Source: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF THE BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0226946
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NJ08270
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NE-508
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2011
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2013
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Rodriguez-Saona, C.
Recipient Organization
RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
3 RUTGERS PLZA
NEW BRUNSWICK,NJ 08901-8559
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) is an invasive insect native to Asia that has emerged as pest of unprecedented importance to specialty crops in the United States. Currently, BMSB is well established throughout the mid-Atlantic region including NJ. BMSB is a polyphagous pest. In 2010, BMSB populations increased dramatically and attacked many high-value specialty crops in the mid-Atlantic region. Thus, the risk to NJ specialty crops is considered high. However, there is no current established detection method, treatment threshold, or control strategy for BMSB in these crops. Therefore, we propose to: (1) establish biology and phenology of BMSB in various specialty crops in NJ; (2) develop monitoring and management tools for BMSB; (3) establish effective management programs for BMSB in variosu specialty crops; and (4) integrate stakeholder input and research findings to form and deliver practical outcomes.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
70%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2111199113025%
2111499113025%
2161199113025%
2161499113025%
Goals / Objectives
Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug. Develop monitoring methods for brown marmorated stink bug. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug. Determine the toxicity and field efficacy of selected insecticides for brown marmorated stink bug control in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug. Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers
Project Methods
Work will be conducted on the mechanics of injury by the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) and symptoms in tree fruit, small fruit, and vegetables. Injury characteristics among different varieties will be defined with respect to cultivar, timing of injury in relation to ripening stage and harvest time in commercial New Jersey farms. Trapping and direct sampling methods will be employed to define the timing for initial and peak activities of BMSB nymph and adults, and define times of dispersal and other life stage events. Response of various specialty crops to BMSB will be recorded, differentiating different symptoms. The majority of BMSB populations are expected to come from outside the fields. Thus, we propose to develop a spatially-based management program by using GIS technology to identify high BMSB populations and areas needing treatment. Currently, the effectiveness of different trap designs, attractants and placement designs in various specialty crops has not been investigated. We propose to examine this area in order to combine trapping data with BMSB life stage events to develop improved monitoring systems. To improve our ability to monitor BMSB populations at time appropriate management tactics, we will develop a degree day based prediction model. For this, pheromone traps will be deployed in conjunction with the temperature sensors. The first sustained trap captures of adults will mark a Biofix and will be used to begin degree day calculations. We will also develop and test a novel "attract-and-kill" formulation for BMSB named SPLAT BMSB Lure-and-Kill (ISCA Technologies, Inc., Riverside, CA), which will involve a combination of a BMSB attractant and an insecticide. Effective insecticide chemistries will be fit into an integrated approach, and used in conjunction with trapping, crop monitoring and modeling results, so that use of non-selective products can be minimized. Timing and specific insecticide use will be based on the results from trap studies, phenology and timing work. All work on management practices will lead to multi-crop, region-wide application. It is very important now that, as this pest is garnering so much popular press,research-based information be readily available to producers so they can make the best decisions possible regarding control while considering their existing IPM programs and repercussions of impacts on beneficials, reentry and preharvest intervals, and overall economic effects. Extension will provide this information in a wide variety of ways by organizing and scheduling outreach and educational interactions with growers as well as printed and web based materials based on local stakeholder needs and priorities. We will also hold stakeholder advisory meetings with fruit and vegetable producers to review accomplishments, direct research plans, and guide execution of objectives. The Northeastern IPM Center will prepare material and act as a "gateway" for this function. Advisory groups (such as the New Jersey Blueberry Industry Advisory Council) will act as advisors for project performance and planning.

Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Growers, extension agents, scientific community, and the general public Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? In 2013, our work was presented at two scientific meetings: the 2013 Entomological Society of America – Eastern Branch meeting (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) and at the 2013 Entomological Society of America - Annual meeting (Austin, Texas). The findings of this research have been discussed at fruit twilight meetings in New Jersey, and updates on research have been distributed to growers by the Rutgers NJAES Plant Pest Advisory. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? In 2013 our work was presented at two scientific meetings: the 2013 Entomological Society of America--Eastern Branch meeting and at the 2013 Entomological Society of America--Annual eeting. The findings of the research have been discussed at fruit grower twilight meetings in New Jersey, and updates on research have been distributed to growers through the Rutgers NJAES Plant Pest Advisory. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Researchers at Rutgers University have been studying the impact of the invasive pest, brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), on tree fruit and small fruit crops in New Jersey (NJ). In 2012-2013, studies were done in blueberries in commercial farms (Hammonton, NJ) and experimental fields at the Rutgers P.E. Marucci Center (Chatsworth, NJ). These studies found that BMSB feeds and reproduces in blueberries. In controlled damage studies on blueberries, they found that BMSB feeding on fruit increases discoloration and necrosis, and decreases total amounts of sugars at harvest. Even low rates of feeding can cause unacceptable levels of damage to blueberries. However, so far, BMSB populations in commercial blueberry farms in NJ have remained low and have not required control measures. Peach, nectarine, and blueberry farms were monitored weekly for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults, nymphs and eggs. We compared visual counts, beat samples, and black light traps for their efficiency and accuracy at monitoring BMSB populations. We expect that we will soon be able to relate the population densities identified from these methods to injury and economic thresholds. Eleven synthetic chemicals and four OMRI-approved compounds were evaluated through either laboratory or field tests in peach to identify their fit into management programs for BMSB. A phenological model was developed and tested in multiple locations based on degree-day accumulations and female reproductive development. Once verified, this will define the appropriate biofix to use to begin accumulation of degree-days, an essential first step in forecasting populations for IPM programs. To examine how landscape factors influence the spatial and temporal distribution of BMSB, we recorded BMSB at 9 different blueberry farms throughout southern New Jersey. We will compile this information with our future 2014 field season results and create a map depicting BMSB dispersal. Understanding interactions between BMSB distribution and landscape factors in blueberry farms will allow growers to better utilize management strategies to control BMSB. To complement our mapping studies, we investigated BMSB behavior in response to fruit that has been previously damaged by BMSB feeding. In experimental plots at the Rutgers P.E. Marucci Research and Extension Center, we evaluated the effects of feeding damage by different BMSB life stages in blueberries. We compared caged blueberry clusters with different amounts of BMSB adults and nymphs. Mortality was tracked throughout the season, while stylet marks and berry dissections were recorded at harvest. In addition, frozen samples of blueberries subjected to BMSB feeding were sent for anthocyanidin and sugar-content evaluation. We also conducted a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments in order to evaluate choice preference between BMSB and spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, on BMSB-damaged and undamaged berries. To examine BMSB preference for damage and undamaged blueberries, we conducted laboratory experiments where we compared BMSB feeding preference and SWD oviposition preference for damaged and undamaged berries. Feeding damage occurred for 72 hours before the start of the experiment. Our results showed significantly more adult BMSB and nymph BMSB choosing to feed on undamaged berries than damaged berries. However, results for SWD oviposition preference showed no significant differences between SWD emergence in damaged and undamaged fruit. We also investigated the predation behavior of the zoophytophagous predator Orius insidiosus in response to volatiles emitted from bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) that contained prior BMSB feeding damage. We conducted a fully crossed greenhouse experiment using BMSB eggs as prey. Treatments consisted of damaged/prey vs. undamaged/prey, damaged/prey vs. damaged/no prey, damaged/prey vs. undamaged/no prey, undamaged/prey vs. damaged/no prey, undamaged/prey vs. undamaged/no prey and damaged/no prey vs. undamaged/no prey. Ten Orius were released in each treatment and egg predation and Orius location were recorded. Our results showed that Orius fed significantly more on prey when prey was located on undamaged plants. However, results for Orius location differed. We found significantly more Orius on damaged beans that contained prey. These results led us to investigate whether bean plants or BMSB released volatiles after feeding. We performed several trials where we subjected bush beans to different densities of BMSB damage including mechanical damage. Treatments included 0, 3, and 5 BMSB, as well as mechanical damage. Feeding lasted for 72 hours. Volatiles were collected and samples were analyzed on the GC. Results showed an interesting peak at high BMSB densities, not present in control or mechanically damaged treatments. Because of these results, we repeated this experiment without beans, only collecting volatiles released by BMSB. Results showed the same high peak. This peak was later identified as tridecane. Altogether, our results will help guide us in future directions addressing BMSB distribution and effects of BMSB damage on blueberry crops. The potential contributions of studying BMSB movement, behavior and damage may help to reduce pesticide use and provide growers with vital information on the impact of BMSB on the fruit industry. Furthermore, the results of our experiments will add to the growing literature of BMSB management and pest damage on fruit health.

Publications


    Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: In 2012, our work was presented at two scientific meetings: the 2012 Entomological Society of America - Eastern Branch meeting (Hartford, Connecticut) and at the 2012 Entomological Society of America - Annual meeting (Knoxville, Tennessee). This information was also presented at grower meetings: American Cranberry Growers Association Winter Meeting (Bordentown, New Jersey) and Blueberry Open House (Hammonton, New Jersey). The findings of this research have been discussed at fruit twilight meetings in New Jersey, and updates on research have been distributed to growers by the Rutgers NJAES Plant Pest Advisory. Our results have been used to formulate control recommendations for growers and the general public. The trapping study results are being used to develop monitoring schemes for farmers and may allow the use of this technology to control brown marmorated stink bug populations on commercial and private properties. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Peach, nectarine, and blueberry farms were monitored weekly for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) adults, nymphs and eggs. In 2012, populations were quite low in the early part of the season, despite an early spring. In peaches and nectarines, at the end of the season, unsprayed fruit were evaluated by cutting and peeling 25 fruit/tree. BMSB injury ranged from 48-100% injury. We are comparing visual counts, beat samples, and black light traps for their efficiency and accuracy at monitoring BMSB populations. We expect that we will soon be able to relate the population densities identified from these methods to injury and economic thresholds. Eleven synthetic chemicals and four OMRI-approved compounds were evaluated through either laboratory or field tests in peach to identify their fit into management programs for BMSB. A phenological model was developed and tested in multiple locations based on degree-day accumulations and female reproductive development. Once verified, this will define the appropriate biofix to use to begin accumulation of degree-days, an essential first step in forecasting populations for IPM programs. To examine how landscape factors influence the spatial and temporal distribution of BMSB, we recorded BMSB at 9 different blueberry farms throughout southern New Jersey. We will compile this information with our future 2013 field season results and create a map depicting BMSB dispersal. Understanding interactions between BMSB distribution and landscape factors in blueberry farms will allow growers to better utilize management strategies to control BMSB. To complement our mapping studies, we investigated BMSB behavior in response to fruit that has been previously damaged by BMSB feeding. In addition, we are currently exploring the interaction of BMSB-induced volatiles on a generalist zoophytophagous predator, Orius spp, a wide spread natural enemy. The effects of BMSB feeding damage and BMSB density on fruit development and quality were tracked during the growing season in semi-field experiments. Our results this past season will help guide us in future directions addressing BMSB distribution and effects of BMSB damage on blueberry crops. The potential contributions of studying BMSB movement, behavior and damage may help to reduce pesticide use and provide growers with vital information on the impact of BMSB on the fruit industry. Furthermore, the results of our experiments will add to the growing literature of BMSB management and pest damage on fruit health.

    Publications

    • Leskey, T.C., Hamilton, G.C., Nielsen, A.L., Polk, D., Rodriguez-Saona C., Bergh J.C., Herbert A., Kuhar, T., Pfeiffer, D., Dively, G., Hooks, C., Raupp, M., Shrewsbury, P., Krawczyk, G., Shearer, P.W., Whalen, J., Koplinka-Loehr, C., Myers, E., Inkley, D., Hoelmer, K., Lee, D., and Wright, S.E. 2012. Pest Status of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in the USA. Outlooks in Pest Management 23: 218-226.