.W., R.L. Bowden, R.M. Hunger, W.L. Morrill, T.D. Murray, and R.W. Smiley (eds.). 2010. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd. ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 171 p.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Disease caused by nematodes: Introduction. pp. 87-88. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Stunt nematode. pp. 96-97. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Root-gall nematode. pp. 90-91. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2010. Chloride and zinc deficient leaf spots. pp. 143-144. in Bockus, W.W. et al., Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects, 3rd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: conference presentations; publications: peer reviewed, book chapters, conference papers, technical papers, popular press, online sites; workshops; patents; science panels; training PARTICIPANTS: Don Wysocki, Larry Pritchett, Erling Jacobsen, Sandy Macnab, Brian Tuck, Jan Stevens, Ralph Reed, Susan Alber - Oregon State University; Hero Gollany, John Williams, Stewart Wuest - USDA-ARS; Ernie Moore, Tom McCoy - Oregon Wheat Growers League; Chris Kaseberg - Sherman County Wheat League; Walter Powell, John Hilderbrand, David Brewer - producers TARGET AUDIENCES: growers and other land managers; professional peers and scientific communities; state commodity commissions and grower groups; natural resource industry clientele; state and federal agencies PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Herbicide development: New herbicides for use in wheat have been marketed to growers in the Pacific Northwest. The PI evaluated several herbicides, including pyroxsulam and flucarbazone, for effectiveness and environmental suitability. The herbicides were tested under eastern Oregon dryland wheat cropping environments. Appropriate uses for pyroxsulam are being adopted by PNW wheat producers. The ineffectiveness of flucarbazone for control of downy brome, a major weed of wheat, has been communicated to stakeholders. Cropping systems: Producers are interested in direct seed (one pass, no-till) cropping systems that are profitable and sustainable. Results to date indicate that there are no significant differences in yield between the traditional summer fallow conventional tillage (CT) and direct seeded (DS) winter wheat/chemical fallow cropping systems indicating that DS systems can replace the traditional CT that are predominant in the Pacific Northwest. The winter wheat-spring barley-chemical fallow DS consistently produced the highest yields and was economically competitive with other systems. DS systems retain surface residues, reduce soil erosion, increase soil organic matter and are therefore environmentally sustainable. This system is recommended for regions similar to Sherman County, Oregon. New winter wheat varieties: Wheat growers in the dryland cropping region of eastern Oregon are seeking potential alternate crops. Winter and spring wheat that possess the "waxy" characteristic is a potential alternate crop that can be readily adopted in this area. The results of field trials have shown that the wheat lines with the waxy characteristic are well adapted to the dryland growing conditions in the low and intermediate rainfall regions. Yields and agronomic quality of conventional soft wheat and waxy wheat lines were similar. The yield, grain protein, and other agronomic quality factors of conventional and waxy wheat lines responded similarly to nutrient inputs so growers will be able to use fertilizer recommendations developed for conventional wheat when developing and implementing nutrient management plans for waxy wheat lines. Organic wheat production: The expansion of organic wheat production in the PNW has been limited by the cost of mechanical weed control methods. The development of natural herbicides can pave the way for the expansion of organic wheat production. The efficacy of meadowfoam seed meal (MSM) on the control of downy brome, the prominent grassy weed in wheat cropping systems, was investigated by fermenting the seed meal and studying its composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome seed germination. Results show that incubation of the MSM with enzyme-active seeds resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 29% yield. The formation of the isothiocyanate correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal. The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolates-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides in organic farming and horticulture.

Publications

  • Tarasoff, C.S., C. Mallory-Smith, and D.A. Ball. 2009. Competitive Effects of Nuttall's and Weeping Alkaligrass in Kentucky bluegrass. Northwest Science, Vol. 83 (4): 325-333.
  • Machado, S. 2009. Does intercropping have a role in modern agriculture Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 64(2):55A-57A; doi:10.2489/jswc.64.2.55A
  • Smiley, R.W., and S. Machado. 2009. Pratylenchus neglectus reduces yield of winter wheat in dryland cropping systems. Plant Dis. 93:263-271.
  • Smiley, R.W. 2009. Water and temperature parameters associated with winter wheat diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. Plant Disease 93:73-79.
  • Smiley, R.W., and H. Yan. 2009. Variability of Fusarium crown rot tolerances among cultivars and lines of spring and winter wheat. Plant Disease 93:954-961.
  • Smiley, R.W., and S. Machado. 2009. Pratylenchus neglectus reduces yield of winter wheat in dryland cropping systems. Plant Disease 93:263-271.
  • Weeds of the West, Revised 10th edition. 2009. Western Soc. of Weed Sci. Contributing author with a team of western regional members that reviewed and updated this weed identification guide.
  • Ball, D.A., and A.G. Ogg. 2009. Prediction and prevention of seed production in jointed goatgrass. In: Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 34.
  • Rauch, T., D. Thill, I. Burke, D. Pittman, J. Yenish, R. Rood, D. Ball, and L. Bennett. 2009. Response of winter wheat varieties to mesosulfuron applied under adverse environmental conditions. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 15.
  • Rauch, T.A., D.C. Thill, I. Burke, J. Yenish, D. Pittman, R. Rood, D.A. Ball, and L. Bennett. 2009. Tolerance of winter wheat varieties to mesosulfuron applied under adverse environmental conditions. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rpt. p. 144.
  • Rauch, T.A., D.C. Thill, I. Burke, J. Yenish, D. Pittman, R. Rood, D.A. Ball, and L. Bennett. 2009. Tolerance of winter wheat varieties to imazethapyr and mesosulfuron. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rpt. p. 142.
  • Rood, J.R., T.A. Rauch, D.C. Thill, B. Shafii, R.J. Rood, J.P. Yenish, D.A. Ball, L. Bennett. 2009. Tillage affects imazamox persistence in yellow mustard. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rpt. p. 105.
  • Young, F.L., J.P. Yenish, L.S. Sullivan, D.A. Ball, D. C. Thill, and R.S. Zemetra. 2009. Pacific Northwest USDA-ARS research and Extension activities. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 36.
  • Young, F.L., J.P. Yenish, D.A. Ball, and D.C. Thill. 2009. Integrated management of jointed goatgrass in the Pacific Northwest. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 79.
  • Smiley, R.W., D. Backhouse, P. Lucas, and T. Paulitz. 2009. Diseases which challenge global wheat production - root, crown, and culm rots. p. 125-153 in Wheat: Science and Trade, B.F. Carver, ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  • Smiley, R.W., and J.M. Nicol. 2009. Nematodes which challenge global wheat production. p. 171-187 in Wheat: Science and Trade, B.F. Carver, ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  • Ball, D.A. 2009. WSWS Presidential Address for 62nd Annual Meeting. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 1.
  • Ball, D.A., J.O. Evans, and G.A. Wicks. 2009. Influence of fallow tillage on jointed goatgrass emergence and competition in winter wheat. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 31.
  • Ball, D.A., and A.G. Ogg. 2009. Prediction and prevention of seed production in jointed goatgrass. Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 34.
  • Ball, D.A., J.O. Evans, and G.A. Wicks. 2009. Influence of fallow tillage on jointed goatgrass emergence and competition in winter wheat. In: Proceedings 2009 Western Soc. Weed Sci. pg. 31.
  • Machado, S., L. Pritchett, R. Smiley, D. Ball, and S. Petrie. 2009. Developing Profitable and Sustainable Cropping Systems for North-Central region and South-Central Washington. Poster presented at the Direct Seed Conference, Kennewick, WA, January, 2009.
  • Petrie, S.E., P.M. Hayes, Yada Chutimanitsakun, Caryn Ong, Andrew Ross, Karl Rhinhart, and Erling Jacobsen. 2009. Yield and quality of dryland food barley under conventional and direct-seeding. 12th Annual Direct Seed Cropping Systems Conference. Kennewick, WA.
  • Petrie, S.E. and P.M. Hayes. 2009. Identifying spring habit specialty barley varieties for direct-seeding and development of winter habit forms. 12th Annual Direct Seed Cropping Systems Conference. Kennewick, WA.
  • Poole, G., T. Paulitz, J.M. Nicol, G. Erginbas, F. Ozdemir, K. Campbell, and R. Smiley. 2009. Evaluation of inoculation methods to assay wheat for resistance to Fusarium crown rot. Phytopathology 99:S103 (abstract).
  • Smiley, R.W., and H. Yan. 2009. Fusarium crown rot tolerance reactions among spring and winter wheat genotypes. Phytopathology 99:S121 (abstract).
  • Smiley, R.W., and H. Yan. 2009. Root-lesion nematode tolerance reactions among wheat and barley genotypes. Phytopathology 99:S121 (abstract).
  • Yan, G.P., and R.W. Smiley. 2009. Molecular identification of species of cyst nematodes from wheat and barley fields in PNW. Phytopathology 99:S146 (abstract).


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Educational programs in soil and water management and conservation farming for Oregon and southwest Washington were conducted. This program provides education and information transfer for producers to understand and implement the conservation requirements of the Farm Bill, administered regionally through the tri state STEEP Extension program. Information was disseminated through publications, meetings, field days and workshops. PARTICIPANTS: NRCS, County Extension Agent, Oregon DEQ, Oregon ODA, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Wheat Growers League, Oregon Wheat Commission, Oregon Grains Commission TARGET AUDIENCES: scientific community, state commodity commissions, grower groups, natural resource industry personnel, state and federal agencies PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Dryland wheat growers became more sustainable and more economically stable. Practices have reduced environmental impacts and improved soil health. Improved soil and water management practices reduce adverse off site environmental impacts and improve soil health. Findings from this project will assist growers in making better decisions on adopting conservation farming systems. This will minimize off site environmental impacts and maximize profits for growers.

Publications

  • Machado, S. S.E. Petrie, K.E. Rhinhart, and R.E. Ramig. 2008. Tillage effects on water use and grain yield of winter wheat and green pea in rotation. Agron. J. 100:154-162
  • Rey, J.I., P.M. Hayes, S.E. Petrie, A. Corey, M. Flowers, J.B. Ohm, C. Ong, K. Rhinhart, and A.S. Ross. 2008. Production of dryland barley for human food: quality and agronomic performance. Crop Sci. In press.
  • Smiley, R.W., G.P. Yan, and Z.A. Handoo. 2008. First record of the cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi on wheat in Oregon. Plant Dis. 92:1136.
  • Yan, G.P., R.W. Smiley, P.A. Okubara, A. Skantar, S.A. Easley, J.G. Sheedy, and A.L. Thompson. 2008. Detection and discrimination of Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei in DNA extracts from soil. Plant Dis. 92:1480-1487.
  • Smiley, R.W., J.G. Sheedy, and S.A. Easley. 2008. Vertical distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in silt loam soil of Pacific Northwest dryland crops. Plant Dis. 92:1662-1668.
  • Castro, A., S.E. Petrie, A. Budde, A. Corey, P. Hayes, J. Kling, and K. Rhinhart. 2008. Variety and N management on grain yield and quality of winter barley. Crop Management. In press.
  • Jemmett, E. D., D. C. Thill, T. A. Rauch, D. A. Ball, S. M. Frost, L. H. Bennett, J. P. Yenish, and R. J. Rood. 2008. Rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros) control in chemical-fallow cropping systems. Weed Technology 22:435-441.
  • Ball, D. A., S. M. Frost, L. Fandrich, C. Tarasoff, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2008. Biological attributes of rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros). Weed Science 56:26-31.
  • Machado, S., S. Petrie, K. Rhinhart, and R. E. Ramig. 2008. Tillage effects on water use and grain yield of winter wheat and green pea in rotation. Agronomy Journal 100:154-162.
  • Inostroza, L., A. del Pozo, I. Matus, D. Castillo, P. Hayes, S. Machado and A. Corey. 2008. Association mapping of plant height, yield, and yield stability in recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background. Molecular Breeding. In press
  • Solomon, D., J. Lehmann, J. Kinyangi, A. Pell, J. Theis, S. Riha, S. Ngoze, W. Amelung, C. Do Preez, S. Machado, B. Ellert, and H. Janzen. 2008. Anthropogenic and climate influences on biochemical dynamics and molecular-level speciation of sulfur in temperate, subtropical and subhumid tropical ecosystems. - Ecological Applications. In press
  • Smiley, R.W., and S. Machado. 2008. Pratylenchus neglectus reduces winter wheat yield and water extraction in dryland cropping systems.-accepted for publication in Plant Pathology.
  • Machado S. 2008. Does Intercropping Have a Role in Modern Agriculture Invited paper, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation-submitted
  • Stevens, J.F., R. L. Reed, S. Alber, L. Pritchett, S. Machado. 2008. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry-submitted


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The ultimate goal is to make significant contributions toward providing a stable, sustainable, and healthy supply of food, fuel, and fiber for the nation while strengthening the rural communities of Oregon and conserving the soil and water resources. Weed management subprogram seeks to replace the more erosive dust-mulch fallow with chemical fallow systems. Treatment comparisons in year one showed greater tumble pigweed density and biomass in non-rodweeded treatments compared in test area 1 to rodweeded treatments at test area 2, but no difference in density and biomass of Russian thistle or grasses. Work on soil bioassays has begun but no results are available. Results in the agronomy subprogram have demonstrated differences between direct seeding and conventional fallow; identified a number of safflower cultivars that are suitable to eastern Oregon growing conditions; and developed a combination of management techniques that was able to keep weeds under control. Plant pathology results contributed to significant new understanding to the biology and control of root-lesion nematode (RLN), cereal cyst nematode (CCN), and Fusarium crown rot (FCR). Canola research in the soil and water management subprogram has enabled growers to direct seed into chemical fallow and produced acceptable stands and consistent yields. Information from this subprogram is helping growers refine fertility rates and apply the appropriate amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Results have been published in peer-review journals, extension bulletins, and referenced book, and presented at national conferences and field days. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Wheat growers, Pacific Northwest growers, agribusiness advisory personnel, agricultural bankers, extension service agents and specialists, other scientists, and citizens of the community, dryland farmers PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Weed management subprogram investigated the potential for sweep tillage with chemical fallow. Four systems were evaluated for their impact on seed-zone soil moisture, surface residue and roughness, weed population dynamics and response of the winter wheat crop following these fallow treatments. The agronomy subprogram has three main research focus areas: cropping systems, alternative crops and organic farming. Investigators conducted field experiments to evaluate direct seeding cropping systems, rotational benefits of alternative crops such as safflower, chickpea, winter peas and mustard, and weed control methods in wheat-based organic farming systems. Plant pathology subprogram coordinated the completion of a number of experiments at field sites. The focus of these experiments was to develop new knowledge regarding the tolerance of domestic wheat and barley cultivars and advanced breeding lines to infections by soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi that cause crown rot and to parasitism by root-lesion nematodes. Soil and water management subprogram investigators conducted cropping systems research on variety development of winter and spring Brassica crops of canola, camelina, and yellow and brown mustard.

Publications

  • Smiley, R.W. 2007. Plant parasitic nematodes in field crops. p. 1-14 in Proc. 10th Annual Direct-Seed Conf., Kennewick, WA.
  • Smiley, R., J. Sheedy, J. Pinkerton, S. Easley, A. Thompson, and G. Yan. 2007. Cereal cyst nematode: distribution, yield reduction, and crop management strategies. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Spec. Rep. 1074:15-29.
  • Sheedy, J.G., R.W. Smiley, S.A. Easley, and A.L. Thompson. 2007. Resistance reaction of Pacific Northwest spring wheat and barley cultivars to root-lesion nematode; Pratylenchus neglectus. Plant Disease Management Reports 1:CF022.
  • Horneck, D. A, Wysocki D. J., B. Hopkins, J. Hart, and R. Stevens. 2007. Acidifying Soil For Crop Production East Of The Cascades PNW 599-E.
  • Wysocki, D. J. M. K. Corp, DA Horneck, and L. Luther. 2007. Irrigated and Dryland Canola Fertilizer Guide, EM 8943-E.
  • L.K. Lutcher, D.A. Horneck, D.J. Wysocki, J.M. Hart, S.E. Petrie, and N.W. Christensen. 2007. Winter Wheat in Summer-Fallow Systems-Low Precipitation Zone, Fertilizer Guide, FG80-E. Revised.
  • Wysocki, L.K. Lutcher, D.A. Horneck, J.M. Hart, S.E. Petrie. 2007. Winter Wheat and Spring Grains in Continuous Cropping Systems-Low Precipitation Zone, Fertilizer Guide FG81-E.
  • L.K. Lutcher, D.A. Horneck, D.J. Wysocki, J.M. Hart, S.E. Petrie, and N.W. Christensen. 2007. Winter Wheat in Summer-Fallow Systems-Intermediate Precipitation Zone, Fertilizer Guide FG80-E.
  • D.J. Wysocki, L.K. Lutcher, D.A. Horneck, J.M. Hart, S.E. Petrie and M.K. Corp. 2007. Winter Wheat in Continuous Cropping Systems-Intermediate Precipitation Zone, Fertilizer Guide FG83-E. Revised.
  • S.E. Petrie, D.J. Wysocki, D.A. Horneck, L.K. Lutcher J.M. Hart, and M.K. Corp. 2007. Winter Wheat in Continuous Cropping Systems- High Precipitation Zone, Fertilizer Guide FG84-E. Revised.
  • Davis, J. B., J. Brown, D. Wysocki. 2007. Pacific Northwest Winter Canola Variety Trial Results PSES Dept., University of Idaho.
  • Davis, J. B., J. Brown, D. Wysocki. 2007. Pacific Northwest Mustard Variety Trial Results. PSES Dept., University of Idaho.
  • Davis, J. B., J. Brown, and D. Wysocki. 2007. Pacific Northwest Spring Canola Variety Trial Results. PSES Dept., University of Idaho.
  • Ball, D. A. and C. J. Peterson. 2007. Herbicide Tolerance in Imidazolinone-Resistant Wheat for Weed Management in the Pacific Northwest U.S.A. pg. 243-250 in: H. T. Buck et al. (eds.). Wheat Production in Stressed Environments, Springer.
  • Ball, D. A., S. M. Frost, L. H. Bennett, D. C. Thill, T. Rauch, E. Jemmett, C. Mallory-Smith, C. Cole, J. P. Yenish, and R. Rood. 2007. Control of rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros) in winter wheat. Weed Technology 21(3):583-590.
  • Ball, D. A., S. M. Frost, and L. H. Bennett. 2007. ACCase-inhibitor herbicide resistance in downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Oregon. Weed Science 55:91-94.
  • Tarasoff C. S., D. A. Ball, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2007. Extreme ionic and temperature effects on germination of weeping alkaligrass, Nuttalls alkaligrass and Kentucky bluegrass. Weed Science 55:305-310.
  • Tarasoff, C. S., D. A. Ball, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2007. Comparative plant responses of Puccinellia nuttalliana and Puccinellia distans to sodic versus normal soil types. Journal of Arid Environments 70:403-417.
  • Tarasoff, C. S, D. A. Ball, and C. A. Mallory-Smith. 2007. Afterripening requirements and optimal germination temperatures for Nuttalls alkaligrass and weeping alkaligrass. Weed Science 55:36-40.
  • Machado, S., L. Pritchett, E. Jacobsen, R. Smiley, D. Ball, S. Petrie, D. Wysocki, S. Wuest, H. Gollany, and W. Jepsen. 2007. Long-term experiments at CBARC-Moro and Center of Sustainability, Heppner, OR 2005-2007. In: 2007 Dryland Agricultural Research Annual Report. OSU Ag. Exp. Stn. Spec. Rpt. 1074. Pg 82-91.
  • Bennett, L. H., S. M Frost, and D. A. Ball. 2007. Weed control with metam-sodium during establishment of Kentucky bluegrass. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rpt. p. 89.
  • Rood, J. R., D. C. Thill, R. J. Rood, J. P. Yenish, D. A. Ball, S. M. Frost. 2007. Tillage affects imazamox persistence in soil. West. Soc. Weed Sci. Res. Prog. Rpt. p. 141.
  • Machado, S., S. Petrie, K. Rhinhart, and A. Qu. 2007. Long-Term Continuous Annual Cropping in the Pacific Northwest (PNW): Tillage and Fertilizer Effects on Grain Yield and Profitability of Winter Wheat, and Spring Barley. Soil and Tillage Research 94: 473-481.
  • Machado, S. 2007. Allelopathy of Various Plant Species on Downy Brome. Agronomy Journal 99: 127-132.