Source: KENTUCKY STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CONSERVATION BIOLOGICAL CONTROL FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF SWEET CORN AND BLACKBERRY PEST INSECTS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0223755
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
KYX-10-10-45P
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2010
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2015
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Sedlacek, J.
Recipient Organization
KENTUCKY STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
FRANKFORT,KY 40601
Performing Department
Agriculture & Environmental Science
Non Technical Summary
Insect pests of the ear and fruit are a major concern for sweet corn and blackberry growers, respectively. Producers and vegetable/fruit processors have very low tolerance for presence of insects or damage to meet consumer demand for damage and insect-free food. Sweet corn and blackberries, especially the fresh market products, are sprayed intensely with insecticides to minimize the presence of insects and to ensure that little insect damage occurs to the ears or fruit. Sustainable farming practices offer ways to potentially lower input costs, decrease reliance on nonrenewable resources, and obtain premium prices for agricultural commodities compared to those conventionally produced. However, a major constraint to adoption of sustainable insect management and control practices is the lack of research-based information concerning more ecologically based methods. Conservation Biological Control (CBC) seeks to preserve and increase abundance and activity of beneficial insect populations in a crop setting. The overall goal of this research is to develop CBC pest management options and strategies for sweet corn and blackberries. One of our experiments focuses on the impact native perennial flowering habitat has on beneficial insect diversity and abundance, pest abundance and damage in sweet corn. These studies will quantify populations of pest and beneficial insects in conventionally grown sweet corn and assess ear damage. In a different experiment, we will determine the effects of a beneficial insect attractant on populations of beneficial insects, pest insects and damage in blackberries. In addition, several botanical extracts will be examined for toxic effects on two common and severe sweet corn caterpillar pests and several weed species will be examined for potential attractancy/repellency to lady beetles. Results of this research will have a positive impact on Kentucky's organic and conventional sweet corn growers. Investigating methods of manipulating crop habitats will help growers improve biological control of pest insects in annual row and perennial bramble crops. As a result, all growers will have more sustainable methods to manage insect pests. Improvement in efficacy of natural controls could also lead to reductions in synthetic pesticide applications which would decrease costs for pest control, improve environmental health and ultimately be more profitable for all growers.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2111129113050%
2151480113050%
Goals / Objectives
Objectives: 1. Determine if habitat management/native perennial plantings in a farmscaping approach to enhance beneficial insect diversity and abundance reduces pest abundance and damage in sweet corn; 2. Determine if PredaLure beneficial insect attractant increases beneficial insect populations and reduces pest insect abundance and damage in blackberries in grower cooperator and KSU plots; 3. Determine if natural botanical extracts can be used in sweet corn insect pest management protection strategies; and 4. Determine if common weed species are attractive/repellent to pink lady beetle and Asian lady beetle species found in organically grown sweet corn. Activities: Experiments will be conducted by research personnel and undergraduate student researchers will be mentored. Progress on the project objectives will be examined in biweekly meetings of research personnel and students, as well as through emails and telephone calls to cooperators. Research progress will be reported in quarterly reports to Land Grant Program administrators. Adopting research practices will be monitored during and after the study with new grower participants and consumer awareness of sweet corn and blackberry pest management practices. This will be measured through the number of sellers of these crops at local farmers markets at the start and end of the study period, the number of participants at presentations, grower field days, number of extension bulletins distributed, number of visitors to relevant webpages on the project, and number of email and telephone contacts concerning sweet corn and blackberries. Events supported by this project include demonstration sites, field days, workshops, and training for sweet corn and bramble crops. Products will include printed, audio, video, and web site oriented materials for growers, new information, skills, and insect pest management techniques for individuals interested in growing sweet corn and blackberries organically and conventionally, and students trained in the agricultural sciences. Pest management recommendations generated by this study will be distributed via the internet, field days, and scientific and lay publications.
Project Methods
Procedure 1: To determine if habitat management/native perennial plantings in a farmscaping approach to enhance beneficial insect diversity and abundance reduces pest abundance and damage in sweet corn. These studies will: a) quantify populations of beneficial insects (i.e., lady beetles, lacewings, anthocorids, lygaeids, and carabids) in mid-late planted conventionally grown sweet corn with and without companion native perennial plantings and b) assess control of major ear insect pest species and measure ear damage. Procedure 2: To determine if PredaLure beneficial insect attractant increases beneficial insect populations and reduces pest insect abundance and damage in blackberries in grower cooperator and KSU plots. These studies will: a) quantify predator and parasitoid insects (i.e., lady beetles, lacewings, anthocorids, lygaeids, Trichogramma spp. and Trissolcus spp.) and pest insects in plots where PredaLure lures are deployed and b) assess berry damage in all plots. Procedure 3: To determine if natural botanical extracts can be used in sweet corn insect pest management protection strategies. These studies will: a) examine the effectiveness of ripe pawpaw fruit extracts for the protection of corn silks and ears from corn earworm and European corn borer neonate larval damage and b) determine the effectiveness of other natural compounds (i.e., red cedar, button bush, and Forsythia extracts) in preventing silk and ear damage from corn earworm and European corn borer neonate larvae. Procedure 4: To determine if common weed species are attractive/repellent to pink lady beetle and Asian lady beetle species found in organically grown sweet corn. These studies will a) quantify attractancy/repellency of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) in laboratory olfactometer studies and b) quantify attractancy/repellency of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in laboratory olfactometer studies. The project progress will be examined in biweekly meetings of research personnel and students, communication with cooperators, and quarterly reports to university administrators. The number of sellers of these crops at local farmers markets will be evaluated at the start and end of the study period, the number of participants at presentations, and grower field days will be examined. The number of extension bulletins distributed, number of web site visitors, and number of email and telephone contacts concerning sweet corn and blackberry pest management practices will be quantified.

Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining Conservation Biological Control methods in insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Events held included the KSU Farm Field Days, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about Conservation Biological Control methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website at: http://organic.edu/index.shtml was updated along with social media outlets like Facebook. Students in AFE 116 (Introduction of Agriculture, Food and Environment), AFE 117 (Global Perspectives in Agriculture, Food, and Environment), AFE 217 (Plant Science), and AFE 318 (Environmental Entomology) were taught principles of Conservation Biological Control. Two graduate students are completing ENV 600 and ENV 601 projects on Conservation Biological Control of insect pests in sweet corn. One graduate student completed Research and Thesis credit courses (ENV 600 and ENV 601) concerning blackberries. Guided scientific writing concerning conservation biological control research was conducted in ENV 503 Student Team Project. Changes/Problems:Atwood Research Facility, including all laboratories, were closed for renovation two years ago which prevented more extensive research concerning natural product toxicity to pest insects and weed attraction to beneficial insects. Four different research groups are sharing a small laboratory which limits the type of studies which can be undertaken. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Opportunities for training occurred by making Poster or Oral presentations concerning Conservation Biological Control (CBC) in vegetable and fruit crop insect pests at four Annual Entomological Society of America Meetings, two International Integrated Pest Management Conferences, two 1890 Association of Research Directors Biennial Research Symposium, six Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meetings, and one Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. CBC was taught to students in AFE 116 Introduction to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, AFE 117 Global Perspectives in Agriculture, Food, and Environment, AFE 217 Plant Science, and AFE 318 Environmental Entomology. Graduate students were mentored in CBC and insect identification and ecology research in ENV 600 Research, ENV 601Thesis, and ENV 699 Capstone Research. Small, limited resource, and minority farmers were instructed in CBC at the KSU Third Thursday Thing where gray headed coneflower and slender mountain mint native perennial plants were distributed to farmers to plant near vegetable or fruit crops on their farms in order to increase beneficial insect diversity and activity. Training seminars were given at the Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings and the Kentucky Horticulture Society Meetings. Three high school students were taught the scientific method, CBC principles, and insect identification during the KSU summer Research and Extension Apprenticeship Program and the Summer Apprenticeship Program. The Annual Entomological Society of America Meetings, International Integrated Pest Management Conferences, 1890 Association of Research Directors Biennial Research Symposium, Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meetings were used for professional development. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results of this research were disseminated to scientists and students at various local, state, national, and international professional meetings. They were also presented to growers and extension personnel at the KSU Third Thursday Thing, the Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings, the Kentucky Horticulture Society Meetings, and the Kentucky GIS meeting hosted at KSU. KSU also hosted the Southern Region IPM Working Group Conference where this research was presented and discussed. The research was presented at the Tenth Anniversary Celebration of Dropseed Native Plant Nursery in Oldham County, KY. Undergraduate students presented results of CBC research projects at the annual Kentucky Posters at the Capitol Research Symposium held in the Capital Building where the students discussed their research with state legislators and the annual Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. Finally, the PI presented results of this research to the KSU campus community at the Provost's Seminar Series. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Native perennial plants selected for use in the border row sweet corn study were big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats grama, purple coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, switchgrass, foxglove beardtongue, hairy beardtongue, slender mountain mint, gray-headed coneflower, and little bluestem. Pasture borders were a mixture of grasses and broad leaf weeds predominantly composed of johnsongrass, foxtail, fescue, orchard grass, and pigweed. Sticky traps were deployed weekly to quantify above ground insects while pitfall traps were used to quantify ground level insects. Big eyed bugs and syrphid flies were the most abundant insects caught above ground in 2014. Multicolored Asian lady beetles, seven spotted lady beetles, green lacewings, spotless lady beetles, minute pirate bugs and pink lady beetles were not as abundant, but still exhibited differences in numbers between the two habitats and during different times of the growing season. Pink, multicolored Asian and spotless lady beetles were found in native perennial and pasture border rows as well as corn bordered by native perennial and pasture. Spotless lady beetles were more abundant in the native perennial border rows. Numbers of pink lady beetles and multicolored Asian lady beetles were greater in the corn plots compared to both the native perennial and pasture border rows. Orius spp. and pink lady beetles were the most abundant beneficial insects in border rows and corn plots in 2014. There were significantly more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles and big eyed bugs in the pasture border rows. There were more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles and multicolored Asian lady beetles in the corn bordered by native perennial plants, but these numbers were not significant. In 2015, minute pirate bugs, spotless lady beetles and pink lady beetles were the most abundant insects in border rows. There were significantly more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles, big eyed bugs, seven-spotted lady beetles, parenthesis lady beetles, multicolored Asian lady beetles and orange-spotted lady beetles in the pasture border rows. In the corn plots bordered by pasture, there were significantly more minute pirate bugs and pink lady beetles. Eleven different groups of insects and spiders were quantified from ground level trapping.They were ground beetles, rove beetles, total Coleoptera, ants, total Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, green lacewings, brown lacewings, and spiders. Ground beetles, Hemiptera and all other Coleoptera, excluding rove beetles, were more abundant in native perennial border rows. Conversely, greater numbers of rove beetles, ants, spiders and other Hymenoptera were in pasture border rows. Harpalus pensylvanicus and Cyclotrachelus sodalis were the most abundant ground beetles for both years. In 2014, there were more H. pensylvanicus and C. sodalis in the native perennial border rows. There were more H. pensylvanicus and C. sodalis in the corn bordered by pasture. Overall, in 2015, ground beetles were more abundant in the native perennial border rows and in the corn bordered by native perennial plants. There were significantly more Chlaenius nemoralis, Brachinus fumans and Chlaenius pusillus in the native perennial border rows. There were significantly more C. sodalis, P. chalcites, and B. fumans in the corn bordered by native perennial plants. It appears that more ground beetle species were attracted to the native perennial border rows. There were more damaged kernels in the corn bordered by pasture for both years. In 2014, there was no significant difference, but in 2015, there was. Thus, it appears that native perennial border plantings can be used to reduce damage in sweet corn. Results indicate that research in these habitats should continue for several more growing seasons to determine if age and maturity of the border plots influence beneficial insect numbers. Ten blackberry grower collaborators were located in four central Kentucky counties. Half of the sites were baited with PredaLure (methyl salicylate-based) lures while the other half were not. Insects were trapped using sticky traps. Eight species of lady beetles were identified in the PredaLure baited sites, while six species were found in the non PredaLure baited sites. PredaLure baited sites had more pink lady beetles, while non PredaLure baited sites had more multicolored Asian; spotless, and mildew-eating lady beetles. Syrphid flies were the most abundant beneficial insects found. Big-eyed bugs, minute pirate bugs and green lacewings were found in low numbers. Higher species diversity of beneficial insects was observed in the urban sites than in the peri-urban farm sites and there was a higher species diversity in 2012 than in 2011. There was no significant difference on beneficial insect abundance or species diversity. There were more spotless lady beetles in the unbaited plots. It was concluded that PredaLure lures were not attractive to beneficial insects in blackberries. Results could have been affected by surrounding vegetation such as vegetables, fruit trees, grasses and forb pastures, the location of each site as well as the size of the blackberry plantings. Parasitoids should be quantified in the future. Preliminary brine shrimp toxicity bioassays were conducted using Forsythia and button bush extracts. The LC50 for Button bush was 1,279 ppm while the LC50 for the Forsythia was 1,035 ppm. Younger twigs and leaves should be used in future experiments. Laboratory experiments using an olfactometer were conducted to determine if pigweed was attractive to the pink lady beetle and the Asian lady beetle. Volatiles of pigweed and PredaLure were not attractive to both Asian lady beetle and the pink lady beetle. Asian lady beetle did not respond positively or negatively to pigweed, pigweed + PredaLure or PredaLure alone. However, pink lady beetle was attracted to PredaLure alone, but was repelled by pigweed and by pigweed + PredaLure. Research results were updated and viewed by 100,000 visitors on the KSU Organic webpage (http://organic.kysu. edu/index.shtml) during the life of the project. Field days, Small Limited-Resource, Minority Farmers Conference, Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting and tours of KSU perennial border and blackberry plots were conducted. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science, Association of Research Directors and Entomological Society of America Meetings by students and staff members. Approximately 200 telephone calls and e-mails were answered concerning Conservation Biological Control(CBC) using native perennial plants and beneficial insect attractants during the life of the project. We mentored 7undergraduate and 4 graduate students in research projects. Three undergraduate students completed BIO 410 research projects concerning native perennial plant insect assemblages and beneficial insects attracted to methyl salicylate baited blackberry sites. CBC information was distributed to over 1,200 people at various field days, 500 people at the Annual Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings, 1,000 people at the Small Limited Resource Minority Conference, 200people at the Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting, 100 people at the Third International Pawpaw Conference, and students and scientists at the Association of Research Directors, Kentucky Academy of Science and the Entomological Society of America Meetings.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Lowe, J.D., K.L. Friley, S.B. Crabtree, K.W. Pomper and J.D. Sedlacek. 2015. Evaluation of Cherry-Based Baits for Trapping and Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila for Organic Growers of Primocane-fruiting Blackberries. University of Kentucky 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-706: 19-20.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, D.L. Brown and K. Slusher. 2015. Ear Damage in Sweet Corn Bordered by Native Perennial Plants and Pasture. University of Kentucky 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-706: 36-37.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.D. Lowe, K.L. Friley, S.B. Crabtree, K.W. Pomper and D.R. Hoskins. 2014. Fruit Baits for Trapping and Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila for Organic Growers of Primocane Fruiting Blackberries. University of Kentucky 2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-688: 1011.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.A. Riddick, K.L. Friley and M.K. Bomford. 2014. Beneficial Insects in Blackberries Baited with Methyl Salicylate-Based Lures. University of Kentucky 2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-688: 14-15.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek and D. Brown. 2015. Ground dwelling insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial and pasture border rows. 8th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium Proceedings Book. pp. 122123. http://ipmcenters. org/ipmsymposium15/Documents/IPM_2015_ Proceedings-final.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Pomper, K.W., S.B. Crabtree, J.D. Sedlacek, J.D. Lowe and K.L. Friley. 2015. Optimizing a Trapping System to Monitor Spotted Wing Drosophila in Organic Primocane Fruiting Blackberries. Annual Posters-at-the-Capitol Abstract Book, 54.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D. and K.L. Friley. 2015. Beneficial Insect Populations in Late Planted Sweet Corn Bordered by Native Perennial Plants and Pasture in Central Kentucky. Annual Posters-at-the-Capitol Abstract Book, 75.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley and L. Morris. 2015. Beneficial insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial and pasture border rows. 8th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium Proceedings Book. p. 121. http://ipmcenters. org/ ipmsymposium15/Documents/ IPM_ 2015_Proceedings-final.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Estill, L., J.D. Sedlacek and K.L. Friley. 2014. Beneficial insects in native perennial and pasture borders in Franklin County, Kentucky. Posters-at-the-Capitol, 40. campus.murraystate.edu/services / URSA/2014_ Booklet_12-4-13_2pm.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek, D. Brown and K. Slusher. 2015. Ground beetles in sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture. Poster presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hoskins, D.R., K.W. Pomper, J.D. Sedlacek, J.D. Lowe, K.L. Friley and S.B. Crabtree. 2015. Optimizing a trapping system to monitor spotted wing Drosophila in organic primocane fruiting blackberries. Poster presented at the Kentucky Association of Mapping Professionals Meeting. Center for Sustainability of Farms and Families. Frankfort, KY.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Morris, L., J.D. Sedlacek, and K.L. Friley. 2015. Beneficial insect populations in late planted sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture in central Kentucky. Poster presented at the Kentucky Association of Mapping Professionals Meeting. Center for Sustainability of Farms and Families. Frankfort, KY.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, K. Slusher and D. Key. 2015. Beneficial insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture in Central Kentucky. Poster presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek, J.A. Riddick and M.K. Bomford. 2013. Attracting beneficial insects to organically grown blackberries using methyl salicylate-based lures. Poster not presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Austin, TX due to travel restrictions.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.J. Haak, K.L. Friley, K.W. Pomper, M.K. Bomford, S.B. Crabtree and J.D. Lowe. 2013. Abundance and diversity of leafhoppers associated with newly established primocane blackberry and raspberry plantings in central Kentucky. Poster not presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Austin, TX due to travel restrictions.


Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining Conservation Biological Control methods in insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Events held included the KSU Farm Field Days, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about Conservation Biological Control methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website at: http://organic.edu/index.shtml was updated along with social media outlets like Facebook. Students in AFE 116 (Introduction of Agriculture, Food and Environment), AFE 117 (Global Perspectives in Agriculture, Food, and Environment), AFE 217 (Plant Science), and AFE 318 (Environmental Entomology) were taught principles of Conservation Biological Control. Two graduate students are completing ENV 600 and ENV 601 projects on Conservation Biological Control of insect pests in sweet corn. One graduate student completed Research and Thesis credit courses (ENV 600 and ENV 601) concerning blackberries. Guided scientific writing concerning conservation biological control research was conducted in ENV 503 Student Team Project. Changes/Problems:Atwood Research Facility, including all laboratories, were closed for renovation two years ago which prevented more extensive research concerning natural product toxicity to pest insects and weed attraction to beneficial insects. Four different research groups are sharing a small laboratory which limits the type of studies which can be undertaken. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Opportunities for training occurred by making poster or oral presentations concerning Conservation Biological Control (CBC) in vegetable and fruit crop insect pests at four Annual Entomological Society of America Meetings, two International Integrated Pest Management Conferences, two 1890 Association of Research Directors Biennial Research Symposium, six Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meetings, and one Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. CBC was taught to students in AFE 116 Introduction to Agriculture, Food, and Environment, AFE 117 Global Perspectives in Agriculture, Food, and Environment, AFE 217 Plant Science, and AFE 318 Environmental Entomology. Graduate students were mentored in CBC and insect identification and ecology research in ENV 600 Research, ENV 601Thesis, and ENV 699 Capstone Research. Small, limited resource, and minority farmers were instructed in CBC at the KSU "Third Thursday Thing" where gray headed coneflower and slender mountain mint native perennial plants were distributed to farmers to plant near vegetable or fruit crops on their farms in order to increase beneficial insect diversity and activity. Training seminars were given at the Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings and the Kentucky Horticulture Society Meetings. Three high school students were taught in the scientific method, CBC principles, and insect identification during the KSU summer Research and Extension Apprenticeship Program, and the Summer Apprenticeship Program. The Annual Entomological Society of America Meetings, International Integrated Pest Management Conferences, 1890 Association of Research Directors Biennial Research Symposium, and Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meetings were used for professional Development. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results of this research were disseminated to scientists and students at various local, state, national, and international professional meetings. They were also presented to growers and extension personnel at the KSU "Third Thursday Thing", the Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings, the Kentucky Horticulture Society Meetings, and the Kentucky GIS meeting hosted at KSU. KSU also hosted the Southern Region IPM Working Group Conference where this research was presented and discussed. The research was presented at the Tenth Anniversary Celebration of Dropseed Native Plant Nursery in Oldham County, KY. Undergraduate students presented results of CBC research projects at the annual Kentucky Posters at the Capitol Research Symposium held in the Capitol Building where the students discussed their research with state Legislators' and the annual Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. Finally, the PI presented results of this research to the KSU campus community at the Provost's Seminar Series. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Native perennial plants selected for use in the border row sweet corn study were big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats grama, purple coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, switchgrass, foxglove beardtongue, hairy beardtongue, slender mountain mint, gray-headed coneflower, and little bluestem. Pasture borders were a mixture of grasses and broad leaf weeds predominantly composed of johnsongrass, foxtail, fescue, orchard grass, and pigweed. Sticky traps were deployed weekly to quantify above ground insects while pitfall traps were used to quantify ground level insects. Big eyed bugs and syrphid flies were the most abundant insects caught above ground in 2014. Multicolored Asian lady beetles, seven spotted lady beetles, green lacewings, spotless lady beetles, minute pirate bugs, and pink lady beetles were not as abundant, but still exhibited differences in numbers between the two habitats and during different times of the growing season. Pink, multicolored Asian, and spotless lady beetles were found in native perennial and pasture border rows, as well as corn bordered by native perennials and pasture. Spotless lady beetles were more abundant in the native perennial border rows. Numbers of pink lady beetles and multicolored Asian lady beetles were greater in the corn plots compared to both the native perennial and pasture border rows. Orius spp. and pink lady beetles were the most abundant beneficial insects in border rows and corn plots in 2014. There were significantly more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles, and big eyed bugs in the pasture border rows. There were more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles, and multicolored Asian lady beetles in the corn bordered by native perennial plants, but these numbers were not significant. In 2015, minute pirate bugs, spotless lady beetles, and pink lady beetles were the most abundant insects in border rows. There were significantly more minute pirate bugs, pink lady beetles, big eyed bugs, seven-spotted lady beetles, parenthesis lady beetles, multicolored Asian lady beetles, and orange-spotted lady beetles in the pasture border rows. In the corn plots bordered by pasture, there were significantly more minute pirate bugs and pink lady beetles. Eleven different groups of insects and spiders were quantified from ground level trapping. They were ground beetles, rove beetles, total Coleoptera, ants, total Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, green lacewings, brown lacewings, and spiders. Ground beetles, Hemiptera, and all other Coleoptera, excluding rove beetles, were more abundant in native perennial border rows. Conversely, greater numbers of rove beetles, ants, spiders, and other Hymenoptera were in pasture border rows. Harpalus pensylvanicus and Cyclotrachelus sodalis were the most abundant ground beetles for both years. In 2014, there were more H. pensylvanicus and C. sodalis in the native perennial border rows. There were more H. pensylvanicus and C. sodalis in corn bordered by pasture. Overall, in 2015, ground beetles were more abundant in the native perennial border rows and in the corn bordered by native perennial plants. There were significantly more Chlaenius nemoralis, Brachinus fumans, and Chlaenius pusillus in the native perennial border rows. There were significantly more C. sodalis, P. chalcites, and B. fumans in the corn bordered by native perennial plants. It appears that more ground beetle species were attracted to the native perennial border rows. There were more damaged kernels in the corn bordered by pasture for both years. In 2014, there was no significant difference, but in 2015 there was. Thus, it appears that native perennial border plantings can be used to reduce damage in sweet corn. Results indicate that research in these habitats should continue for several more growing seasons to determine if age and maturity of the border plots influence beneficial insect numbers. Ten blackberry grower collaborators were located in four central Kentucky counties. Half of the sites were baited with PredaLure (methyl salicylate-based) lures while the other half were not. Insects were trapped using sticky traps. Eight species of lady beetles were identified in the PredaLure baited sites, while six species were found in the non PredaLure baited sites. PredaLure baited sites had more pink lady beetles, while non PredaLure baited sites had more multicolored Asian; spotless, and mildew-eating lady beetles. Syrphid flies were the most abundant beneficial insects found. Big-eyed bugs, minute pirate bugs, and green lacewings were found in low numbers. Higher species diversity of beneficial insects was observed in the urban sites than in the peri-urban farm sites and there was a higher species diversity in 2012 than in 2011. There was no significant difference on beneficial insect abundance or species diversity. There were more spotless lady beetles in the unbaited plots. It was concluded that PredaLure lures were not attractive to beneficial insects in blackberries. Results could have been affected by surrounding vegetation such as vegetables, fruit trees, grasses and forb pastures, the location of each site, as well as the size of the blackberry plantings. Parasitoids should be quantified in the future. Preliminary brine shrimp toxicity bioassays were conducted using Forsythia and button bush extracts. The LC50 for Button bush was 1,279 ppm while the LC50 for the Forsythia was 1,035 ppm. Younger twigs and leaves should be used in future experiments. Laboratory experiments using an olfactometer were conducted to determine if pigweed was attractive to the pink lady beetle and the Asian lady beetle. Volatiles of pigweed and PredaLure were not attractive to either Asian lady beetle or pink lady beetle. Asian lady beetle did not respond positively or negatively to pigweed, pigweed + PredaLure or PredaLure alone. However, pink lady beetle was attracted to PredaLure alone, but was repelled by pigweed and by pigweed + PredaLure. Research results were updated and viewed by 100,000 visitors on the KSU Organic webpage (http://organic.kysu. edu/index.shtml) during the life of the project. Field days, Small Limited-Resource, Minority Farmers Conference, Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting, and tours of KSU perennial border and blackberry plots were conducted. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science, Association of Research Directors, and Entomological Society of America Meetings by students and staff members. Approximately 200 telephone calls and e-mails were answered concerning Conservation Biological Control (CBC) using native perennial plants and beneficial insect attractants during the life of the project. We mentored 7undergraduate and 4 graduate students in research projects. Three undergraduate students completed BIO 410 research projects concerning native perennial plant insect assemblages and beneficial insects attracted to methyl salicylate baited blackberry sites. CBC information was distributed to over 1,200 people at various field days, 500 people at the Annual Organic Association of Kentucky Meetings, 1,000 people at the Small Limited Resource Minority Conference, 200 people at the Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting, 100 people at the Third International Pawpaw Conference, and students and scientists at the Association of Research Directors, Kentucky Academy of Science, and the Entomological Society of America Meetings.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Lowe, J.D., K.L. Friley, S.B. Crabtree, K.W. Pomper and J.D. Sedlacek. 2015. Evaluation of Cherry-Based Baits for Trapping and Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila for Organic Growers of Primocane-fruiting Blackberries. University of Kentucky 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-706: 19-20.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, D.L. Brown and K. Slusher. 2015. Ear Damage in Sweet Corn Bordered by Native Perennial Plants and Pasture. University of Kentucky 2015 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-706: 36-37.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.D. Lowe, K.L. Friley, S.B. Crabtree, K.W. Pomper and D.R. Hoskins. 2014. Fruit Baits for Trapping and Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila for Organic Growers of Primocane Fruiting Blackberries. University of Kentucky 2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-688: 1011.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.A. Riddick, K.L. Friley and M.K. Bomford. 2014. Beneficial Insects in Blackberries Baited with Methyl Salicylate-Based Lures. University of Kentucky 2014 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-688: 14-15.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek and D. Brown. 2015. Ground dwelling insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial and pasture border rows. 8th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium Proceedings Book. pp. 122123. http://ipmcenters. org/ipmsymposium15/Documents/IPM_2015_ Proceedings-final.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Pomper, K.W., S.B. Crabtree, J.D. Sedlacek, J.D. Lowe and K.L. Friley. 2015. Optimizing a Trapping System to Monitor Spotted Wing Drosophila in Organic Primocane Fruiting Blackberries. Annual Posters-at-the-Capitol Abstract Book, 54.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D. and K.L. Friley. 2015. Beneficial Insect Populations in Late Planted Sweet Corn Bordered by Native Perennial Plants and Pasture in Central Kentucky. Annual Posters-at-the-Capitol Abstract Book, 75.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley and L. Morris. 2015. Beneficial insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial and pasture border rows. 8th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium Proceedings Book. p. 121. http://ipmcenters. org/ ipmsymposium15/Documents/ IPM_ 2015_Proceedings-final.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Estill, L., J.D. Sedlacek and K.L. Friley. 2014. Beneficial insects in native perennial and pasture borders in Franklin County, Kentucky. Posters-at-the-Capitol, 40. campus.murraystate.edu/services / URSA/2014_ Booklet_12-4-13_2pm.pdf.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek, D. Brown and K. Slusher. 2015. Ground beetles in sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture. Poster presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hoskins, D.R., K.W. Pomper, J.D. Sedlacek, J.D. Lowe, K.L. Friley and S.B. Crabtree. 2015. Optimizing a trapping system to monitor spotted wing Drosophila in organic primocane fruiting blackberries. Poster presented at the Kentucky Association of Mapping Professionals Meeting. Center for Sustainability of Farms and Families. Frankfort, KY.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Morris, L., J.D. Sedlacek, and K.L. Friley. 2015. Beneficial insect populations in late planted sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture in central Kentucky. Poster presented at the Kentucky Association of Mapping Professionals Meeting. Center for Sustainability of Farms and Families. Frankfort, KY.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, K. Slusher and D. Key. 2015. Beneficial insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennial plants and pasture in Central Kentucky. Poster presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek, J.A. Riddick and M.K. Bomford. 2013. Attracting beneficial insects to organically grown blackberries using methyl salicylate-based lures. Poster not presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Austin, TX due to travel restrictions.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., J.J. Haak, K.L. Friley, K.W. Pomper, M.K. Bomford, S.B. Crabtree and J.D. Lowe. 2013. Abundance and diversity of leafhoppers associated with newly established primocane blackberry and raspberry plantings in central Kentucky. Poster not presented at the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Austin, TX due to travel restrictions.


Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining Conservation Biological Control methods in insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Events held included the KSU Farm Field Days, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about Conservation Biological Control methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website at: http://organic.edu/index.shtml was updated. Students in AFE 116 (Introduction of Agriculture, Food and Environment), and AFE 318 (Environmental Entomology), ENV 503 (Student Team Project) were taught principles of Conservation Biological Control. One undergraduate student has completed and one is completing BIO 410 and BIO 401 research projects. One graduate student is completing ENV 600 and ENV 601 projects on Conservation Biological Control of insect pests in sweet corn. One graduate student completed Research and Thesis credit courses (ENV 600 and ENV 601). Changes/Problems: The sweet corn germination was very low in the initial planting, so plots were replanted with better, but still low germination. These problems led to phonological asynchrony with the native perennial border rows. In addition, the CAFSSS Atwood Research Facility was closed for renovation in November 2013 and has remained closed. Laboratory space to conduct the buttonbush and forsythia bioassays, and weed species olfactometer studies was not available. Trailers are being purchased to be converted and used as laboratories to help alleviate this problem among all of our researchers. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two undergraduate and two MES graduate students were mentored during the year in research projects on conservation biological control using native perennial border rows and semiochemical lures. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Undergraduate and graduate students, as well as the PD and Co-PD, made presentations concerning this research project at the National Conference on Undergraduate Research, the Kentucky Academy of Science, the Ohio Valley Entomological Association and the Posters at the Capitol Meetings. The PD and Co-PDs disseminated research results to the public via events held including KSU farm field days, Third Thursday events, Small Limited-Resource/Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU perennial plant plots and blackberry plantings, and multiple student recruitment events. Lectures were given to Agriculture, Food and Environment Introductory, Entomology, and Horticulture undergraduate classes. The KSU organic website was updated. Approximately 50 telephone calls, emails, and letters were answered concerning perennial plant borders, beneficial insect lures, sweet corn, and blackberries during the year. We had collaborative research relationships with Mr. John Bell (Scott Co.), Mr. Brian Geier (Franklin Co.), Mr. Jake Schmitz (Franklin Co.), the Lexington Montessori School (Fayette Co.), Mr. Larry Brandenburg (Shelby Co.), and Mr. Winni van Gessell (Fayette Co.) for placing PredaLure lures and sampling beneficial insects in their blackberry plantings. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? During the next reporting period we will continue to: 1) determine if habitat management/native perennial plantings used in a farmscaping approach to enhance beneficial insect diversity and abundance reduces pest abundance and damage in sweet corn, 2) determine if button bush and forsythia natural botanical extracts can be useful in sweet corn insect pest management protection strategies; and 3) determine if common weed species are attractive/repellent to pink lady beetle and Asian lady beetle species found in organically grown sweet corn. Experiments will be conducted by the PD and Co-PD. Graduate and undergraduate student researchers will be mentored in these projects.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Data concerning beneficial insect populations in native perennial border rows, pasture border rows, and in sweet corn plots bordered by each of these border types was collected and analyzed. Native perennial border rows contained 16 species of plants including big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats Grama, purple coneflower, gray-headed coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, switchgrass, foxglove beardtongue, hairy beardtongue, slender mountain mint, little bluestem, and prairie dropseed. Pasture border rows were a mixture of grasses and broad leaf weeds predominantly composed of johnsongrass, foxtail, fescue, orchard grass, and pigweed. Similar to previous years, big eyed bugs, syrphid flies, asian lady beetles, seven spotted lady beetles, green lacewings, spotless lady beetles, minute pirate bugs and pink lady beetles were caught in both border row types. They were also found in the sweet corn bordered by these plot types. Lady beetles were more abundant in sweet corn plots than the border plots. They were also more abundant in sweet corn bordered by the perennial plants than the sweet corn bordered by the pasture borders. Pink lady beetles were more abundant than Asian or spotless lady beetles. Eleven different groups of insects and spiders again were quantified from ground level trapping. They were ground beetles, rove beetles, total Coleoptera, ants, total Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, green lacewings, brown lacewings, and spiders. Ground beetles, rove beetles, and non-ant Hymenoptera were more abundant in native perennial border rows midway through the growing season. However, there were no differences in the number of insects and spiders caught in ground level traps in sweet corn bordered by pasture borders than perennial border rows. Ear kernel damage was similar between sweet corn bordered by native perennial and pasture borders. Damage was unacceptably high averaging 42.7 and 38.6 damaged kernels in sweet corn bordered by pasture and native perennial border rows, respectively. This may have been due to having to replant the sweet corn in early July because germination was poor in the June planted crop. Much of the perennial blooming period was asynchronous with the sweet corn ear development period. Results indicate that data should be collected for one more year with corn planted to determine if crop damage is reduced by increased beneficial insect numbers. Beneficial insect populations in PredaLure baited and unbaited blackberry plots in four central Kentucky counties were reanalyzed. Nine species of lady beetles were captured. The most abundant were Asian lady beetles, pink lady beetles and spotless lady beetles. The most abundant of other beneficial insects caught were minute pirate bugs and syrphid flies. There was no significant difference in beneficial insect abundance or species diversity among the four farm types. The data showed that PredaLure lures were not attractive to beneficial insects in blackberries. When deploying lures of this nature, it is assumed that beneficial insects are exposed to a high concentration of the stimulus that will outcompete the normal stimuli provided by the surrounding vegetation. Results could have been affected by surrounding and variable vegetables, fruit trees, grasses and forb pastures, the location of each site as well as the size of the blackberry plantings. News and information sections were updated on the KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website. Field days, Small Limited-Resource/Minority Farmers Conference, and tours of KSU native perennial and blackberry plantings were conducted. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science and the Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting by students and staff members.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Estill, L., Sedlacek, J.D., & Friley, K.L. (2014). Predatory insect populations in native perennial and pasture borders in central Kentucky. Poster presented at the Annual National Conference on Undergraduate Research Meeting. Lexington, KY. April 4, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Estill, L., Sedlacek, J.D., & Friley, K.L. (2014). Beneficial insects in native perennial and pasture borders in Franklin County, Kentucky. Poster presented at the Posters-at-the-Capitol Annual Meeting. Frankfort, KY. February 27, 2014.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., Haak, J.M., Friley, K.L., Pomper, K.W., Lowe, J.D., Crabtree, S.B. (2014). Leafhoppers associated with newly established primocane blackberry and raspberry plantings in central Kentucky. University of Kentucky 2013 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR673: 16  17.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, D., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013). Ground dwelling arthropod populations in native perennial border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting. Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Riddick, J.A., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013) Attracting beneficial insects to blackberries using methyl salicylate- based lures. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting. Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., Estill, L. & Friley, K.L. (2013). Beneficial insects associated with native perennial grasses and forbs planted in border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting . Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, D., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013).Ground dwelling insect and spider populations in native perennial border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presentation at the Annual Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. Indianapolis, IN. Oct 25, 2013.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Justina A. Riddick. Attracting Beneficial Insects to Blackberries using Methyl Salicylate-based Lures. Kentucky State University. September 8, 2014.


Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining Conservation Biological Control methods in insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Events held included the KSU Farm Field Days, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about Conservation Biological Control methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website at: http://organic.edu/index.shtml was updated. Students in AFE 116 (Introduction of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and AFE 318 (Environmental Entomology) were taught principles of Conservation Biological Control. Two undergraduate students completed BIO 410 and BIO 401 research projects and two graduate students are completing ENV 600 and ENV 601 projects on Conservation Biological Control of insect pests in sweet corn or blackberries. One graduate student completed Research and Thesis credit courses (ENV 600 and ENV 601). Changes/Problems: During the spring of 2013, a long term equipment breakdown/failure and inclement weather prevented sweet corn planting and subsequent sampling of beneficial insects in sweet corn bordered by native perennials compared with pasture borders. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two undergraduate and two MES graduate students were mentored in research projects on conservation biological control using native perennial border rows and semiochemical lures during the year. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Undergraduate and graduate students, as well as the PD, and Co-PD made presentations concerning this research project at the the Kentucky Academy of Science and the Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meetings. The PD and Co-PDs disseminated research results to the public via events held including KSU farm field days, Small Limited-Resource/Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU perennial plant plots and blackberry plantings. The KSU organic website was updated. Approximately 50 telephone calls, emails, and letters were answered concerning perennial plant borders, beneficial insect lures, and blackberries during the year. We have collaborative research relationships with Mr. John Bell (Scott Co.), Mr. Brian Geier (Franklin Co.), Mr. Jake Schmitz (Franklin Co.), the Lexington Montessori School (Fayette Co.), Mr. Larry Brandenburg (Shelby Co.), and Mr. Winni van Gessell (Fayette Co.) for placing PredaLure lures and sampling beneficial insects in their blackberry plantings. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? During the next reporting period we will 1) determine if habitat management/native perennial plantings used in a farmscaping approach to enhance beneficial insect diversity and abundance reduces pest abundance and damage in sweet corn, 2) determine if button bush and forsythia natural botanical extracts can be useful in sweet corn insect pest management protection strategies; and 3) determine if common weed species are attractive/repellent to pink lady beetle and Asian lady beetle species found in organically grown sweet corn. Experiments will be conducted by the PD and Co-PD. Graduate and undergraduate student researchers will be mentored in these projects.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Data concerning beneficial insect populations in native perennial and pasture border rows was collected and analyzed. Native perennial border rows contained 16 species of plants including big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats Grama, purple coneflower, gray-headed coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, switchgrass, foxglove beardtongue, hairy beardtongue, slender mountain mint, little bluestem, and prairie dropseed. Pasture borders were a mixture of grasses and broad leaf weeds predominantly composed of johnsongrass, foxtail, fescue, orchard grass, and pigweed. Big eyed bugs and syrphid flies were the most abundant insects caught above ground. Asian lady beetles, seven spotted lady beetles, green lacewings, spotless lady beetles, minute pirate bugs and pink lady beetles were not as abundant, but still exhibited differences in numbers between the two habitats. Eleven different groups of insects and spiders were quantified from ground level trapping. They were ground beetles, rove beetles, total Coleoptera, ants, total Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, green lacewings, brown lacewings, and spiders. The ground beetles and total Coleoptera had a greater average number in the native perennial plots over the period of collection dates. Conversely, consistently greater numbers of rove beetles were found in the pasture border rows than the native perennial borders. Ground level insect and spider numbers may have been more abundant in the pasture borders because they had greater ground cover compared to the establishing native perennial plants. Results indicate that research in these habitats should continue for several more growing seasons to determine if age and maturity of the border plots influence beneficial insect numbers. In addition, data should be collected in an annual vegetable crop planted between rows of the two habitat types in order to determine if crop damage is reduced by the increased beneficial insect numbers. Beneficial insect populations were sampled in PredaLure baited and unbaited blackberry plots in four central Kentucky counties. Nine species of lady beetles captured. The most abundant were Asian lady beetle, pink lady beetle and spotless ladybeetle. The most abundant of other beneficial insects caught were minute pirate bug and syrphid flies.Higher species diversity of beneficial insects was observed in the urban sites than in the peri-urban farm sites and there was a higher species diversity in 2012 than in 2011. The data showed that PredaLure lures were not attractive to beneficial insects in blackberries. Parasitoids should be quantified in the future. News and information sections were updated on the KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website. Field days, Small Limited-Resource/Minority Farmers Conference, and tours of KSU native perennial and blackberry plantings were conducted. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science and the Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting by students and staff members.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, D., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013). Ground dwelling arthropod populations in native perennial border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting. Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, D., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013).Ground dwelling insect and spider populations in native perennial border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presentation at the Annual Ohio Valley Entomological Association Meeting. Indianapolis, IN. Oct 25, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Haak, J. J., Sedlacek, J. D., Friley, K .L., Pomper, K. W., Lowe, J. D., & Crabtree, S. B. (2013). Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with new blackberry and raspberry plantings in Central Kentucky: Preliminary results. Paper presented at the 17th Biennial Association of Research Directors Symposium. Jacksonville, FL. April 6-10, 2013. 1890 Research: Sowing Seeds of Change for the Global Community Program and Abstracts, 70-71.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Kratzer, K., Sedlacek, J. D., & Friley, K. L. (2013). Ground dwelling arthropods associated with newly established native perennial and pasture border rows in Franklin County, Kentucky. Poster presented at the Annual Posters at the Capitol. Frankfort, KY. February 27, 2013. Annual Posters at the Capitol Abstract Book, 54.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Riddick, J. A., Sedlacek, J. D., & Friley, K. L. (2013). Attracting beneficial insects to blackberries using methyl salicylate-based lures. Paper presented at the 17th Biennial Association of Research Directors Symposium. Jacksonville, FL. April 6-10, 2013. 1890 Research: Sowing Seeds of Change for the Global Community Program and Abstracts, 99.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Riddick, J.A., Sedlacek, J.D. & Friley, K.L. (2013) Attracting beneficial insects to blackberries using methyl salicylate-based lures. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting. Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., Estill, L. & Friley, K.L. (2013). Beneficial insects associated with native perennial grasses and forbes planted in border rows in central Kentucky. Paper presented at the Annual Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting . Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. November 9, 2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J.D., Friley, K.L., Haak, J.J., & Riddick, J.A. 2013. Using native perennial plant borders for small farm integrated pest management programs at Kentucky State University (IPM). Paper presented at the 17th Biennial Research Symposium of the Association of 1890 Research Director's Meeting, Jacksonville, FL. April 6-10,2013. 1890 Research: Sowing Seeds of Change for the Global Community Program and Abstracts,116.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Sedlacek, J. D., Friley, K. L., Pomper, K. W., Lowe, J. D., Crabtree, S. B., Howard, I., et al (2013). Survey of stink bug species found in organically grown primocane-fruiting blackberry plantings in Central Kentucky. Paper presented at the 17th Biennial Association of Research Directors Symposium. Jacksonville, FL. April 6-10, 2013. 1890 Research: Sowing Seeds of Change for the Global Community Program and Abstracts, 251.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Jeannie J. Haak. Abundance of Leafhoppers Associated with Blackberry and Raspberry Plantings in Central Kentucky. Kentucky State University. April 29, 2013.


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities. Directed management of native perennial border rows was conducted at the KSU Farm. We sprayed weeds with Round Up herbicide, hand-weeded and mulched the plots. Weed management was discussed with Margaret Shea at Dropseed Native Plant Nursery and Joyce Bender of the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. Sticky traps in the perennial and pasture borders were collected from May 30 to October 23. Overall there were a greater number of beneficial insects in native perennial than pasture borders. Bi-weekly deployment and collection of pitfall traps in the perennial and pasture borders was conducted from March 19 to October 24. Overall there were more arthropods collected in the pasture vs. native perennial borders primarily due to extremely high ant numbers in the pasture borders. We continue to identify and quantify insects from all traps. I contacted growers participating in blackberry Predalure research. We deployed PredaLure lures and collected sticky traps weekly during June through October at Mr. John Bell's (Scott Co.), Mr. Brian Geier's (Franklin Co.), Mr. Jake Schmitz's (Franklin Co.), and the Lexington Montessori School (Fayette Co.). Traps were deployed and serviced at Mr. Larry Brandenburg's (Shelby Co.), Mr. Winni van Gessell's (Fayette Co.) and at two sites on the KSU farm (Franklin Co.). PredaLure baited sites had more Asian lady beetles while non PredaLure baited sites had more spotless and mildew-eating lady beetles. Syrphid flies and minute pirate bugs were abundant at baited and non baited sites. Research results were viewed by 49,400 visitors on the KSU Organic webpage (http://organic.kysu.edu/index.shtml) during 2012. Field days, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference and the Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting were attended and tours of KSU perennial and blackberry plots were given. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science, Entomological Society of America, 7th International IPM Symposium, and Crop Science Society of America meetings. Services: Around 75 telephone calls and e-mails were answered concerning Conservation Biological Control (CBC). We mentored three undergraduate and three graduate students in CBC principles. Products: Two undergraduate students completed BIO 401 research projects concerning native perennial plant insect assemblages and beneficial insects attracted to methyl salicylate baited blackberry sites. Two Masters of Environmental Studies graduate students completed Capstone research projects (ENV 699) involving CBC in sweet corn and blackberries. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website was updated and had 49,400 visitors. Dissemination: CBC information was distributed to over 550 people at various field day events, 400 at the Small Limited Resource Minority Conference, 450 at the Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting, and students and scientists at the Kentucky Academy of Science, Entomological Society of America, 7th International IPM Symposium, and Crop Science Society of America meetings. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals. Dr. John Sedlacek, the project director, contacted all collaborating personnel, designed experiments, assisted in plot preparation and maintenance, analyzed data, assisted in data collection, planted perennials, deployed lures and traps, delivered talks to growers, extension and research personnel, developed field days, answered grower questions via email, letters, and visits, mentored undergraduate and graduate students, and wrote and edited manuscripts. Ms. Karen Friley, project Co-Investigator, assisted in designing experiments, analyzed data, assisted in data collection and planting of perennials, deployed lures and traps, attended field days and meetings and mentored undergraduate and graduate students. Commonwealth of Kentucky Collaborations. We collaborated with Ms. Joyce Bender, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission regarding weed control methods. University Collaborations. Drs. Louis Jackai, North Carolina A and T University; Dr. Jaime Pinero, Lincoln University, and Dr. John Sedlacek have developed an 1890 symposium regarding IPM plant/crop protection for small and limited resource farmers to be presented at the 2013 ARD meeting. Collaborated with Dr. Paul Freytag, Professor Emeritus, University of Kentucky, regarding leafhopper species identification in blackberries. We consulted with Dr. Yukie Kajita, University of Kentucky, Department of Entomology, regarding lady beetle conservation and ecology. We continued collaborations with KSU CRS and CEP personnel in Plant and Soil Science (Drs. Mike Bomford, Kirk Pomper and Tom Webster), Ms. Susan Templeton (formerly of the Human Nutrition Program), and the Small Farm Program (Dr. Marion Simon and Mr. Louie Rivers). Dr. Daniel Pavuk, Bowling Green State University, continues to collaborate on ground beetle ecology and identifications. We continue to collaborate with Dr. M. Sean Clark, Berea College, regarding ground beetle identification and ecology. Dr. John Obrycki, Professor and Chair, UK Department of Entomology, continues to cooperate concerning aspects of beneficial insect (particularly lady beetle) ecology and conservation. Grower collaborations. We have a collaborative relationship with the Organic Association of Kentucky. We have collaborative research relationships with John Bell (Scott County), Brian Geier, Jake Schmitz (Franklin County), Larry Brandenburg (Shelby County), Winni vanGessell (Fayette County) and the Montesorri High School of Kentucky (Fayette County) where we are conducting the blackberry methyl salicylate research. Collaborations with Companies. We have collaborated with AgBio, Inc. and Syngenta Seed Company, who are supplying PredaLure lures and sweet corn seed, respectively. Dropseed Native Plant Nursery is providing plant culture information and ecology. Three undergraduate and three graduate students have conducted research in Conservation Biological Control in this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining CBC methods to insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Efforts. Events held included the KSU Farm Field Days, Kentucky State Horticultural Society meeting, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about CBC methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU Organic Agriculture Working Group website at: http://organic..edu/index.shtml was updated and had 49,500 visitors. Two undergraduate students completed BIO 401 research projects and two graduate students are completing ENV 699 projects on CBC of insect pests in sweet corn or blackberries. One graduate student is completing Research and Thesis credit courses (ENV 600 and ENV 601). PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Change in knowledge: This research program will develop both fundamental and applied knowledge for scientific and lay publications for organic and conventional vegetable and fruit production methods, and techniques to grow annual vegetable and perennial fruit crops in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Field days and tours of field plots provided demonstrations that will continue to increase knowledge of CBC principles and improve decision-making ability of small and limited resource farmers. Recommendations for native perennial plant selection and PredaLure use and deployment for conventional and organic production practices are being developed. This information will be distributed via print, presentations, field days, and the internet to farmers in Kentucky and beyond. Change in Action. Farmers in Kentucky and the surrounding region will have sustainably grown produce that can be sold at farmers markets, community supported agriculture, and restaurants. Organic and conventional production practices developed could positively impact public health and the environment by reducing pesticide use, farmer and worker exposure and enhancing agricultural biodiversity. Change in condition: The local production of vegetables and fruits using CBC methods to manage crop insect pests will lead to improved economic opportunities in Kentucky and the southeastern United States and promote socio-economic stability of small farmers in this region. Using CBC to conserve and increase natural enemy numbers and diversity to manage insects pests sustainably in sweet corn, blackberries and other fruits and vegetables will reduce our reliance on synthetic chemical insecticides and will support local food production and local economies. Utilizing CBC to manage insect pests will promote economically viable, environmentally sound and socially responsible production practices that will protect human health and the environment.

Publications

  • Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley and K.W. Pomper. 2012. Lady Beetle Composition and Abundance in Sweet Corn Bordered by Pasture, Buckwheat, or Sunflower Companion Plantings. Kentucky Academy of Science. 72:96-100.
  • Sedlacek, J.D., J.D. Lowe, K.W. Pomper, K.L. Friley and S.B. Crabtree, 2012. The Pawpaw Peduncle Borer, Talponia plummeriana Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): A Pest of Pawpaw Fruit. Kentucky Academy of Science. 72:110-112.
  • Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, K.W. Pomper, J.D. Lowe, S.B. Crabtree, I. Howard and M.K. Bomford. 2012. Incidence of Stink Bug Species in Organically Grown Prime-Jam and Prime Jam Blackberry Plantings in Central Kentucky. University of Kentucky 2012 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report. PR656:24-25.
  • Sedlacek, J.D., K. Friley and J. Dunigan. 2012. Beneficial Insects Associated with Newly Established Native Perennial Plant Border Rows in Central Kentucky: Preliminary Results. Crop Science Society of America. 66-7. http://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2012am/webprogram/Paper73273.html
  • Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, J. Riddick and J. Birike. 2012. Effect of methyl salicylate-based lures on lady beetle populations in Central Kentucky blackberries. 7th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium. 136-137. http://www.ipmcenters.org/ipmsymposium12/IPM_12_Proceedings_final.pdf
  • Friley, K.L., J.D. Sedlacek, M.K. Bomford, L.S. Brent and D. Slone. 2012. Populations of beneficial insects in methyl salicylate-baited sweet corn in Central Kentucky. 7th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium. 137. http://www.ipmcenters.org/ipmsymposium12/IPM_12_Proceedings_final.pdf
  • Sedlacek, J.D., K.L. Friley, M.L. Grayson-Holt, C.M. Wales and R.S. Hayden. 2012. Lady Beetles Associated with Sweet Corn Bordered by Pasture, Buckwheat or Sunflower Borders. J. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 72:126.
  • Grayson-Holt, M.L., J.D. Sedlacek, K.L. Friley, K.W. Pomper, J.D. Lowe, M.K. Bomford, S.B. Crabtree and R.S. Hayden. 2012. Stink Bug Species in Organic Blackberries. J. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 72:125.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities. Met with Margaret Shea, Dropseed Nursery; Lori Belling, Meadowview Farm and Natural Habitat Gardens; and Joyce Bender, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission to select native perennial plants. Plants selected were big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats grama, purple coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, switchgrass, foxglove beardtongue, hairy beardtongue, slender mountain mint, gray-headed coneflower, and little bluestem. Plant distribution in borders was determined. Study fields were sprayed with Roundup for weed control. Eight of the borders were planted by late July. Severe johnsongrass and pigweed infestations were managed using hand weeding and 3% Roundup spot treatments. Sticky traps were deployed weekly in borders during September. Lady beetles, soldier beetles, lacewings and solitary bees were more abundant in perennial borders. Blackberry grower collaborators were contacted regarding use of their blackberry plantings. Insects were trapped from late June until late September. Eight species of lady beetles were identified in the PredaLure baited sites, while six species were found in the non PredaLure baited sites. PredaLure baited sites had more pink lady beetles, while non PredaLure baited sites had more multicolored Asian; spotless, and mildew-eating lady beetles. Syrphid flies were the most abundant beneficial insects found. Big-eyed bugs, minute pirate bugs and green lacewings were found in low numbers. Research results were updated and viewed by 50,000 visitors on the KSU Organic webpage (http://organic.kysu.edu/index.shtml) during 2011. Field days, Small Limited-Resource, Minority Farmers Conference, Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting were attended and tours of KSU perennial border and blackberry plots were conducted. Research results were presented at the Kentucky Academy of Science, Association of Research Directors and Entomological Society of America Meetings by students and staff members. Services. Approximately 75 telephone calls and e-mails were answered concerning conservation biological control using native perennial plants and beneficial insect attractants. We mentored three undergraduate and three graduate students in research projects. Products. Three undergraduate students completed BIO 410 research projects concerning native perennial plant insect assemblages and beneficial insects attracted to methyl salicylate baited blackberry sites.The KSU organic working group website was updated and had 50,000 visitors. Dissemination. Conservation Biological Control information was distributed to over 200 people at various field days, 100 people at the First Annual Organic Association of Kentucky Meeting, 500 people at the Small Limited Resource Minority Conference and the Kentucky State Horticultural Society Meeting,100 people at the Third International Pawpaw Conference, and students and scientists at the Association of Research Directors, Kentucky Academy of Science and the Entomological Society of America Meetings. The KSU organic working group website had 50,000 visitors during 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals. Dr. John Sedlacek, the project director, contacted all collaborating personnel, designed experiments, assisted in plot preparation and maintenance, analyzed data, assisted in data collection, planted perennials, deployed lures and traps, delivered talks to growers, extension and research personnel, developed field days, answered grower questions via email, letters, and visits, mentored undergraduate and graduate students, and wrote and edited manuscripts. Ms. Karen Friley, project Co-Investigator, assisted in designing experiments, analyzed data, assisted in data collection and planting of perennials, deployed lures and traps, attended field days and meetings and mentored undergraduate and graduate students. Commonwealth of Kentucky Collaborations. We collaborated with Ms. Joyce Bender, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. University Collaborations. Drs. Louis Jackai, North Carolina A and T University; Dr. Moses Kairo, Florida A&M University and Dr. John Sedlacek are collaborating to develop an 1890 symposium regarding IPM plant/crop protection for small and limited resource farmers to be presented at the 2013 ARD meeting. Collaborated with Dr. Charles Covell, visiting scientist at the University of Florida Museum of Natural History regarding the pawpaw peduncle borer, a new pest of pawpaw fruit. I consult with Dr. Yukie Kajita, University of Kentucky, Department of Entomology, regarding lady beetle conservation and ecology. I contine collaborations with KSU CRS and CEP personnel in Plant and Soil Science (Drs. Mike Bomford, Kirk Pomper and Tom Webster), Ms. Susan Templeton (formerly of the Human Nutrition Program), and the Small Farm Program (Dr. Marion Simon and Mr. Louie Rivers). Dr. Daniel Pavuk, Bowling Green State University, continues to collaborate on ground beetle ecology and identifications. We continue to collaborate with Dr. M. Sean Clark, Berea College, regarding ground beetle identification and ecology. Dr. John Obrycki, Professor and Chair, UK Department of Entomology, continues to cooperate concerning aspects of beneficial insect (particularly lady beetle) ecology and conservation. Grower collaborations. We have a collaborative relationship with the Organic Association of Kentucky. We have collaborative research relationships with John Bell (Scott County), Brian Geier, Jake Schmitz (Franklin County), Larry Brandenburg (Shelby County), Winni vanGessell (Fayette County) and the Montesorri High School of Kentucky (Fayette County) where we are conducting the blackberry methyl salicylate research. Collaborations with Companies. We have collaborated with AgBio, Inc. and Syngenta Seed Company, who are supplying PredaLure lures and sweet corn seed, respectively. Dropseed Native Plant Nursery is providing plant culture information and ecology. Three undergraduate and three graduate students have conducted research in Conservation Biological Control in this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: In order to meet the needs of small family farms and limited resource farmers in Kentucky and the southeastern United States, research and educational approaches were addressed by this project by examining Conservation Biological Control methods to insect pest management. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers markets, and other specialty vegetable and fruit retailers. Sustainably grown sweet corn and blackberries could provide high value crops for this region. Thus, this project could significantly impact low-income minority farmers by providing new crop and market opportunities. Efforts. Events held included the KSU farm field days, Kentucky State Horticultural Society meeting, Organic Association of Kentucky meeting, Small Limited-Resource Minority Farmers Conference, multiple tours of KSU research plots, and distribution of extension guides that communicated information to farmers and the public about Conservation Biological Control methods of pest insect management in vegetable and fruit crops. The KSU organic working group website at: http://organic..edu/index.shtml was updated and had 50,000 visitors. Three undergraduate students completed BIO 410 research projects and three graduate students are completing ENV 699 projects on Conservation Biological Control of insect pests in sweet corn or blackberries. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Change in knowledge. This program will develop both fundamental and applied knowledge for scientific and lay publications for organic and conventional production methods, and techniques to grow annual vegetable and perennial fruit crops in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Field days and tours of field plots provided demonstrations that will continue to increase knowledge of Conservation Biological Control principles and improve decision-making ability of small and limited resource farmers. Recommendations for native perennial plant selection and PredaLure use and deployment for conventional and organic production practices are being developed. This information will be distributed via print, presentations, field days, and the internet to farmers in Kentucky and beyond. Change in Action. Farmers in Kentucky and the surrounding region will have sustainably grown produce that can be sold at farmers markets, community supported agriculture, and restaurants. Organic and conventional production practices developed could positively impact public health and the environment by reducing pesticide use, farmer and worker exposure and enhancing agricultural biodiversity. Change in condition. The local production of vegetables and fruits using Conservation Biological Control methods to manage crop insect pests will lead to improved economic opportunities in Kentucky and the southeastern United States and promote socio-economic stability of small farmers in this region. Using Conservation Biological Control to conserve and increase natural enemy numbers and diversity to manage insects pests sustainably in sweet corn, blackberries and other fruits and vegetables will reduce our reliance on synthetic chemical insecticides and will support local food production and local economies. Utilizing Conservation Biological Control to manage insect pests will promote economically viable, environmentally sound and socially responsible production practices that will protect human health and the environment.

Publications

  • Dunigan, J., J.D. Sedlacek and K.L. Friley. 2011. Beneficial insects associated with fall established native perennial plant borders. (In Press, J. Kentucky Acad. Sci.).
  • Riddick, J., J.D. Sedlacek, K.L. Friley and J. Birike. 2011. Does a methyl salicylate based lure attract lady beetles to blackberries (in press, J. Kentucky Acad. Sci.).
  • Friley, K. L., J. D. Sedlacek, K. W. Pomper, J. D. Lowe, S. B. Crabtree, and M. K. Bomford. 2011. Does mowing influence flowering and ripening time in primocane fruiting blackberry selections in Kentucky. (In Press, J. Kentucky Acad. Sci.).
  • Friley, K. L., J. D. Sedlacek, K. W. Pomper, J. D. Lowe, S. B. Crabtree, and M. K. Bomford. 2011. Timing of Primocane Mowing Influences Flowering and Ripening Time in Primocane Fruiting Blackberry Selections in Kentucky. Association of Research Directors, Inc. 16th Biennial Research Symposium Abstract Book, pg. 149
  • Grayson-Holt, M. L., J. D. Sedlacek, K. L. Friley, K. W. Pomper, J. D. Lowe, M. K. Bomford, C. M. Wales, and R. S. Hayden. 2011. Stink Bug Species Associated with Organic Blackberry Production in Central Kentucky. Association of Research Directors, Inc. 16th Biennial Research Symposium Abstract Book, pg. 166
  • Lowe, J. D., K. W. Pomper, J. D. Sedlacek, K. L. Friley, and S. B. Crabtree. 2011. The Pawpaw Peduncle Borer (Talponia plummeriana): A Pest of the North American Pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Association of Research Directors, Inc. 16th Biennial Research Symposium Abstract Book, pg. 184


Progress 10/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities. Dr. John Sedlacek, the project director, refined the design of field experiments and consulted with native plant experts at the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Dropseed Native Plant Nurseries, and Meadowview Farm and Natural Habitat Gardens. A preliminary list of native perennial plants consisting of big bluestem, thimbleweed, New England aster, side-oats grama, purple coneflower, rattlesnake master, common boneset, blue lobelia, bee balm, foxglove beardtongue, slender mountain mint, gray-headed coneflower, and little bluestem was discussed. Weed management and field preparations were discussed with the KSU Research and Demonstration Farm Manager. Blackberry grower cooperators were contacted regarding monitoring their plantings for beneficial insects in 2011. A preliminary laboratory experiment using an olfactometer was conducted to determine if pigweed, a common weed species found in organically grown sweet corn, volatiles are attractive/ repellent to pink lady beetle and Asian lady beetle species. An undergraduate student and a high school student assisted conducting this experiment. Dr. Sedlacek and Ms. Karen Friley, Co-Investigator, mentored three undergraduate students in beneficial/pest insect identification and alternative pest management concepts. Events. We attended the 2010 Kentucky Academy of Science Meeting in Bowling Green, KY. Services. I answered telephone calls and e-mails regarding conservation biological control methods, beneficial and pest insects, and beneficial insect attractants. Products. Lady beetle population dynamics in sweet corn may be negatively impacted by pigweed. Dissemination. I presented results of the olfactometer experiment to the Agricultural Sciences Section membership at the 2010 Kentucky Academy of Science meeting, at Western Kentucky University. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals. Dr. John Sedlacek, the project director, refined the design of field and laboratory experiments and consulted with native plant experts at the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Dropseed Native Plant Nursery, and Meadowview Farm and Natural Habitat Gardens. We developed a preliminary list of plants to use in the field research plots. Weed management and field preparations were discussed with the KSU Research and Demonstration Farm Manager. Blackberry grower cooperators were contacted regarding monitoring their plantings for beneficial insects in 2011. Dr. Sedlacek also answered grower questions via email, letters, and farm visits, wrote and edited an abstract, and mentored three undergraduate students and one high school student. Ms. Karen Friley, project Co-Investigator, assisted in designing experiments, collecting data, and mentoring three undergraduate students. Government Collaborator. Ms. Joyce Bender of the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission was utilized as a resource for native perennial plant selection and distribution. Grower Collaborations. This project established collaborations with two native plant nurseries and several organic and small farmers in Kentucky. Ms. Lori Belling of Meadowview Farm and Native Plant Landscapes and Ms. Maragaret Shea of Dropseed Native Plant Nursery have made their farmscapes available for sampling beneficial and pest insects and have made recommendations for which native perennials to use in the field experiment. Dr. Deborah Hill (Franklin County), Mr. Brian Geier (Franklin County), Mr. Larry Brandenburg (Shelby County), Ms. Sandee Corlett (Shelby County), Mr. Tony Powell (Kenton County), Mr. Dail Howard (Elliot County), and Mr. John Bell (Scott County) are blackberry grower cooperators who will be participating in the blackberry research. Mr. Bell and Mr. Brandenburg will also participate in the sweet corn companion plant experiment. Mr. Paul Riley (Kenton County), and Mr. Emmett Wright (Kenton County) are small, limited resource farmers who will be participating in the sweet corn component of the project. Demonstration plots will be grown on their farms. Collaborators and contacts: KSU Collaborators. We have collaborations with Dr. Michael Bomford, who specializes in organic and sustainable agriculture experimental design and Dr. Kirk Pomper, who specializes in pawpaw production and will provide assistance in extracting the acetogenins from pawpaw fruit and other botanical compounds from red cedar, button bush and Forsythia for insect pest bioassays. Industry contacts/collaborators. Dr. Mark Sigourney, sweet corn traits development manager at Syngenta Seed Co., will provide sweet corn seed for the duration of this project. Dr. Jan Meneley, CEO and product development manager at Agbio, Inc. will supply PredaLure lures for field experiments. Training or professional Development. We mentored three undergraduate students in beneficial/pest insect identification and alternative pest management concepts. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target Audiences. This research will meet the needs of small/limited resource vegetable farmers or those tobacco farmers considering diversifying into vegetable or fruit production, specifically sweet corn and blackberry production. This project also impacts entrepreneurs, farmers' markets, and other specialty fruit retailers. Information obtained will also be applicable to larger farms as well. This research will provide information to help answer questions regarding novel agricultural practices and their relationship to biodiversity and beneficial insects of interest to farmers. These are issues of interest to farmers and the general public as well. Efforts. A presentation was made in the Agricultural Sciences Section of the Kentucky Academy of Science Annual Meeting, November 12, 2010, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Change in knowledge. Conservation Biological Control seeks to preserve and increase abundance and activity of beneficial insect populations in crop settings. Understanding the effects of native perennial border plantings, potential effects of weed species and beneficial insect attractants on populations of beneficial insects in sweet corn and blackberry plantings will have a positive impact on Kentucky's organic and conventional sweet corn growers. Preliminary results of our laboratory experiments suggest that pigweed is repellent to pink lady beetles, which are one of the most abundant beneficial insects in sweet corn. Change in Action. Investigating methods of manipulating crop habitats will help growers improve biological control of pest insects in annual row and perennial bramble crops. As a result, all growers will have more sustainable methods to manage insect pests. Change in Condition. Improving efficacy of natural controls could lead to reductions in synthetic pesticide applications which would decrease costs for pest control, improve farm worker and environmental health and ultimately be more profitable for all growers. A better understanding of the interactions between beneficial insects and weed management would lead to more effective and efficient insect pest management in horticultural crops.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period