Source: WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
SITE-SPECIFIC CLIMATE FRIENDLY FARMING
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0224618
Grant No.
2011-67003-30341
Project No.
WNP07779
Proposal No.
2015-02314
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A3141
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2011
Project End Date
Mar 31, 2017
Grant Year
2015
Project Director
Brown, D. J.
Recipient Organization
WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
240 FRENCH ADMINISTRATION BLDG
PULLMAN,WA 99164-0001
Performing Department
Crop & Soil Sciences
Non Technical Summary
Of the four most important atmospheric greenhouse gasses enriched through human activities, only nitrous oxide emissions are due primarily to agriculture. Nitrous oxide has a global warming potential that is 298 times that of carbon dioxide over 100 years. Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations have been increasing at a rate of 0.26% per year for the past several decades, primarily due to the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. Fertilizer nitrogen is also lost through soluble nitrate leaching that contaminates water systems. Reductions in the application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers could have significant negative consequences for a growing world population given the crucial role that these fertilizers have played in cereal yield increases since WWII. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency through precision management of agricultural nitrogen in space and time will therefore play a central role in the reduction of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions. Spatially uniform nitrogen applications result in excessive nitrogen supplies for some field locations (nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions) and too little for other areas (less than economically optimum yields). Precision nitrogen management requires a greater understanding of the variability within fields and over time of factors supporting nitrogen management decisions such as water dynamics, yield, and nitrogen availability, utilization, movement and losses. The goals of this project are to (1) Develop an improved model that captures the variability over space and time of nitrous oxide emissions and related processes for complex agricultural fields under different management regimes; and (2) construct a field-scale, site-specific, decision-support tool for climate change mitigation by linking soil and crop sensor data to hydrology, cropping systems, and economic models. The Palouse wheat-based cropping region in Eastern Washington will serve as an ideal study area for this project, with mean annual precipitation ranging from 200 to 750 mm over just two counties (Whitman and Latah), substantial soil variability and hilly terrain. Intensive sampling, experimentation and monitoring will be focused on the Cook Agronomy Farm, a conservation precision farming research facility. We will also install sensors and make additional on-farm measurements at 8 additional farms spanning the Palouse. There are two major areas of innovation for this project. First, we will employ a range of innovative sensors, including: (a) infrared sensors that will continuously measure nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions in the field; (b) distributed wireless soil moisture and temperature sensor arrays; (c) a near-infrared soil probe to rapidly map soils within fields; and (d) field- and airborne-sensors to map crop growth and nitrogen uptake. Secondly, we will integrate models that represent (1) soil-plant-atmosphere interactions; (2) farm enterprise economics; and (3) watershed hydrology.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
6016030301010%
1010110206110%
4047210206010%
1110110205015%
2051549107015%
1020410107010%
1020110107010%
1021549107010%
2057210206010%
Goals / Objectives
Overall Goals 1. Develop an improved biophysical model that captures the landscape-scale, spatio-temporal variability of N2O emissions and related processes under different management regimes. 2. Construct a field-scale, site-specific, GIS-based, decision-support tool for climate change mitigation by linking soil and crop sensor data to landscape hydrology, cropping systems, and economic models. Specific Objectives For wheat systems in the Inland Northwest, we will: 1. Develop site-specific N recommendations based on manipulation of wheat density (spikes m-2) and applied N interactions with landscape/soil properties; 2. Predict N2O emissions as a function of both crop N and water use as regulated by site-specific soil and terrain properties through the use of an enhanced cropping systems model; 3. Map soil-water and NO3- dynamics at the field scale with a 10-m ground resolution and 1 hour time-step through the use of advanced soil and crop sensing technologies to parameterize a physically-based landscape hydrologic model. 4. Test and apply novel laser-based and multispectral remote sensing techniques to dynamically map spatial patterns of crop biomass, LAI, N content, and chlorophyll content throughout the growing season for inclusion in field-scale biophysical and economic models. 5. Construct high spatial resolution (< 30 m), field-scale soil feature maps using a penetrometer mounted Visible and Near-Infrared sensor and digital soil mapping techniques. 6. Semi-quantitatively estimate the denitrification/nitrification ratio of N2O emissions using correlations with d15N, N2O flux rate, and environmental conditions. 7. Compare net returns and GHG emissions under uniform and site-specific management. Develop management strategies for maximizing profit while limiting GHG emissions. Specific Deliverables 1. Uniform and site-specific crop budgets for CAF 2. Nitrification vs. Denitrification calibration and microbial communities 3. Economic optimization models 4. Crop biomass, N, chlorophyll maps with uncertainties 5. Detailed soil maps with uncertainties, validation 6. Delta-SOC for sites, with uncertainty analysis 7. Crop biomass, N, and chlorophyll maps with uncertainties, validation 8. Integrated Watershed Hydrology/CropSyst model with validation 9. GIS database of hydro-maps and data at all study sites 10. Microbial community controls on N2O pathways 11. Precision N wheat management recommendations & publications 12. Report on site-specific economic and environmental sustainability Dissemination pathways 1. Peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. 2. Extension and outreach presentations and publications. 3. A dedicated web page.
Project Methods
OVERVIEW This project consists of three main components: (a) a multi-factorial cropping systems experiment that examines N2O emissions as a function of crop density, N application rate, and soil-water-landscape unit; (b) the acquisition of spatially distributed soil and crop growth parameters via advanced sensing; and (c) linking the soil moisture routing (SMR) landscape hydrology model and farm-scale economic modeling to the CropSyst cropping systems biophysical model to construct a decision-support model for site-specific climate friendly farming. SITES The Palouse wheat-based cropping region in Eastern Washington will serve as an ideal study area, with mean annual precipitation from 200 to 750 mm, substantial soil variability and hilly terrain. Intensive sampling, experimentation and monitoring will be focused on the Cook Agronomy Farm, a conservation precision farming research facility. We will also install sensors and make episodic measurements at 8 additional sites spanning the Palouse precipitation range, 4 for model calibration and 4 for validation. NOVEL IDEAS The primary limitation for many of simulation models, including N2O emission models, is the need for calibration and validation field data. To meet this need, we embrace advanced measurement technologies. Employing two cavity ring-down infrared analyzers with automated multiplexed chambers, we will measure N2O emissions continuously for up to 32 microsites. With the continuous delta15N data also obtainable from these analyzers, we should be able to detect shifts in nitrification vs. denitrification N2O production. Distributed, wireless soil-water sensor arrays will provide spatio-temporal data for hydrologic model development and emission model calibration. For the application of this research to farm fields, we will use advanced soil and crop sensors. Sub-field crop growth and N uptake variability will be monitored using terrestrial and airborne LiDAR in combination with newly available red-edge satellite imagery. A Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) penetrometer will be used to inexpensively map soil features for improved hydrologic model parameterization. All of this data will facilitate the innovative integration of landscape hydrology and biophysical cropping systems models.

Progress 04/01/11 to 03/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:The SCF project has both a scientific goal (improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of the nitrogen cycle on complex farm fields) and a management goal (provide tools to support site-specific nitrogen management). For the first goal, we targeted scientists and extension specialists including agronomists, soil scientists, hydrologists, economists, cropping systems modelers and climate change scientists. Effort: This audience was reached through many presentations at scientific conferences and peer-reviewed publications. For the second goal, we targeted agricultural consultants, agricultural extension agents, agribusinesses, and growers. Efforts: This audience was reached through presentations at workshops and field days to growers, agribusiness, and consultants on the Palouse. Our four grower collaborators involved in the project served as ambassadors for precision agriculture for their communities.We also collaborated with the REACCH PNA project to develop online materials and videos on precision agriculture. The SCF project also extensively targeted k-12 students and teachers through the project duration, helping students with no first hand exposure to agriculture understand the science and management of agricultural systems with an emphasis on precision agriculture. Efforts: The remote sensing team (Vierling, Eitel and students) wrote k-12 pedogogy papers, presented at high schools, provided field tours for teachers at the WSU Cook Farm, and hosted a geospatial summer camp for k-12 students at the McCall Outdoor Science School (http://ecosensing.org/teaching/nr-101/almoss). Over two years, University of Idaho MS students collaborated with k-12 and 4H teachers to develop and pilot-test curricular materials to help K-12 students to become familiar with agriculture, precision agriculture and to foster a life-long interest in environmental awareness in rural and urban communities throughout Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Changes/Problems:As previously documented, the major changes in the project have been primarily due to the loss of two co-PDs. One was denied tenure (project soil microbiologist). Jeff Smith, our biogeochemist, passed away suddenly in the middle of the project. Not surprisingly, the projectbiochemistry activies and results were not as thorough as planned, but analysis of data collected is ongoing, funded in part by the USDA-ARS Cook Farm LTAR which built upon the SCF project. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Objective 1. Wheat density &amp; N interactions (Huggins) - Tabitha Brown, WSU PhD student(graduated), postdoc - Stephen Taylor, WSU MS student (completed) - Qiuping Peng, WSU PhD student - Jake Wavrin, WSU MS student Objective 2. Predictive modeling of spatio-temporal N-cycling and N2O emissions (Stockle) - Fidel Maureira, WSU postdoc - Haythem Ben Touhami, WSU postdoc Objective 3. Landscape hydrology (Brooks) - Todd Anderson - UI postdoc - Matt Yourek - UI MS student (graduated), UI research associate - Ayana Glover - UI MS student - Nicole Ward - UI MS Student (graduated), WSU research associate Undergraduates (UI) include Josie Flerchinger, David Brands, Audrey Martinez, William Payne, Levi Dawes, Michelle Chaffee Objective 4. Remote sensing of crop physiology (Vierling and Eitel) - Troy Magney, PhD student (UI), postdoc - Heather Greaves (UI), PhD - Brent Chouanard (UI) - Rebecca Schroeder (UI) - Zachery Hall (UI) - Kayla Bordelon (UI) - Jyoti Jennewein (UI) - Samuel Finch (UI) - Erica Guralnick (UI) - Allyson Schaeffer (UI) - Andrew D. Trogstad-Isaacson (UI) - Willie Adicoff (UI) - Nell Davis (UI) - Wes Koster (UI) - Ross Parsons (UI) Undergraduate (UI): Caleb Aaberg, Leanna Dann Objective 5. Soil sensing and mapping (Brown) - Ross Bricklemyer, PhD student, postdoc - Caley Gasch, WSU Postdoctoral Researcher - Matteo Poggio, WSU PhD student (graduated) - Maninder Chahal, WSU PhD student (graduate) - Yuanhong Song, WSU MS student (completed) - Jaimie Lambert, WSU MS in Ag. (graduated) - Ian Harkins (WSU) undergraduate Objective 6. Environmental and microbial controls on N2O emissions (Huggins &amp; Reardon) - Kirill Kostyanovsky, WSU Postdoctoral Research Associate - Emily Bruner, WSU PhD student - Lia Shrewsbury, WSU MS student - Caroline Melle, USDA-ARS Technician, trained in qPCR - Karmin Corliss, WSU Undergraduate Objective 7. Economic analysis (Painter) - Hilary Davis, MS student, researcher, UI - Shelley Jones (WSU, MS) How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results were disseminated to scientists via conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Industry audiences were reached via field days, industry meetings, workshops, extension publications, extension events, crop consultant training, and the development of web materials. K-12 students and teachers were reached via educational publications, collaborative curriculum development, field tours and workshops. (For more detail, see Targeted Audiences.) What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? IMPACT: From the outset, this project had two major goals: (1) Develop an improved biophysical model that captures the landscape-scale, spatio-temporal variability of N2O emissions and related processes under different management regimes; and (2) Construct a field-scale, site-specific, GIS-based, decision-support tool for climate change mitigation by linking soil and crop sensor data to landscape hydrology, cropping systems, and economic models. While the project team developed a field- and catchment-scale hydrologically connected cropping systems simulation model, CropSyst Microbasin, the insights gained from investigations into the model components proved most valuable. In particular, project research highlighted the extent to which hydrology, and in particularly effective soil depth and water storage, was by far the most important control on yield and nitrogen uptake. Similarly, while we developed a VisNIR penetrometer and other soil sensing techniques to map effective soil depth, the most effective tool for mapping soil properties was satellite remote sensing, and in particular the NDRE (Normalized Difference Red Edge) index that can be derived from satellites or drones with red-edge sensors. These remote sensing and related tools have now become a routine service component provided by regional crop consulting firms. Activities, data, results 1. Develop site-specific N recommendations based on manipulation of wheat density (spikes m-2) and applied N interactions with landscape/soil properties; The Objective 1 team lead by Dave Huggins implemented a number of cropping systems experiments to study the interactions of fertilizer level/timing, seeding density, and landscape position with response variables being yield, grain protein and nitrogen use efficiency. The seed density factor remains unresolved, but the results from these experiments have been used to develop a state-based, iterative precision N management framework. This tool is currently being evaluated for project Tier II sites by WSU postdoc Tabitha Brown (who implemented the experiments for her PhD) and University of Idaho student MS student Ayana Glover, who is scheduled to defend in fall of 2017. 2. Predict N2O emissions as a function of both crop N and water use as regulated by site-specific soil and terrain properties through the use of an enhanced cropping systems model. Claudio Stockle, Erin Brooks and their teams, developed CropSyst Microbasin to simulate cropping systems inclusive of lateral catchment hydrology. Nicole Ward and Fidel Maureira have successfully adapted the CropSyst Microbasin model to simulate hydrology, cropping systems and N cycling for the Leland grower-cooperator site. An assessment by Nicole Ward of the CropSyst Microbasin model indicated that moderate calibration the model can be replicate both surface runoff, soil moisture, and crop yield patterns with good accuracy at the Leland field site. The extensive and intensive soil, water and crop data collected for this effort will provide an immensely valuable resource for future watershed cropping systems modeling efforts. 3. Map soil-water and NO3- dynamics at the field scale with a 10-m ground resolution and 1 hour time-step through the use of advanced soil and crop sensing technologies to parameterize a physically-based landscape hydrologic model. Using the SMR model Matt Yourek and Erin Brooks demonstrated the extent to which soil, topography, and crop type controls the uptake and distribution of soil moisture at each of the Tier II sites across the Palouse climosequence. Modeled soil moisture was found to be a dominant control on crop nitrogen uptake, biomass and yield. When all fields and crops are taken together, the SMR model predicts wheat yield with RMSE of 22 bu/ac (r2 = 0.37, p &lt; 0.01). Based upon these results, Erin and Matt developed a water balance based landscape classification that incorporates precipitation, effective soil depth for water storage and landscape position. This framework has the potential to provide a consistent framework for precision management guidance in the Palouse region and other regions that depend upon stored soil water for crop production. 4. Test and apply novel laser-based and multispectral remote sensing techniques to dynamically map spatial patterns of crop biomass, LAI, N content, and chlorophyll content throughout the growing season for inclusion in field-scale biophysical and economic models. The remote sensing team led by Lee Vierling, Jan EItel, and graduate student Troy Magney explored the use of vegetation indices (VIs) derived from high resolution (5x5 meter) RapidEye satellite data to estimate nitrogen (N) uptake by wheat (Triticum spp.). The Normalized Difference Red-Edge Index (NDRE) was the top performing VI, and was able to predict wheat N uptake with an R2 of 0.81, a slope of 1.06, and a RMSE of 15.94 kg/ha for four fields over three seasons. This team utilized Spectral Reflectance Sensors (SRS, Decagon Devices,Inc., Pullman, WA) to measure the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) through the 2015 field season. PRI measurements correlated highly with daily soil and environmental dynamics. 5. Construct high spatial resolution (&lt; 30 m), field-scale soil feature maps using a penetrometer mounted Visible and Near-Infrared sensor and digital soil mapping techniques. Brown, Bricklemyer and Poggio designed, constructed and evaluated the in situ performance of a newly designed Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) penetrometer to predict clay content for ten fields across the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a standard error of prediction (SEP) = 5.7% clay content for in situ Vis-NIR spectroscopy, sufficient for semi-quantitative soil mapping. 6. Semi-quantitatively estimate the denitrification/nitrification ratio of N2O emissions using correlations with d15N, N2O flux rate, and environmental conditions. There has been ongoing nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas flux monitoring using automated chambers as part of collaborations with the REACCH project. The data from these experiments is still being analyzed, but initial results suggest that the greatest nitrous oxide emissions for the Palouse occur during wet winter conditions with temperatures just above freezing. Publication of this work is ongoing. 7. Compare net returns and GHG emissions under uniform and site-specific management. Current cost and returns estimates are now available for producing crops under uniform management in this region, based on extensive interviews of producers over a 5-year period. Economic results for site specific farming has been calculated for the Tier 2 growers in the project. These results have informed modeling efforts (CropSyst Basin) for progress toward economic optimization tools for growers. Key Outcomes There are a number of changes in knowledge due to the Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming project as documented above. These changes in knowledge have primarily been in the scientific community, but there is growing awareness of the practical findings in the grower community. The main change in action realized over the course of this project has been the adoption of precision management practices by growers primarily as a service provided by agricultural service companies. The primary tool employed to date has been the use of NDRE rapid eye satellite imagery to capture within field variability in crop nitrogen uptake. A change in condition resulting in reduced N2O emissions is likely to be realized long after this project is completed as growers are encouraged to reduce fall fertilizer applications, and precision management tools will help farmers reduce fertilizer applications on soils with low water storage - particularly for spring crops.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Ward, N.K., Maureira, F., St�ckle, C.O., Brooks, E.S., Painter, K.M., Yourek, M.A., Gasch, C.K. 2017. Simulating field-scale variability and precision management with a 3D hydrologic cropping systems model. Precision Agriculture (Published on-line April 7, 2017).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2017 Citation: Taylor, S.E., D.R. Huggins , D.J. Brown (in review). Evaluating Site-Specific Nitrogen Application Using Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Components. Journal of Precision Agriculture
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gasch, C.K.*, D.J. Brown, E.S. Brooks, M. Yourek, M. Poggio, D.R. Cobos, and C.S. Campbell, 2017. A pragmatic, automated approach for retroactive calibration of soil moisture sensors using a two-step, soil-specific correction. Comp and Elec in Ag. 137:29-40.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Poggio, M., D.J. Brown, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2017. Comparison of in situ, intact core and dried-sieved soil Vis-NIR for field- to regional-scale clay content estimation. European Journal of Soil Science (accepted)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Gasch, C.K., D.J. Brown, C.S. Campbell, D.R. Cobos, E.S. Brooks, M. Chahal, M. Poggio, and D.R. Huggins, 2017. A field-scale sensor network data set for monitoring and modeling the spatial and temporal variation of soil water content in a dryland agricultural field. Water Resources Research. (in review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Maaz, M.T., W.F. Schillinger, S. Machado, E. Brooks, J.L. Johnson-Maynard, L.E. Young, F.L Young, I. Leslie, A. Glover, I.J. Madsen, A. Esser, H.P. Collins, and W.L. Pan. 2017. Impact of climate change adaptation strategies on winter wheat and cropping system performance across precipitation gradients in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. Frontiers in Environmental Science. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2017.00023.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: St�ckle, C.O., S. Higgins, R. Nelson, J. Abatzoglou, D. Huggins, W. Pan, T. Karimi, J. Antle, S. Eigenbrode, and E.S. Brooks. 2017. Evaluating opportunities for an increased role of winter crops as adaptation to climate change in dryland cropping systems of the U.S. Inland Pacific Northwest. Climate Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-1950-z.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Chi, J., F. Maureira, S. Waldo, S.N. Pressley, C.O. St�ckle, P.T. O'Keeffe, W.L. Pan, E.S. Brooks, D.R. Huggins and Brian K. Lamb 2017. Carbon and Water Budgets in Multiple Wheat-Based Cropping Systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest US: Comparison of CropSyst Simulations with Eddy Covariance Measurements. Front. Ecol. Evol. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2017.00050.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pan, W.L., W.F. Schillinger, F.L. Young, E. Kirby, G.G. Yorgey, K.E. Borrelli, E. Brooks, V.McCracken, T.M. Maaz, S. Machado, I. Madsen, J.L. Johnson-Maynard, L. Port, K. Painter, D. Huggins, A.D. Esser, H.P. Collins, C.O. Stockle and S.D. Eigenbrode Integrating old principles and new technologies into win-win scenarios for farm and climate. Submitted to Frontiers in Environmental Science.


Progress 04/01/15 to 03/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience:The Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming project is targeting two main audiences. First, as a scientific research project we are disseminating our research findings to the scientific community, including climate change, environmental and agronomic scientists. Secondly, we are disseminating our findings in more accessible and applied form to the agricultural industry, including growers and agricultural consultants. We continued to work hand in hand with growers throughout the Palouse region representing our Tier 2 farm fields to develop remote sensing techniques to improve N management in wheat systems. In addition, we participated in outreach activity. For example, University of Idaho Masters students Erica Guralnick, Allyson Schaeffer, and Andrew D. Trogstad-Isaacson worked in collaboration with K-12 teachers to develop and pilot-test a curriculum to help K-12 students to become familiar with precision agriculture and to foster a life-long interest in awareness of environmental stewardship in rural and urban communities throughout Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. We have communicated the results of the project to date through a number of extension and stakeholder meetings. Presentations were made at 2015 Precision Ag field tour of farms in Latah County ID, the 2016 regional Cropping Conference in Kennwick, WA, the Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers (HOIST) Research program, the International Arid Cereals Meeting- Transitioning Cereal Systems to Adapt to Climate Change in Minneapolis MN, and the tri-societies meeting. We also produced several extension articles that were included in the REACCH annual report. For economic research,scientists, researchers, producers and students were addressed at the professional meetings where posters were presented, including the Transitioning Cereal Systems to Adapt to Climate Change International Conference, Nov. 13-14, Minneapolis, MN, the ASA/CSSA/SSSA Annual Meetings, Nov. 15-18, Minneapolis, MN., and the 2016 Cropping Systems Conference, Jan. 12-13, Kennewick.Growers, ag industry professionals, and Extension audiences were reached with presentations on crop enterprise budgets for this region. Researchers have presented soil and cropping systems research results at national scientific meetings (e.g. ASA-CSSA-SSSA), regional extension events, and crop consultant events like the annual Far West meeting. Changes/Problems:As discussed in our request for a no-cost extension, the remote sensing, soil mapping, hydrology and cropping systems components of the project have largely been completed on schedule or with minor delays. The exception is for work on the Tier 3 sites, which has initiated a year later than anticipated due to delay in initiating Tier 2 work (due to April 1 project start). So objectives 1, 3, 4, and 5 are largely on schedule, except for the Tier 3 site (validation) work. Much of this work has or soon will be published, and the remote sensing tools developed by this project are already being used by a regional agricultural consulting firm (The McGregor Company). Due to equipment problems, Dr. Smith&#39;s health and the loss of the initial project microbiologist, Objectives 2 and 6 have been delayed. These objectives are currently and will be a focus in Year 6 of the project.These delays have rippled through into the synthesis parts of the project, includingCropSyst scenario modeling, economic analysis, and most importantly the development of decision support tools for growers. Synthesis will be the primary focus of the no-cost extension-funded Year 6. The other major change is that our tool development objective has become increasingly remote-sensing focused, as that appears to be the tool more readily available to crop consultants and growers. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Objective 1. Wheat density &amp; N interactions (Huggins) - Tabitha Brown, WSU PhD student (graduated) - Stephen Taylor, WSU MS student Objective 2. Predictive modeling of spatio-temporal N-cycling and N2O emissions (Stockle) - Fidel Maureira, Associate in Research, development of CropSyst-Microbasin and application to selected watersheds Objective 3. Landscape hydrology (Brooks) - Matt Yourek - UI MS student (graduated), UI research associate - Ayana Glover - UI MS student - Nicole Ward - UI MS Student (graduated), WSU research associate - Josie Flerchinger - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help - David Brands - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help - Audrey Martinez - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help - William Payne - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help - Levi Dawes - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help - Michelle Chaffee - UI Undergraduate Irregular Help Objective 4. Remote sensing of crop physiology (Vierling and Eitel) - Troy Magney, PhD student (UI) (graduated) - Samuel Finch, MS student (UI) - Caleb Aaberg (Undergraduate researcher, University of Washington) Objective 5. Soil sensing and mapping (Brown) - Caley Gasch, WSU Postdoctoral Researcher - Matteo Poggio, WSU PhD student (graduated) - Yuanhong Song, WSU PhD student - Ian Guest, technician - Jaimie Lambert, WSU MS in Ag. (graduated) Objective 6. Environmental and microbial controls on N2O emissions (Huggins &amp; Reardon) - Kirill Kostyanovsky, WSU Postdoctoral Research Associate - Emily Bruner, WSU PhD student - Caroline Melle, USDA-ARS Technician, trained in qPCR - Karmin Corliss, WSU Undergraduate Objective 7. Economic analysis (Painter) - Hilary Davis, MS student, UI How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results have been disseminated via (1) talks and posters at scientific conferences; (2) scientific publications; (3) talks at extension meetings and industry-focused conferences; (4) web extension and video material in collaboration with REACCH and (4) field days. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?The remote sensing, soil mapping, hydrology and cropping systems components of the project have largely been completed on schedule or with minor delays. The exception is for work on the Tier 3 sites, which has initiated a year later than anticipated due to delay in initiating Tier 2 work (due to April 1 project start). So objectives 1, 3, 4, and 5 are largely on schedule, except for the Tier 3 site (validation) work. Much of this work has or soon will be published, and the remote sensing tools developed by this project are already being used by a regional agricultural consulting firm (The McGregor Company). Objectives 2 and 6 have been delayed. These objectives are currently and will be a focus in Year 6 of the project.CropSyst scenario modeling, economic analysis, and most importantly the development of decision support tools for growers. Synthesis will be the primary focus of the no-cost extension-funded Year 6.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? IMPACT: The biggest impact of the project to date is that the largest regional ag service company, McGregor Inc., has adopted SCF-developed remote sensing N uptake mapping tools for a new precision management service. They have purchased Rapid Eye imagery for 5 times/year and multiple years covering their service region; hired a remote sensing/GIS specialist and developed inexpensive spatial tools to help growers make better management decisions. As remote sensing provides a low-cost entry into precision N management, we are working to link our process models and soil mapping to remote sensing, terrain models and yield maps. These developments reflect a substantial change in knowledge regarding precision agriculture, and a growing change in behavior with progressive farmers adopting a few precision management strategies. Objective 1. No new experiments to report or data collected. Tabitha Brown completed her PhD and has been working on manuscript preparation. Using available Cook Agronomy Farm data, Dr. Tabitha Brown has developed a simple iterative nitrogen management tool based upon yield and protein content that is now being evaluated for Tier II sites. Objective 2. Nicole Ward and Fidel Maureira have successfully adapted the CropSyst Microbasin model to simulate hydrology, cropping systems and N cycling for the Leland grower-cooperator site, and are now applying this model to the other research sites. This work allows us to simulate site-specific greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen use efficiency, water use efficiency and profit under different management and climate scenarios. Objective 3. Using the SMR model Matt Yourek demonstrated the extent to which soil, topography, and crop type controls the uptake and distribution of soil moisture at each of the Tier II sites across the Palouse climosequence. An assessment by Nicole Ward of the CropSyst Microbasin model indicated that moderate calibration the model can be replicate both surface runoff, soil moisture, and crop yield patterns with good accuracy at the Leland field site. She was able to demonstrate the use of the model to evaluate the economic returns for various variable rate fertilizer strategies at both the hillslope and field scale. This information is now being used to assess the degree to which crop performance varies within a field and to identify the key factors that drive this variability. Ultimately this will lead to management strategies to improve the economic viability and minimize the environmental impact through site-specific variable rate fertilizer application strategies. Objective 4. We explored the use of vegetation indices (VIs) derived from high resolution (5x5 meter) RapidEye satellite data to estimate nitrogen (N) uptake by wheat (Triticum spp.). Twelve of the most commonly used VIs were computed for images collected during &#39;peak greenness&#39; to determine which VIs would be most appropriate for estimating N uptake. The Normalized Difference Red-Edge Index (NDRE) was the top performing VI, and was able to predict wheat N uptake with an R2of 0.81, a slope of 1.06, and a RMSE of 15.94 kg/ha. Our results suggest that model performance was strong across all farms over all three seasons. Maps of satellite N uptake were created. Further, we assessed the suitability of an autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner (ATLS) to monitor crop growth dynamics and calibrate satellite imagery for estimating crop biomass. The ATLS derived crop height explained nearly three-quarters of the variability in destructively sampled wheat biomass. Satellite-based crop biomass estimates calibrated with ATLS data captured the variability in wheat biomass throughout a commercial farm field with a biomass error of ~700 kg ha-1(RMSE). Finally, a team of REACCH (Lamb, Pressley, Chi) and SCF(Vierling, Magney) researchers mentored a U. of Washington undergraduate (Caleb Aaberg) to evaluate a new remote sensing method for assessing carbon exchange relative to direct eddy covariance flux measurements over a wheat crop. We utilized Spectral Reflectance Sensors (SRS, Decagon Devices, Inc., Pullman, WA) to measure the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) through the 2015 field season. We found that NDVI measurements correlated highly with crop physical changes through the growing season while PRI measurements correlated highly with daily chemical and biological crop changes. Objective 5. Using spatial data from the VisNIR penetrometer, electromagnetic inductance sensor and terrain models, we have generated 3D soil property maps (clay content, bulk density, depth to restrictive layer) that are used as inputs for hydrologic and CropSyst Microbasin modeling. We have found that the use of VisNIR with insertion force significantly improves prediction of bulk density relative to insertion force alone (with standard penetrometer). One paper has been published, another is in review and a third is soon to be submitted. Two manuscripts have been prepared on soil moisture sensor networks. In the first, we found that using pedotransfer functions to estimate field capacity, wilting point and saturation water content provided an inexpensive way to calibrate soil moisture sensors in situ. Secondly, we have prepared a manuscript describing the dataset and ancillary data (soils, crop performance, climatic, remote sensing) related to our soil moisture network. This dataset will provide a valuable resource for modelers - in addition to our own modeling team. Objective 6. The work on the biogeochemical controls of denitrification and N2O emission under spatial and temporal variation was amended with the microbiology of the denitrifying and nitrifying populations and is currently in the final steps of revision. Additional experimentation included quantification of a second denitrifier population and archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (nitrifiers). The results indicate that soil chemistry rather than microbiology has a stronger influence on denitrification activity. The genomic data characterizing the bacterial and fungal communities has been collected and is awaiting analysis. DNA was extracted at two sites, 3 collection depths and by using 4 DNA extraction methods to identify specific populations sensitive to extraction bias. New experimentation included quantification of the bacterial and fungal communities using quantitative PCR and the data is in the final analysis steps. There has been ongoing nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas flux monitoring using automated chambers as part of collaborations with the REACCH project. The data from these experiments is still being analyzed, but initial results suggest that the greatest nitrous oxide emissions for the Palouse occur during wet winter conditions with temperatures just above freezing. Objective 7. Current cost and returns estimates are now available for producing crops under uniform management in this region, based on extensive interviews of producers over a 5-year period (see websites listed under Publications). Economic results for site specific farming has been calculated for the Tier 2 growers in the project. These results have informed modeling efforts (CropSyst Basin) for progress toward economic optimization tools for growers. Use of partial budgeting to analyze adoption of site specific tools has been demonstrated in a classroom setting (see Other Products, Teaching) as well as in a research team meeting that included growers and students (see Other Products, Presentations). Over the next reporting period, data will be provided to update GHG emissions for site specific farming methods in order to incorporate environmental with economic outcomes. CAF data for the previous 3 years will be updated and incorporated into the economic results.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Poggio, M., D.J. Brown*, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2015. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture,115:12-20. DOI:10.1016/j.compag.2015.05.002
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Poggio, M., D.J. Brown, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2015. In situ clay estimation with a new VisNIR penetrometer design. European Journal of Soil Science
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Gasch, C.K., D.J. Brown, E.S. Brooks, M. Yourek, M. Poggio, D.R. Cobos, and C.S. Campbell. Retroactive calibration of soil moisture sensors using a two-step, soil specific correction process. Vadose Zone Journal
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Piaskowski, J.L., D.J. Brown, K.G. Campbell, 2016. Soluble stem carbohydrates in spring wheat: NIR calibration and prediction of drought response. Agronomy Journal, 108: 285-293. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2015.0173
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Gasch, C.K., T. Hengl, B. Gr�ler, H. Meyer, T. Magney, D.J. Brown, 2015. Spatio-temporal interpolation of soil moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity in 3D+T: the Cook Farm data set. Spatial Statistics, 14: 70-90. DOI:10.1016/j.spasta.2015.04.001
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bruner, E.A., P.A. Okubara, R. Abi-Ghanem, D.J. Brown, and C.L. Reardon, 2015. Use of pressure cycling technology for cell lysis and recovery of bacterial and fungal communities from soil. BioTechniques 58(4): 171-180. DOI: 10.2144/000114273
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Rossel R.A.V., Behrens T., Ben-Dor E., Brown D.J., Dematte J.A.M., Shepherd K.D., Shi Z., Stenberg B., Stevens A., Adamchuk V., Aichi H., Barthes B.G., Bartholomeus H.M., Bayer A.D., Bernoux M., Bottcher K., Brodsky L., Du C.W., Chappell A., Fouad Y., Genot V., Gomez C., Grunwald S., Gubler A., Guerrero C., Hedley C.B., Knadel M., Morras H.J.M., Nocita M., Ramirez-Lopez L., Roudier P., Rufasto Campos E.M., Sanborn P., Sellitto V.M., Sudduth K.A., Rawlins B.G., Walter C., Winowiecki L.A., Hong S.Y., Ji W. (2016) A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil. Earth-Science Reviews 155:198-230. DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.01.012.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrewsbury, L.H., J.L. Smith, D.R. Huggins, L. Carpenter-Boggs and C.L. Reardon. Submitted. Abundance of denitrifiers influence soil denitrification rates in topographically diverse agricultural landscape. Soil Biol. Biochem.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Shrewsbury, L.H., J.L. Smith, D.R. Huggins, L. Carpenter-Boggs and C.L. Reardon. Submitted. Abundance of denitrifiers influence soil denitrification rates in topographically diverse agricultural landscape. In Revision for Resubmission to Soil Biol. Biochem.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Reardon, C.L. and S.B. Wuest. 2016. Soil amendments yield persisting effects on the microbial communitiesa 7-year study. Applied Soil Ecology 101: 107-116. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.12.013.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Long, D.S., F.L. Young, W.F. Schillinger, C.L. Reardon, J.D. Williams, B.L. Allen, et al. 2016. Development of Dryland Oilseed Production Systems in Northwestern Region of the USA. BioEnergy Research: 1-18. doi:10.1007/s12155-016-9719-1.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Nicole Ward. (2015) Improving Agricultural Nitrogen Use through Policy Incentivized Management Strategies: Precision Agriculture on the Palouse. Masters of Science Thesis in Water Resources at the University of Idaho, Moscow.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Matt Yourek. (2016) An Investigation of Crop Senescence Patterns Observed in Palouse Region Fields Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling. Masters of Science
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bellmore, R. A., J. A. Harrison, J. A. Needoba, E. Brooks, and C. Kent Keller (2015), Hydrologic control of dissolved organic matter concentration and quality in a semiarid artificially drained agricultural catchment, Water Resour. Res., 51, doi:10.1002/2015WR016884.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Waldo, S., J. Chi, S. Pressley, P. OKeeffe, W. Pan, E. Brooks, D. Huggins, C. Stockle, B. Lamb. 2015. Assessing carbon dynamics at high and low rainfall agricultural sites in the inland Pacific Northwest US using the eddy covariance method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 218-219:25-36, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.018.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Chi, J., S. Waldo, S.N. Pressley, P. O'Keeffe, W.L. Pan, E. Brooks, D.R. Huggins, C.O. Stockle, and B.K. Lamb. 2015. Assessing carbon and water dynamics of no-till and conventional tillage cropping systems in the inland Pacific Northwest US using the eddy covariance method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 218-219:37-49, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.019.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Magney, T. S., Eitel, J. U. H., Huggins, D. R., & Vierling, L. A. (2016). Proximal NDVI derived phenology improves in-season predictions of wheat quantity and quality. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 217, 4660. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.009
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Magney, T. S., Vierling, L. A., Eitel, J. U. H., Huggins, D. R., & Garrity, S. R. (2016). Response of high frequency Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) measurements to environmental conditions in wheat. Remote Sensing of Environment, 173, 8497. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.11.013
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Parsons, R., Eitel, J.U.H., Whitney, B., Eitel, K.B., Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A. (2015). Connecting the Dots: Lasers Link Students to their 3-D World. 2015. Science Scope
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Finch, S. Estimating Nitrogen Content of Dryland Wheat Fields Using Landsat Imagery. Masters of Science Thesis, University of Idaho, May 2015.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Magney, T.S. Assessing the spatial and temporal controls on plant function using ground-based remote sensing. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Idaho, May 2015.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Poggio, M. Proximal soil sensing for estimation of site-specific soil characteristics on the Palouse. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, August 2015.
  • Type: Other Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2016 Citation: Yorgey, G.G., Kantor, S.I., Painter, K., Davis, H., and L.A. Bernacchi. 2016. Precision nitrogen application: Eric Odberg (Farmer to Farmer Case Study Series). Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, Pullman, WA (in press).


Progress 04/01/14 to 03/31/15

Outputs
Target Audience: The Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming project is targeting two main audiences. First, as a scientific research project we are disseminating our research findings to the scientific community, including climate change, environmental and agronomic scientists. Secondly, we are disseminating our findings in more accessible and applied form to the agricultural industry, including growers and agricultural consultants. Efforts: In the reporting period we collaborated with the REACCH project in the development of a case study focused on precision agriculture and highlighting the work of an SCF grower-collaborator. This case study included an extension publication, a web page, and a video. We also collaborated with REACCH in hosting a Precision Agriculture field day. Project co-PDs gave talks to growers at extension events and agricultural consultant training events. While most of the effort has been devoted to reaching wheat growers and related consultants, in the past year we also presented project techniques to the tree fruit industry, posted a video to youtube, and had extensive coverage in the Good Fruit Grower magazine. While all of our work has been on wheat-based systems, many of the sensing technologies readily translate to other agricultural systems. Changes/Problems: One of our co-PDs, Dr. Jeffrey Smith, passed away last year, and the project is still adjusting to his loss. At present, the biogeochemical experimentation and modeling component of the project is somewhat behind schedule. Dr. Huggins has taken up much of the responsibility for this work, with help from other team members. This hasn&#39;t lead to a change in approach but both spending and activities are behind in this are and might require a no-cost extension to complete. The development and application of the 3D CropSyst model has also lagged behind schedule. Going forward, much of the application work will be lead by Dr. Erin Brooks and his team with Dr. Stockle&#39;s team focusing on model coding and refinement. Integrating the biogeochemical data into this model has been delayed by the problem noted above. Final model runs and the resulting integrated products have also been delayed as a consequence. While we hope to obtain instruments capable of measuring nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in congunction with automated chamber experiments, the original instrument specified was never released commercially by Picarro. We were only recently able to obtain such an instrument from Los Gatos. We are currently working to develop calibration protocols for this instrument and hope to deploy in the field in the fall of 2015. Again, this doesn&#39;t represent a major change in plan but will delay analysis of the results. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Almost all students, postdocs and staff contribute to multiple objectives. The list below indicates the primary responsibilities for team members. Objective 1. Wheat density &amp; N interactions (Huggins) - Tabitha Brown, WSU NSF IGERT NSPIRE PhD student - Jake Wavrin, WSU MS student - Stephen Taylor, WSU MS student Objective 2. Predictive modeling of spatio-temporal N-cycling and N2O emissions (Stockle) - Haythem Ben Touhami, Post-doctoral Research Associate, application of CropSyst-Microbasin to precision N management - Fidel Maureira, Associate in Research, development of CropSyst-Microbasin and application to selected watersheds Objective 3. Landscape hydrology (Brooks) - Todd Anderson - Post Doctorate UI - Matt Yourek - UI MS student - Ayana Glover - UI MS student - Amy Shaw - Undergrad UI - Holly Clark - Undergrad UI - Jacob Gray - Undergrad UI - Levi Burton - Undergrad UI - Levi Dawes - Undergrad UI - Matt Francis - Undergrad UI - Matthew Williams - Undergrad UI - Nicole Ward - MS graduate student - Nora Nelson - Undergrad UI - Kate Wicher - Undergrad UI - Liam Knudsen - Undergrad UI - Audrey Martinez - Undergrad UI - Jashvina Devadoss - Undergrad UI - Parker Burton - Undergrad - Bill Payne - Undergrad, McNair Scholar, UI - Charles Guthrie - REU-EPSCoR Undergrad Objective 4. Remote sensing of crop physiology (Vierling and Eitel) - Troy Magney, PhD student (UI) - Heather Greaves, PhD student (UI) - Samuel Finch, MS student (UI) - Leanna Dann, Undergrad (UI) - Spencer Eusden, Undergrad (with funding from Bowdoin College) - Dirk Anderson, UI MS student - Ross Parsons, UI MS student - Jyoti Jennewein, UI MS student - Erica Guralnick, UI MS student - Allyson Schaeffer, UI MS student - Andrew Trogstad-Isaacson, UI MS student Objective 5. Soil sensing and mapping (Brown) - Caley Gasch, WSU Postdoctoral Researcher - Ross Bricklemyer, WSU postdoctoral researcher - Matteo Poggio, WSU PhD student - Yuanhong Song, WSU PhD student - Ian Guest, technician - Ian Harkin, WSU Undergrad - Jaimie Lambert, WSU Undergrad Objective 6. Environmental and microbial controls on N2O emissions (Huggins &amp; Reardon) - Kirill Kostyanovsky, WSU Postdoctoral Research Associate - Emily Bruner, WSU NSF IGERT NSPIRE PhD student - Lia Shrewsbury, WSU MS student - Elizabeth Nelsen, WSU Undergrad Objective 7. Economic analysis (Painter) - Hilary Davis, MS student, UI How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Results have been disseminated via (1) talks and posters at scientific conferences; (2) scientific publications; (3) talks at extension meetings and industry-focused conferences; (4) web extension and video material in collaboration with REACCH and (4) field days, including a dedicated precision agriculture field day last summer. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? At this point of the project, most of the individual components have been completed and field experiment activities have been reduced to baseling monitoring. The focus for the final leg of the project is to (a) run integrated simulation models (using all available data) for our selected agricultural catchments to evaluate management impacts under multiple climate scenarios; (b) evaluate the economics of management strategies under various climate scenarios; and (b) generate a suite of precision guidance products that growers and agricultural consultants can use to zone map fields and appropriately manage those zones. We are in the process of designing a dedicated website that will get our findings and recommendations out to industry.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? IMPACT: Utilizing cutting-edge sensing technologies and computationally intensive simulation models, the site-specific, climate-friendly farming project is developing precision nitrogen management strategies for wheat-based production systems. We have developed a 3D simulation model that links watershed hydrology to crop growth and soil processes--allowing us to simulate different management scenarios with a view to maximizing profit and minimizing environmental impacts. Model results can be compared to data from five agricultural catchments (including four working farms) that have been extensively mapped and monitored. When nitrogen is applied only when and where it is needed, nitrogen losses can be minimized without impacting yields or grain protein. There has been a dramatic change in knowledge on the Palouse over the past four years regarding precision agriculture. Extensive talks by project members have generated growing interest from growers and agricultural consultants in learning how to use remote and soil sensing to map field-scale variability, and how to zone fields for site-specific management. At present, most Palouse growers want to adopt precision management practices, and are waiting for the right equipment and expertise to make that happen. Goals 1. Develop an improved biophysical model that captures the landscape-scale, spatio-temporal variability of N2O emissions and related processes under different management regimes. 2.Construct a field-scale, site-specific, GIS-based, decision-support tool for climate change mitigation by linking soil and crop sensor data to landscape hydrology, cropping systems, Objectives Objective 1. Develop site-specific N recommendations based on manipulation of wheat density (spikes m-2) and applied N interactions with landscape/soil properties. No new experiments to report or data collected. Tabitha Brown (PhD student) has been working on data analysis and writing up her dissertation. Objective 2.Predict N2O emissions as a function of both crop N and water use as regulated by site-specific soil and terrain properties through the use of an enhanced cropping systems model. No new experiments or data to report. During this reporting period, the modeling team has been busy coding the model to run efficiency in three dimensions linking the catchment hydrology model to the original CropSyst simulation model. Objective 3. Map soil-water and NO3- dynamics at the field scale with a 10-m ground resolution and 1 hour time-step through the use of advanced soil and crop sensing technologies to parameterize a physically-based landscape hydrologic model. Activities have focused on data analysis rather than new experiments. Nicole Ward (MS Student) has run a preliminary version of the 3D CropSyst model for one research catchment under multiple management scenarios, and computed the economic benefits from precision management. Matt Yourek (MS Student) has run hydrology models for our Tier II grower-cooperator catchments both with and without detailed soil maps. He is comparing his model results to (a) 12 instrumented locations within each catchment; (b) catchment outlet flows; and (c) late-season remote sensing imagery capturing early senesence. Results from the work of Ms. Ward and Mr. Yourek should be published in the next year. We have developed a new method to calibrate individual soil moisture sensors using pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at wilting point, saturation and field capacity. We have been able to calibrate capacitance sensors with an error of just 0.056 volumetric units, similar to the error of our reference method. Finally, we have completed an analysis of soil moisture data at the Cook Agronomy Farm site, with five years of hourly data at 42 locations and 5 depths. Using environmental covariates, we were able to explain 93% of the variance in volumetric water content, and 98% of the variance in soil temperature. Objective 4.Test and apply novel laser-based and multispectral remote sensing techniques to dynamically map spatial patterns of crop biomass, LAI, N content, and chlorophyll content throughout the growing season for inclusion in field-scale biophysical and economic models. During the 2014 growing season, we tested the use of an autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner (see Eitel et al., 2013) for providing physical estimates of crop biomass. We conducted a major field experiment coupling four nitrogen treatment levels and soil moisture monitoring with continuous in situ crop sensing provided by inexpensive Decagon photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and NDVI sensors. For these experiments, plots were also scanned by an autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner to provide 3D canopy structure for biomass estimation. Analysis of the results from this experiment are ongoing. Analysis of data collected in previous years has yield remote sensing models (based upon the NDRE index) that can predict total above ground nitrogen with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 20.5 kg/ha and r-squared of 0.72 (explaining 72% of the variation). Objective 5. Construct high spatial resolution (&lt; 30 m), field-scale soil feature maps using a penetrometer mounted Visible and Near-Infrared sensor and digital soil mapping techniques. We now have a robust, working soil VisNIR penetrometer that can collected Visible and Near-Infrared reflectance in situ as well as penetrometer tip resistance in dry clayey soils. In a direct comparison of the two the penetrometer with a commercial lab foreoptic, pearson coefficients for each wave band varied between 0.85 and 0.98 (n = 386). From the interrogation of 204 soil profiles at 10 sites across three states, we have developed a model for in situ VisNIR that predicts soil clay with an RMSE of 5.7% clay content and r-squared of 0.65. Current year field experiments have focused on estimating and mapping bulk density using the penetrometer. While analysis of this data is ongoing, preliminary results demonstrate an ability to capture 35% of the variance of bulk density within a heterogeneous field. And our initial maps have prompted one of our grower-cooperators to rip up plow pans that were likely restricting root penetration and water infiltration. Objective 6.Semi-quantitatively estimate the denitrification/nitrification ratio of N2O emissions using correlations with d15N, N2O flux rate, and environmental conditions. In order to quantify rates of nitrate and ammonium production in response to site-specific setting 72 ion exchange resin cores were installed during the Year 3 growing season at two Tier 2 sites. Year 4 activities involved the installation of an additional 81 cores within one Tier 2 site in conjunction with a fertilizer treatment study. These measurements will be used to quantify in-situnitrate and ammonium production rates in response to fertilizer addition and landscape setting. Results from this study are still being analyzed. We now have deep sequence data on soil microbial communities at multiple sites, particularly nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Analysis of this data is ongoing. There has been ongoing nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas flux monitoring using automated chambers as part of collaborations with the REACCH project. The data from these experiments is still being analyzed, but initial results suggest that the greatest nitrous oxide emissions for the Palouse occur during wet winter conditions with temperatures just above freezing. Objective 7.Compare net returns and GHG emissions under uniform and site-specific management. Develop management strategies for maximizing profit while limiting GHG emissions. In the past year, Kate Painter worked with the hydrology team (Nicole Ward in particular) to apply economic analyses to the results from 3D Cropsyst simulations. These results are still being analyzed, but when competed they will allow an evaluation of the economic benefits of precision management.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, T., D.R. Huggins, C. Kruger, and K. Keller. 2014. Developing Nitrogen Use Efficiency Performance Criteria to Optimize Wheat Yield and Evaluate Site-Specific Management. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bruner, E.A., D.J. Brown, E. Brooks and L. Carpenter-Boggs, 2014. Quantifying in-Situ Nitrate and Ammonium Production in Response to Site-Specific Setting in No-till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Long Beach, CA, Oct. 21-24 (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bruner, E.A., Okubara, P.A., Abi-Ghanem, R., Brown, D.J., and Reardon, C.L., 2014. Recovery of bacterial and fungal communities from soil through the use of pressure cycling technology, Poster session presented at:The First Global Soil Diversity Conference; December 2-5; Dijon, France.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ferreyra, R., C. Stockle and D. Huggins, 2014. Evaluation of two soil water redistribution models (Finite difference and hourly cascade approach) through the comparison of continuous field sensor-based measurements. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gasch, C., T. Hengl, B. Graeler, D. Brown, 2014. Soil moisture content in 3D + Time: visualization and modeling at the field-scale. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Long Beach, CA, Oct. 21-24 (oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gasch, C., T. Hengl, B. Graeler, T. Magney, D. Brown, 2014. Spatio-temporal interpolation of soil moisture in 3D+T using automated sensor network data. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gasch, C., T.R. Anderson, M. Yourek, E. Brooks, D. Brown. 2014. Calibration of soil moisture sensors using pedotransfer functions. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Heinse, R., J. Johnson-Maynard, D. Huggins and M. Wessel, 2014. Seasonal Crop-Water Use Estimation Using Time-Lapse Measurements of ECa in Wheat, Barley and Pea Production with Varying Topography. Agronomy Abstract. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Huggins, D., W. Pan, R. Rupp, H. Kaur, S. Machado, F. Young, W. Schillinger and A. Esser, 2014. Crop Diversity and Intensity in the Dryland Pacific Northwest: Current Status and Future Opportunities. Agronomy Abstract. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kahl, K., J. Johnson-Maynard, K. Painter. 2014. Soil Health and Economic Potential of Organic, Reduced-till Cropping Systems in the Palouse. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (Oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kahl, K., K. Painter, J. Johnson-Maynard. Economic Feasibility of Organic, Reduced-till Dryland Cropping Systems in the Palouse, 2014. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (Poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kelley, C., K. Keller, D. Huggins, R. Martin, D. Evans, C. Orr, 2014. Landscape hydrology and scaling of nitrate 15N and 18O isotope composition in a semi-arid agroecosystem. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kostyanovsky, K., D.R. Huggins, C. Stockle, T. Karimi, and S.R. Waldo. 2014. Effects of N Fertilization and Irrigation on Nitrification and Denitrification Pools of N2O: Acetylene Inhibition Microplot Study. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kostyanovsky, K., D.R. Huggins, C.O. Stockle, D. Brown, S.R. Waldo and B. Lamb. 2014. Seasonal and Diurnal Dynamics of N2O and CO2 Emissions in No-till Winter Wheat System in Pacific Northwest. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Maureira, F., C.O. Stockle, M. Liu, R. Nelson, E.S. Brooks and R. Sommer, 2014. MicroBasin - A High-resolution Watershed Scale Ecohydrologic Model for Agro-ecosystems. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Poggio, M., D. Brown, D. and R.S. Bricklemyer. 2014. Estimating Soil Clay Content in Situ with a VisNIR Penetrometer Fore Optic. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (Oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Poggio, M., D.J. Brown, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2014. In situ evaluation of a VisNIR penetrometer for soil characterization. 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 8-13.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Shrewsbury, L., C. Reardon, J.L. Smith, D.R. Huggins, and L. Carpenter-Boggs. 2014. Spatio-Temporal Variation of Denitrifier and Nitrifier Microbial Communities in Soil, and Influence on Denitrification Rate. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Unger, R., D. Huggins, I. Burke, M. Swanson and L. Carpenter-Boggs, 2014. Field-Scale Cropping System N Use Efficiency after 10 Years of Continuous No-Tillage. Agronomy Abstract. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Waldo, S., K. Kostyanovsky, P. O'Keeffe, S. Pressley, D. Huggins and B. Lamb. 2014. Continuous, Long-Term, Field-Integrated Measurements of N2O Emissions Using Static Chambers and the Flux Gradient Method over a Winter Wheat Field in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Agronomy Abstract. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Wavrin, J., D.R. Huggins, D.J. Brown, K. Painter, and A.D. Esser. 2014. Precision N Management of Spring Wheat: Defining and Assessing Performance Classes. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Yourek, M.A., ES Brooks, T.S. Magney, T.R. Anderson, D.J. Brown, 2014. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Mapping Using RapidEye Satellite Imagery and Distributed Hydrologic Modeling. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (Poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., 2014. Precision Orchard Soil Management: Technologies and Possibilities. Washington State Horticulture Association 110th Annual Meeting and Northwest Hort Expo, Kennewick, WA, USA, Dec. 1.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., 2014. Sensing Techniques for Site-Specific Soil Management. Far West Agribusiness Association December 2014 Winter Conference, Kennewick, WA, USA, Dec. 9.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., 2014. The Potential for Precision Soil Management in Orchards. WSU Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA. Aug. 13, 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., D.R. Huggins, C.O. Stockle, E. Brooks, J.U.H. Eitel, K.M. Painter, L.A. Vierling, C. Reardon, 2014. Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming: Optimizing Nitrogen- and Water-Use Efficiency For Spatially Variable Landscapes, University of Idaho GIS Day, Nov. 19, 2014 (slides and poster).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ward, N.K., F. Maureira, E. Brooks, M. Yourek, and C.O. Stockle. 2014. Impacts of Increased over-Winter Precipitation on Dryland Cereal Production Systems in the Pacific Northwest. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6. (Poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ward, N.K., F. Maureira, M.A. Yourek, E.S. Brooks and C.O. Stockle, 2014. Assessing variable rate nitrogen fertilizer strategies within an extensively instrument field site using the MicroBasin model. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Magney, TS, LA Vierling, 2014. Parker Farm Precision Agriculture Technology Demonstration Day. Moscow, ID. June 5.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Poggio, M. and D.J. Brown, 2014. Parker Farm Precision Agriculture Technology Demonstration Day. Moscow, ID. June 5.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Outreach farm visit and tour for high school students from the HOIST (Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers into STEM) program (2014). Pullman, WA. June 23. Student blog about the event can be found here: http://hoist2014.wordpress.com/tag/satellite/
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Reardon, C.L. 2014 Soil Health and Soil Organic Matter. OSU-ARS Field Day, Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Pendleton, OR, June 11
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Reardon, C.L. 2014. Soil Microbiology: Life Underground. Sonoma County Vineyard Technical Group, Sonoma, CA, March 20 (invited talk)
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: The Washington Times: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/jun/8/precision-ag-technologies-showcased-at-moscow/?page=allReardon, C.L. 2014. Soil Microbiology. Oregon Horticulture Society Meeting, Portland, OR, January 28 (invited talk)
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: The SCF project team worked with the REACCH extension group to construct a Precision Nitrogen Application Farmer-to-Farmer case study focused on Eric Odberg, an SCF grower-collaborator. https://www.reacchpna.org/mission/extension/reacch-case-studies/variable-rate-nitrogen/
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Magney, T.S., Eusden, S.A., Eitel, J.U.H., Logan, B., Jiang, J., Vierling, L.A. 2014. Assessing Leaf Photoprotective Mechanisms using Terrestrial LiDAR: Towards Mapping Canopy Photosynthetic Performance in Three-dimensions. New Phytologist, 201, 344-356.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Eitel, J.U.H., Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Brown, T.T., Huggins, D.R. 2014. LiDAR based biomass and crop nitrogen estimates for rapid, non-destructive assessment of wheat nitrogen status. Field Crops Research, 159, 21-32.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Eitel, J.U.H., Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Dittmar, G. 2014. Assessment of crop foliar nitrogen using a novel dual-wavelength laser system and implications for conducting laser-based plant physiology. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 97, 229-240.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2015 Citation: Lee A. Vierling, Thomas Hilker, Nicholas C. Coops, Dario Papale, Dennis Baldocchi, Youngryel Ryu, Steve Garrity, John Gamon, Andrew Richardson, Oliver Sonnentag, Fred Huemmrich, Troy Magney, Jan Eitel. Spectral metabolics: Emerging findings, methodologies, and broader implications of quantifying canopy gas exchange using remote sensing. New Phytologist
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Vierling, L.A., Magney, T.S., Eitel, J.U.H., 2014. Remote detection of water stress conditions via a diurnal photochemical reflectance index (PRI) improves yield prediction in rainfed wheat. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15-19.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Magney, T., N.K. Ward, E. Brooks, D.R. Huggins, S. Finch, J.U.H. Eitel, L.A. Vierling, M. Yourek, T.R. Anderson, C.O. Stockle and D.J. Brown, 2014. Assessing the controls on spatio-temporal nitrogen uptake patterns using a biophysical process model and high resolution satellite imagery. ASA-SSSA-CSSA Annual Meeting. Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-4.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Magney, T.S., Greaves, H.E., Vierling, K.T., Hudak, A.T., Boelman, N.T., Griffin, K.L., Dittmar, G. 2014. Beyond 3-D. International Workshop 3D Vegetation Mapping using Advanced Remote Sensing - Implications for Seamless Modeling of Terrestrial Ecosystems, September 24th-26th, St.Oswald, Germany (invited)
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Connecting the Dots: Lasers Link Students to Their 3-D World, Masters Thesis Project, Ross Parsons
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Magney, T.S., Dann, L., Finch, S., Vierling, L.A., Eitel, J.U.H. 2014. Asssessing crop performance with time-lapse photography, REACCH Annual Report, Year 3, 50-51.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Al-Mulla, Y. A., Huggins, D.R. and St�ckle, C.O. 2014. Modeling the emergence of winter wheat in response to soil temperature, water potential, and planting depth. Trans. of the ASABE 57:1-15.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Huggins, D.R., Kruger, C.E., Painter, K.M., and Uberuaga, D.P., 2014. Site-specific trade-offs of harvesting cereal residues as biofuel feedstocks in dryland annual cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA. BioEnergy Res. 7: 598-608.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Nocita, M., A. Stevens, van Wesemael, B., Brown, D.J., Shepherd, K.D., Towett, E., Vargas, R, and Montanarella, L., 2015. Soil spectroscopy: an opportunity to be seized. Global Change Biology, 21: 10-11. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12632.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Reardon, C.L., H.T. Gollany and S.B. Wuest. 2014. Diazotroph community structure and abundance in wheatfallow and wheatpea crop rotations. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 69: 406-412. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.10.038.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Strauss, S.L., C.L. Reardon and M. Mazzola. 2014. The response of ammonia-oxidizer activity and community structure to fertilizer amendment of orchard soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 68: 410-418.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bruner, E.A., Okubara, P.A., Abi-Ghanem, R., Brown, D.J., and Reardon, C.L. Use of pressure cycling technology for cell lysis and recovery of bacterial and fungal communities from soil, BioTechniques. (accepted).
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2015 Citation: Gasch, C., T. Hengl, B. Gr�ler, H. Meyer, T. Magney, D.J. Brown. Spatio-temporal interpolation of soil moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity in 3D+T: the Cook Farm data set. Spatial Statistics (in review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2015 Citation: Poggio, M., D.J. Brown, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2015. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. (in review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bellmore, R.A., J.A. Harrison, J.A. Needoba, E.S. Brooks, C.K. Keller. DOM export from artificial subsurface drainage during storm events is controlled by source and processing along flow paths. Submitted to JGR-Biogeoscience
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bellmore, R.A., J.A. Harrison, J.A. Needoba, E.S. Brooks, C.K. Keller. Hydrologic control of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen and dissolved organic matter quality in a semi-arid artificially drained agricultural catchment. Submitted to Water Resources Research
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Brooks, E.S., N. Ward, R. Boylan, M. Yourek, and F. Maureira. 2015. Restrictive soil horizons pose difficult management challenges in the high precipitation annual cropping zone. In Regional Approaches to Climate Change for Pacific Northwest Agriculture Climate Science Northwest Farmers Can Use. 2 pp.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brooks, E.S., M. Poggio, T.A. Anderson, C. Gasch, M. Yourek, N. Ward, T. Magney, D. Brown, D. Huggins, 2014. Capturing field-scale variability in crop performance across a regional-scale climosequence. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., C. Gasch, D. Huggins, E. Brooks, C. Campbell, D. Cobos, 2014. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation. AGU Fall Meeting, Dec. 15-19, San Francisco, CA. (poster)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., D.R. Huggins, C.O. Stockle, E. Brooks, J.U.H. Eitel, K.M.Painter, L.A.Vierling and C.Reardon, 2014. Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming: Benefits and Challenges of Transdisciplinary Research. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Long Beach, CA, Oct. 21-24 (oral)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, D.J., M. Poggio, R.S. Bricklemyer, 2014. Estimating soil clay content in situ with a VisNIR penetrometer fore optic. EGU 2014, Vienna, Austria, 27 April  2 May.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Brown, T., D. Huggins, C. Kruger, C. K. Keller, 2014. Developing Nitrogen Use Efficiency Performance Criteria to Optimize Wheat Yield and Evaluate Site-Specific Management. Agronomy Abstract. International Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Long Beach, CA, Nov. 2-6.


Progress 04/01/13 to 03/31/14

Outputs
Target Audience: The Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming project is targeting two main audiences. First, as a scientific research project, we are disseminating our research findings to the scientific community.This includes climate change, environmental, and agronomic scientists. Secondly, we are disseminating our findings in more accessible and applied form to the agricultural industry, including growers and agricultural consultants. Changes/Problems: Dr. Jeffrey Smith, a co-PD on this project focusing on soil biogeochemistry, passed away in January of 2014. We are engaged in ongoing discussions about how best to replace Dr. Smith&#39;s contributions at this point in the project. We are unlikely to add an additional co-PD at this point, but may bring in another scientist as a collaborator. There are no other major problems to report at this time. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Postdoctoral Researchers: Caley Gasch (WSU), Ross Bricklemyer (WSU), Todd Anderson (UI) PhD Students: Matteo Poggio (WSU), Emily Bruner (WSU), Tabitha Brown (WSU), Troy Magney (UI), Heather Greaves (UI) MS Students: Lia Shrewsbury (WSU), Jake Wavrin (WSU), Samuel Finch (UI), Dirk Anderson (UI), Ross Parsons (UI), Matt Yourek (UI), Nicole Ward (UI) Undergraduates: Bill Payne (McNair Scholar, UI), Parker Burton (UI), Nora Nelson (UI), Levi Dawes (UI), Matt Francis (UI), Matthew Williams (UI), Amy Cox (UI), Leanna Dann (UI), Karmin Corliss (WSU), Ian Harkins (WSU), Jaimi Lambert (WSU), Caleb Grant (WSU) How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Results have been disseminated to the scientific community via peer-reviewed publications (published or in review) and presentations at scientific conferences. Presentations have also been made at various university seminars. Results have been disseminated to industry through presentations at grower and other industry meetings. We have also made several presentations at local high schools to educate students on climate change and agricultural issues. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? The project will proceed as proposed. This year we will begin collecting data at Tier 3 grower sites to validate the models and calibrations developed on Tier 1 and 2 sites. There will be a major focus on integrating project experimental data into the cropping systems model in order to run site-specific simulations under different climate and economic scenarios. We will apply CropSyst Microbasin to a small area instrumented with a flux tower (CO2, H2O, and N2O) and automated chambers (CO2 and N2O), with the purpose of evaluating integrated soil water, nitrogen and carbon budgets under conventional and no-tillage management. We will also initiate data consolidation and analysis for an experimental farm at Washington State University (Cook Farm) where spatially-distributed crop yield, soil water, nitrogen and carbon have been collected for more than 10 years. In year 4, we will develop our first iteration of a grower-focus site-specific stratification scheme, based upon both field data and modeling simulations. We will work more closely with the REACCH climate-change regional CAP project to disseminate our findings through their extension and education capabilities.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? By working with four growers over the last three years, there has been a great exchange of information and knowledge of challenges associated with developing site-specific prescription maps. Growers have willing applied fertilizer in long test strips to aid in assessing spatial variability in crop response to nitrogen fertilizer.They have shared crop yield data and visited campus, and one grower even teamed up with Dr. Brooks to give a webinar at the University of Idaho Soil and Water Seminar series. Growers/researchers are gaining a deeper understanding of the role of climate, topography, and soils on the hydrologic variability within a field and are gaining confidence in the ability for remote sensing technology (e.g., RapidEye Imagery) to capture much of this variability. The Palouse-Rock Lake Conservation District (St. John, WA) promoted precision N and seed density management by sponsoring field-scale demonstration trials on a grower&rsquo;s field. Growers are starting to implement precision management strategies in Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho dryland wheat production systems. Invitations to speak at grower meetings on precision agriculture increased significantly during year 3. Green Terrestrial Laser Scanner measurements were obtained for two seasons during tillering and jointing. Strong relationships occurred between observed dry crop biomass and TLS-derived vegetation volume across all growth stages and seasons. Our results demonstrated that green TLS can provide useful information for improving N management during early season wheat growth. We described the design of a tractor-mountable, green and red dual wavelength laser system and conducted initial tests to evaluate the potential of an additional red reference wavelength to improve laser based estimates of foliar N by calculating laser spectral indices based on ratio combinations of green laser return intensity (GLRI) and red laser return intensity (RLRI). Further, we tested the response of the diurnal photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to aboiotic environmental stressors under different nutrient, light, and water regimes in spring wheat. This technique linearly tracks daily changes in soil water content, and exponentially light intensity. By adapting the CropSyst cropping systems model, we have developed the capability to evaluate cropping systems performance (production, nitrogen-use efficiency, and changes in soil organic carbon and N2O emissions) in response to water and nitrogen distribution over the landscape as affected by topography and precision management. Experiments considering the effects of bothseasonal and topographical positionin studies of microbial denitrification, show that slope position significantly impacts the abundance of both bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers. To better delineate relevant landscape units, we have designed and field tested a robust Visible and Near-Infrared penetrometer that can be used to inexpensively produce detailed field-scale soil maps.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Magney, T.S. Lasers on the farm presentation to Moscow High School after-school club. 2013. May 2, 2013. invited.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Eitel, J.U.H. 2013. Determining Crop Structure and Function Using LiDAR and Narrowband Radiometers. Regional Approaches to Climate Change Integration Meeting. Moscow, ID, 11 January 2013. (invited)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Magney, T. S., Eitel, K.B., Eitel, J.U.H., Schon, J., Jansen, V.S., Rittenburg, R.A., Vierling, L.A. 2013. Keeping a (Digital) Eye on Our Planets Clock. The Science Teacher, 80, 37-43.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Wavrin, J. and D. Huggins. Oral presentation on precision N management. WSU Northern Lincoln County Field Tour, 6/26/2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Yourek, M.A., E.S. Brooks, T.S. Magney, T.R. Anderson, D.J. Brown (2012), Field-Scale Soil Moisture Mapping Using RapidEye Satellite Imagery and Distributed Hydrologic Modeling, Abstract H43G-155, presented at 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7 Dec.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Zaher, U., St�ckle, C., Painter, K., & Higgins, S. 2013. Life cycle assessment of the potential carbon credit from no-and reduced-tillage winter wheat-based cropping systems in Eastern Washington State. Agricultural Systems, 122(2013):73-78.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Bricklemyer, R.S., D.J. Brown, P.J. Turk and S.M. Clegg, 2013. Improved intact soil core carbon determination applying regression shrinkage and variable selection techniques to complete-spectrum laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Applied Spectroscopy, 67(10): 1185-1199.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2014 Citation: Bricklemyer, R.S., D.J. Brown, P.J. Turk and S.M. Clegg, 2014. Comparing VisNIR, LIBS, and combined VisNIR-LIBS for intact soil core soil carbon measurement. Soil Science Society of America Journal (in review)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brooks, E.S. Field-scale Patterns of Soil Water Availability. WSU/USDA Precision Farming and Direct Seed Field Day at the Cook Farm, Pullman, WA. June 27th 2013 (oral presentation)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2014 Citation: Eitel, J.U.H., Magney, T.S, Vierling, L.A. Under review. Assessment of crop foliar nitrogen using a novel dual-wavelength laser system and implications for conducting laser-based plant physiology of leaves. Remote Sensing of Environment
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Magney, T.S. 2013. A lightweight, low cost autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner for quantifying and monitoring ecosystem structural dynamics. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 180, 86-96.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, D.J., M. Poggio, and R.S. Bricklemyer. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization. In Abstracts, Pedometrics 2013, Nairobi, Kenya. 28-30 Aug. 2013 (oral).
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Brown, T and D. Huggins. Oral presentation on N use efficiency. WSU Cook Agronomy Farm Field Day, 6/27/2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Huggins, D. Spatial Variability and On-Farm Observations to Guide N Management. Western Nutrient Management Conference, Reno, NV, 3/8/2013 (invited oral presentation); 400 agribusiness, growers, researchers.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Huggins, D. Oral presentation, precision N management: establishing sound scientific principles for adopting advanced precision ag. technologies. REACCH annual meeting, Portland, OR, 2/13/2013.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Magney, T.S. Teaching at Gar-Pal High School . 2013. Introduction to remote sensing science. Palouse, WA. May 3, 2013. (invited).


Progress 04/01/12 to 03/31/13

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In year 2 of this project, we transitioned from installing experiments to collecting, analyzing and presenting data (5 peer-reviewed publications, 17 presentations with abstracts, primarily at ASA-CSSA-SSSA and AGU meetings. We redesigned our VisNIR probe to improve the optics, tested this new design in the laboratory by comparing performance with a commercial VisNIR foroptic (results show high correlation), and in the field by interrogating soils and extracting cores from adjacent locations for laboratory analysis and probe calibration/validation (currently being analyzed). A complete spring season of greenhouse gas (GHG) flux data was collected with our 64 microplot study, and an additional experiment with acetylene and irrigation treatments was applied to the microplot setup after the crop was removed. The Cook Farm and the Tier II sites revealed large differences in hydrologic response across the regional climatic gradient with extensive surface saturation in the wetter soils having argillic soil horizons. Automated water sampling indicated that nitrate leaching through tile lines were a major source of leaching with losses up to 20% of the fertilizer N applied. Rainfall simulation experiments over a drain gauge revealed 30 kg/ha of N leached below the root zone through macropores ahead of the wetting front. Electromagnetic Induction and Time-Domain Reflectometry surveys were completed before, during, and after the growing season with work ongoing to model soil moisture statistically as a function of terrain, remote sensing, and ECa data. A working version of an integrated CropSyst/Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model has been developed, called CropSyst-Micro watershed, and is currently being tested using the Cook Farm database. This integrated model was developed by incorporating the major hydrologic components of the SMR model. Initial modeling efforts using the SMR model showed good agreement between daily and seasonal measurements of soil moisture content, total surface runoff, lateral losses through drain tile line, and surface saturation patterns using the 2011 and 2012 Cook Farm database. We examined the suitability of terrestrial-based laser scanning (TLS) for estimating aboveground biomass of wheat during early- (tillering), mid- (jointing), and late growth stages (anthesis). Our preliminary results show a strong relationship between destructively sampled biomass and TLS derived biomass estimates during tillering and jointing (r2 = 0.72). Our results suggest strong relationships between green (532 nm) laser return intensity and photosynthetic efficiency across four different species, including wheat (mean r2 = 0.71). Initial tests of a tractor-mountable, dual-wavelength laser system indicate the potential of such a laser based system to provide foliar N estimates from a moving platform. The laser-based approach allows the green foliage to be separated in 3-D from the soil signal, therefore increasing the plant signal in the reading and minimizing the soil background interference. We have an economic analysis for each of the Tier 2 growers plus the Cook Farm, and are in the process of updating their budgets for 2012. PARTICIPANTS: PIs:<br> David Brown, Washinton State University (WSU)<br> Claudio Stockle (WSU)<br> David Huggins (USDA-ARS)<br> Jeff Smith (USDA-ARS)<br> Jan Eitel, University of Idaho (UI)<br> Lee Vierling (UI)<br> Erin Brooks (UI)<br> Kate Reardon (USDA-ARS)<p> RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND POST-DOCTORAL RESEARCHERS:<br> Kirill Kostyanovskiy (WSU)<br> Ross Bricklemyer (WSU)<br> Bryan Carlson (WSU)<br> Shelley Jones (WSU)<br> Hilary Donlon (UI)<br> David Christian (UI)<br> Todd Anderson (UI)<p> GRADUATE STUDENTS working primarily on project:<br> Troy Magney (UI)<br> Emily Bruner (WSU)<br> Matteo Poggio (WSU)<br> Maninder Chahal (WSU)<br> Tabitha Brown (WSU)<br> Lia Shrewsbury (WSU)<br> Jake Wavrin (WSU)<br> Matt Yourek (UI)<p> GRADUATE STUDENTS contributing to project:<br> Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo(UI)<br> Ryan Boylan (UI)<br> Audrey Squires (UI)<br> Jon Treasure (UI)<br> Becky Rittenburg (UI)<br> Codie Wilson (UI)<br> Sam Finch (UI)<p> UNDERGRADUATES:<br> William Payne (UI)<br> Parker Burton(UI)<br> Nora Nielson(UI)<br> Levi Dawes(UI)<br> Clayton Bliss(UI)<br> Matt Francis (UI)<br> Ian Harkins (WSU)<br> Craig Woodruff (UI)<br> Spencer Eusden (Bowdoin College)<p> TECHNICIANS:<br> Dave Uberagga (WSU)<br> Kiran Singh (WSU)<br> Kurt Fenton (WSU)<p> COLLABORATORS:<br> Kent Keller (WSU faculty)<br> Chris Kelly (WSU graduate student)<br> Rebecca Martin (WSU graduate student)<br> Bryan Donaldson (WS graduate student)<br> Regional Approaches to Climate Change in Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA)<p> COOPERATORS: Dale Wolff (Grower)<br> Josh Jones (Grower)<br> John Aeschliman (Grower)<br> Eric Odberg (Grower)<br> Mcgregor Company (Regional Agricultural Business). TARGET AUDIENCES: The SCF project has both a scientific goal (improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of the nitrogen cycle on complex farm fields) and a management goal (provide tools to support site-specific nitrogen management). We are targeting scientists with the first goal, including agronomists, soil scientists, hydrologists, economists, cropping systems modelers and climate change scientists. This audience was reached through many presentations at scientific conferences and publications on related papers. For the second goal, we are targeting agricultural consultants, agricultural extension agents, agribusinesses, and growers. This audience was reached through presentations at workshops and field days to growers, agribusiness, and consultants on the Palouse. During this reporting period, we also reached out to k-12 students and teachers with publications (e.g., Magney et al., 2012; Magney et al., 2013) as well as by providing field tours to teachers at WSU Cook Farm and by providing a geospatial summer camp for k-12 students at the McCall Outdoor Science School (http://ecosensing.org/teaching/nr-101/al-moss). PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The project in year two was executed largely in line with our original proposal and year one modifications previously reported. Dr. Kate Reardon, a USDA-ARS soil microbiologist has been added to the project as a replacement for Dr. Ann-Marie Fortuna.

Impacts
The primary outcome during this reporting period was a change in knowledge of scientists researching site-specific management and related processes. A number of presentations to the scientific community at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA and AGU meetings addressed field-scale variability of hydrology, soils, and greenhouse gas emissions. Our VisNIR penetrometer is the first to provide optical characteristics comparable to commercial foreoptics (that cannot be easily inserted in to soil.) Relatively little is known about the suitability of TLS to provide biomass estimates in low stature vegetation such as wheat. The team's findings indicate the usefulness of TLS to non-destructively estimate wheat biomass. The principals' findings indicate that green laser return intensity can be used to provide information about plant function, particularly photosynthetic efficiency. Our initial tests of a novel tractor-mountable, dual wavelength laser system show promise for such a laser based system for providing information about foliar N from a moving platform. In the Pacific Northwest many growers have variable rate fertilizer technology on their farm equipment however few of them have the necessary information or protocols to develop prescription maps for their fields. One of the most important impacts of this project may be developing the tools to optimize nitrogen application within a field. Over the last year we have communicated with growers through an article in the quarterly direct seed association newsletter, through on-farm meetings and annual reports, and one of our PIs, Dr. Brooks, has recently given an invited webinar with one of the growers on the project. This open communication provides mutual benefit to both the scientist and grower. We educated growers, scientists, and consultants on the economics of various no-till rotations over time for the Cook Farm and updated tools for economic analysis of agricultural systems for this region.

Publications

  • Brown, T.T. and Huggins, D.R. 2012.0Soil carbon sequestration in the dryland cropping region of the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 67(5):406-415.
  • Stockle, C., S. Higgins, A. Kemanian, R. Nelson, D. Huggins, J. Marcos, and H. Collins. 2012. Carbon storage and nitrous oxide emissions of cropping systems in eastern Washington: A simulation study. J Soil Water Cons. 67 (5):365-377.
  • Boylan, R.D., E. Brooks, D. Huggins, and D.J. Brown. 2012. Carbon and Field-Scale Nitrate Flux Modeling Across Wide Climate Gradients and Diverse Soil Variability in the Dry-Land Agricultural Region of the Inland Pacific Northwest. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Brown, D.J., E. Brooks, J.U. Eitel, D. Huggins, K. Painter, R.A. Rupp, J.L. Smith, C. Stockle and L. Vierling. 2012. Site-Specific, Climate-Friendly Farming: Early Activities and Accomplishments. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Brown, T.T., D. Huggins, J.L. Smith, and C. Kruger. 2012. Site-Specific Wheat Density and Applied N: Optimizing Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Bruner, E.A., D.J. Brown, D. Huggins, E. Brooks, J. U. Eitel, T. Magney, L. Vierling, M. Poggio and T. T. Brown. 2012. Science-Based Zone Mapping for Site-Specific N Management in Dryland Wheat-Based Cropping Systems On Complex, Pacific Northwest Palouse Landscapes. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (oral).
  • Chahal, M., D. J. Brown, E. Brooks, C. Campbell, and D. Cobos. 2012. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Space-Time Geostatistical Modeling for Complex Palouse Landscapes in the Inland Pacific Northwest. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Eitel, J.U.H., Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Brown, T., Huggins, D.R. 2012. A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser system for improved site-specific nitrogen fertilizer applications. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 3 - 6 December, 2012.
  • Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Magney, T.S. 2012. Suitability of a green scanning terrestrial laser scanner for mapping foliar biochemistry (oral presentation). Idaho NASA EPSCoR Annual Meeting, 2-3 October 2012.
  • Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Magney, T.S. 2012. Autonomously operating terrestrial laser scanner for monitoring forest ecosystems at a very high temporal resolution (oral presentation). SilviLaser 2012, Vancouver/Canada, 16-19 September 2012.
  • Huggins, D., R. A. Rupp, P. Gessler, W. Pan, D. J. Brown, S. Machado, V. P. Waldon, J. Abatzoglou and S. D. Eigenbrode, 2012. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Huggins, D., D.J. Brown, K. Keller, E. Brooks, J. L. Smith, B. Lamb, and S. D. Eigenbrode,, 2012. Linkages Among C, N and Water Footprints in Wheat-Based Cropping Systems. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (oral).
  • Huggins, D., C. Kruger, K. Painter, and D. Uberuaga. 2012. Site-Specific Trade-Offs of Harvesting Cereal Residues as Biofuel Feedstocks. Paper presented at the annual Sun Grant Conference, October 2-5, New Orleans.
  • Magney, T.S., Eusden, S.A., Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Logan, B.A. 2012. Remote Estimation of Photosynthetic Efficiency Using a Green Terrestrial Laser Scanner. SilviLaser 2012, Vancouver/Canada, 16-19 September 2012.
  • Poggio, M., R.S. Bricklemeyer, D.J. Brown, 2012. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization. In Abstracts, 2012 Fall Meet., American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA. 3-7 Dec. 2012 (poster).
  • Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Eitel, J.U.H. 2012. The Hills Have Eyes ... and Lasers, LEDs, Photodiodes, Time-Lapse Cameras, and Satellites. The OutREACCH, A quarterly report by Regional Approaches to Cimate Change, Pacific Northwest Agriculture, August, 2012, Vol. I, Issue 2. https://www.reacchpna.org/files/9813/4763/7375/August_2012_Vol_1_Issu e_2.pdf
  • Kostyanovsky, K., D. Huggins, C. Stockle, J. L. Smith, D.J. Brown and W. Pan, 2012. Dynamics of CO2 and N2O Emissions in the Wheat System: Continuous Automated Irga Monitoring Study. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (oral).
  • Kostyanovsky, K., D. Huggins, C. Stockle, J. L. Smith, D.J. Brown, and W. Pan, 2012. Continuous Automated Measurements of Soil N2O and CO2 Emissions with the Portable Irga System in the Static Chamber Microplot Study. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting in Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 21-24 (poster).
  • Magney, T.S., Vierling, L.A., Eitel, J.U.H., Campbell, G., Cobos, D.R., Campbell, C. 2012. Design and Testing of a Narrowband Spectral Radiometer for Quantifying Plant Biophysical Properties. AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 3 - 6 December, 2012.


Progress 04/01/11 to 03/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The first year of the Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project has been devoted to planning, purchasing equipment, hiring staff and installing experiments. FIELD EXPERIMENTS: (1) Precision N and seed density field experiments were established at the WSU Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF, Tier 1 site) for 2011 and 2012 evaluation of winter wheat. Nitrogen (N) balance and N use efficiency methods including 15N tracer studies were performed to assess N and seeding density treatments at different landscape positions. (2) In collaboration with REACCH PNA, we installed a 64 microplot greenhouse gas (GHG) flux experiment at CAF, with four levels of N application, two different carbon treatments and four replications. We are instrumented to continuously monitor CO2, water vapor, and N2O fluxes, soil temperature and moisture at all 64 microplots, with the capability to episodically sample soil gas and water. (3) At CAF, we also monitored soil temperature, moisture and electrical conductivity hourly at 42 distributed locations at five depths from 30-150 cm. We installed TDR wave guides to measure surface (0-30 cm) soil moisture episodically at approximately 400 locations. We installed drain tile and surface runoff flumes to measure flow and water properties, well and lysimeter nests at 13 locations, and a drain gauges to measure vertical flow at one location. We identified four grower cooperators spanning Palouse soil-climate conditions (Tier 2 sites) and at these four sites installed soil moisture and hydrologic instruments. (4) We have sampled soils for carbon content at 12 microsites per Tier 2 site to establish benchmark locations for soil carbon change detection. (5) We examined foliar nitrogen (N) during early growth stages of wheat using traditional destructive (harvest) and non-destructive (chlorophyll meter and spectral radiometer) leaf sampling techniques, for comparison with non-destructive green terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data of the same plants. The green laser return intensity predicted foliar N concentration more accurately (correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.68) than either the chlorophyll meter values (r2 = 0.36) and traditional spectral indices (r2 = 0.41). MODELING: (1) Biophysical modeling efforts have centered in two areas: a) formulation of a functional N2O emission model and its parameterization, b) development of a cell-based surface and sub-surface hydrology model. Values of N2O emission model function parameters will be optimized using data from field experiments. Different pieces of a detailed, cell-based hydrologic model suitable for the small watersheds in this project are being developed. To include subsurface lateral flow, the Soil Moisture Routing (SRM) model has been examined and concepts for incorporation have been discussed but not yet implemented. (2) Economic modeling efforts included economic analysis of Cook Farm rotations; interviews and economic analyses completed for two of the four Tier 2 growers; protein analyses for wheat crops across all georeferenced sites for 2001-2009; an input cost survey to determine average costs by region (disseminated online); and a machinery cost survey (disseminated online). PARTICIPANTS: PIs: David Brown (WSU); Claudio Stockle (WSU); David Huggins (USDA-ARS); Jeff Smith (USDA-ARS); Jan Eitel (UI); Lee Vierling (UI); Erin Brooks (UI). RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND POST_DOCTORAL RESEARCHERS: Kirill Kostyanovskiy (WSU); Ross Bricklemyer (WSU); Bryan Carlson (WSU); Shelley Jones (WSU); Hilary Donlon (UI); David Christian (UI). GRADUATE STUDENTS working primarily on project: Tom Magney (UI); Emily Bruner (WSU); Matteo Poggio (WSU); Maninder Chahal (WSU); Tabitha Brown (WSU); Jake Wavrin (WSU). GRADUATE STUDENTS contributing to project: Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo(UI); Ryan Boylan (UI); Audrey Squires (UI); Jon Treasure (UI); Becky Rittenburg (UI); Codie Wilson (UI). UNDERGRADUATES: William Payne (UI); Jacob Gray(UI); Parker Burton(UI); Nora Nielson(UI); Levi Dawes(UI); Clayton Bliss(UI); Matt Francis (UI); Ian Harkins (WSU). TECHNICIANS: Dave Uberagga (WSU); Kiran Singh (WSU); Kurt Fenton (WSU). COLLABORATORS: Kent Keller (WSU faculty); Chris Kelly (WSU graduate student); Rebecca Martin (WSU graduate student); Bryan Donaldson (WS graduate student); Regional Approaches to Climate Change in Pacific Northwest Agriculture (REACCH PNA). COOPERATORS: Dale Wolff (Grower); Josh Jones (Grower); John Aeschliman (Grower); Eric Odberg (Grower); Mcgregor Company (Regional Agricultural Business). TARGET AUDIENCES: The SCF project has both a scientific goal (improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of the nitrogen cycle on complex farm fields), and a management goal (provide tools to support site-specific nitrogen management). We are targeting scientists with the first goal, including agronomists, soil scientists, hydrologists, economists, cropping systems modelers and climate change scientists. For the second goal, we are targeting agricultural consultants, agricultural extension agents, agribusinesses and growers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: (1) One of our original co-investigators, our soil microbiologist Anne-Marie Fortuna, did not make tenure at WSU. As a replacement hire has been promised, we are holding back funds for the soil microbiology part of the project in anticipation of working with the new WSU soil microbiologist. Should this hire not work out as hoped, we will seek an outside collaborator to fill this role. (2) We had planned to purchase a Picarro field-deployable, continuous N2O concentration and isotope analyzer in year one of the project but contrary to prior communications, Picarro has yet to develop a working instrument. We purchased four Teledyne N2O analyzers instead (less accurate and not capable of measuring isotopes). We also installed equipment to manually pull samples for lab-based isotope analysis and will divert funds for labor and analysis to replace equipment expenditures. Neither of these project modifications requires a change in objectives or a fundamental change in methods.

Impacts
Besides providing structural information (that is, 3-dimensional images of crop vegetation), terrestrial laser scanners are also providing information about the signal strength of the laser pulse after reflecting off of a surface. Until recently, relatively little has been known about the suitability of laser return intensity to infer physical and chemical properties of natural surfaces, including plants. The principals' findings indicate that green laser return intensity can be used to accurately predict foliar N concentration. This indicates a 'change of knowledge' as defined by the USDA. In addition, further study results from our team indicate that laser return intensity in the green (532 nm) wavelength is significantly correlated with spectral measurements known to correspond with the radiation use efficiency of plants. This work represents another potential substantial `change of knowledge' and the research team is actively working to bring this work to the publication stage. At this early stage, impacts for the rest of the project are mainly centered on increased grower, agency and student knowledge of precision agriculture and potential benefits to N use efficiency. This information has been communicated to growers primarily through field days and related extension events. We educated growers, scientists, and consultants on the economics of various no-till rotations over time for the Cook Farm and updated tools for economic analysis of agricultural systems for this region.

Publications

  • Eitel, J.U.H., Vierling, L.A., Long, D.S., Hunt, E.R. 2011. Early season remote sensing of wheat nitrogen status using a green scanning laser. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151: 1338-1345. Huggins, D.R., Karow, R.S., Collins, H.P., Ransom, J.K. 2011. Introduction: Evaluating long-term impacts of harvesting crop residues on soil quality. Agron. J. 103:230-233.
  • Ibrahim, H.M., Huggins, D.R. 2011. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale. Journal of Hydrology. 404:186-197.
  • Qiu, H., D.R. Huggins, J.Q. Wu, M.E. Barber, D.K. McCool, S. Dun. 2011. Residue management impacts on field-scale snow distribution and water storage. Transactions of the ASABE, Vol. 54(5): 1639-1647.
  • Painter, K. 2011. "Costs of Owning and Operating Farm Machinery in the Pacific Northwest: 2011." PNW 346, University of Idaho. http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/edComm/pdf/PNW/PNW0346/PNW346.pdf
  • Patterson, P. and K. Painter. 2011. "Crop Input Price Summary for 2011." AEES No. 2011-04, Dept. of Ag. Econ. and Rural Sociology, Univ. of ID. http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/aers/PDF/AEES/2011/AEES110411.pdf