Source: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY submitted to
ENHANCING TRIBAL HEALTH AND FOOD SECURITY IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON AND CALIFORNIA BY BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL FOOD SYSTEM
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0230374
Grant No.
2012-68004-20018
Project No.
CALW-2012-01839
Proposal No.
2012-01839
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A5141
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2012
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2018
Grant Year
2017
Project Director
Sowerwine, J.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
(N/A)
BERKELEY,CA 94720
Performing Department
University and Jepson Herbaria
Non Technical Summary
The Klamath Basin is one of the most ecologically diverse ecosystems in the western United States yet tribal populations and rural communities residing there are among the poorest and most food insecure in the country. Once replete with an abundance of fresh, healthy, locally available traditional foods including salmon, deer, elk, acorns, mushrooms, berries, and a host of other nutritious foods grown and traded up and down the river, the Klamath Basin is now a food desert. Denied access to traditional foods, the arrival of commodity foods, high unemployment, and limited availability and affordability of fresh, healthy foods have resulted in high rates of food insecurity, diabetes, obesity and depression. There is broad demand for positive change. The goal of this 5-year program is to build a sustainable regional food system in the Klamath Basin that results in healthy communities, healthy ecosystems and healthy economies among the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Indian Tribes and becomes a model for other tribal and rural communities. It will test innovative, community-led solutions to enhance food security and food sovereignty. Using an action research approach, stakeholders from all parts of the food system will be involved in project development, implementation and evaluation. Through multi-disciplinary partnerships this program aims to: 1) engage youth and elders to identify and evaluate community health barriers, and implement solutions 2) build local capacity to increase access to and consumption of healthy food options through improved production, processing, distribution, and marketing of locally grown, gathered and managed foods. The plan is to a) create jobs and train "seasonal food crews" to grow/gather, process and distribute healthy foods to the community, b) improve management of the forests to increase supply of traditional foods (e.g. acorns, berries), c) establish community gardens and greenhouses, and revitalize abandoned orchards and commercial salmon smokehouse to increase supply of fresh, locally grown foods, d) test innovative local food distribution networks such as mobile farmers markets, farm/forest/fish to institution and traditional barter and trade networks, e) provide nutrition education and cooking classes, 4) measure impact of interventions on youth, elder and community health, attitude toward and consumption of healthy foods, 5) develop a Klamath basin food security network and library to enhance shared learning opportunities, 6) develop and pilot test culturally relevant K-12 and community college curricula on Native Food Security, 6) improve ecosystem health through management based on an integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and modern ecological methods and 7) Evaluate how food-related policy needs to change to support the vitality of a healthy native food system. This project will ultimately support tribal communities in their efforts to regain control of their health and agricultural economies to eliminate hunger and food insecurity, build thriving local economies, develop environmentally sustainable and just food production and distribution systems, and celebrate cultural food traditions.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
40%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1250699107040%
1310120107020%
5031499301010%
6086220308010%
8066099101020%
Goals / Objectives
The goal of this 5 year integrated multi-state program is to build a sustainable regional food system in the Klamath Basin that results in healthy communities, healthy ecosystems and healthy economies among the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Indian Tribes and becomes a model for other tribal and rural communities. Objectives: Through multidisciplinary partnerships this project aims to conduct: A) Research on the determinants of sustainable food systems and community health: Obj. 1) engage community members in collaborative participatory food system and health assessments to evaluate historical and current food system assets and challenges, health conditions, and consumer preferences, and identify solutions, Obj. 2) implement and evaluate a youth-led health assessment and adventure walk program utilizing mobile technology to assess the barriers to and facilitators of healthful living, Obj.3) Enhance productivity of traditional plant foods by evaluating the effects of traditional land management techniques on productivity and availability of traditional foods. B) Extension and Training through locally designed projects: Obj. 4) Increase knowledge and capacity of community members, local institutions and businesses to increase production, availability and accessibility of fresh, affordable, local foods through tribal food-shed classes, agricultural extension, creation and dissemination of seasonal planting calendars and regionally appropriate agricultural training materials, and the training of Tribal 4-H advisors and Master Gardeners, Obj. 5) Implement innovative changes in the food system and evaluate effectiveness: a) create jobs and train seasonal food crews to grow/gather, process and distribute healthy foods throughout the community, b) reintroduce traditional land management practices to increase yield and quality of traditional foods and fibers, c) revitalize orchards and commercial salmon smoke house, d) launch greenhouse and community gardens, e) initiate and evaluate farm/forest/fish to institution and direct marketing (barter, farmer markets), f) implement WIC and Buy Fresh-Buy local campaign, Obj. 6: Enhance collaborative and shared learning opportunities through the development of a Klamath basin food security network and library. C) Capacity-building Education and Leadership Development: Obj. 7) Create 24-unit community college Native American Food Security certificate in agricultural and traditional foods, Obj. 8) establish a regional food security library and Obj. 9) tribal herbaria with librarian and curator staff development, Obj. 10: develop and implement culturally relevant K-12 Sustainable Native Food System curriculum. Expected outcomes: Improved food security and health of Klamath Basin tribes through increased productivity, availability and consumption of local fresh fruits, vegetables, fish and meats and increased rates of physical activity. Significant increase in stakeholder knowledge and capacity to implement best management practices for production and preparation of culturally relevant foods and youth leadership capacity to evaluate policy barriers and opportunities for healthful living.
Project Methods
Using a participatory action research approach, stakeholders from all parts of the food system will be involved in project development, implementation and evaluation. For each objective, pre and post-assessment plans to measure changes in knowledge, behavior and condition will be developed and agreed upon. Pre-assessments will gather base line data using mobile app. technology, brief surveys and focus group techniques to assess knowledge & current practice. Post-assessments including surveys and focus groups with stakeholders will evaluate changes in knowledge, action and condition. First, this project will engage community members in collaborative participatory food system and health assessments to evaluate historical and current food system assets and challenges, health conditions, and consumer preferences, and identify solutions. Local youth and "food security teams" will be trained to conduct food system and health assessments and youth will conduct adventure walk program utilizing mobile technology to assess the barriers to and facilitators of healthful living. Ecological assessments will evaluate effects of traditional land management techniques (prescribed fire and pruning) on productivity and availability of native plant foods. Second, we will measure changes in knowledge, availability and consumption of local, culturally appropriate foods through the provision of extension and training. These include tribal food-shed classes related to growing, processing, and cooking culturally relevant foods, provision of technical support to aspiring farmers, ranchers and community gardens through creation and dissemination of regionally appropriate agricultural training materials and crop calendars, and training of Tribal 4-H advisors and Master Gardeners. Third, we will implement and evaluate community-led innovative changes in the food system including the creation of "tribal seasonal food crews" to grow/gather, process and distribute healthy foods throughout the community. Graduate students and seasonal field crews under the guidance of cultural resource practitioners and scientists will evaluate impact of traditional land management strategies on habitat condition and yield of culturally important foods and develop best management practices for three key species. Community gardens and greenhouses will be established and project team will track expenditures and yields, distribution of product, community participation, and consumption patterns with bi-annual surveys. Orchards and a commercial salmon smoke house will be revitalized and monitored for changes in productivity, yield, community participation, volume distributed. Farm/forest/fish to school will be test-piloted and evaluated with two schools. Revitalization of intra and inter-tribal barter/distribution networks will be monitored for type and volume of product exchanged, participation rate and response. Fourth, we will develop and pilot innovative educational materials including K-12 and community college Native American food security curricula, a regional food security library, and tribal herbaria with curator and librarian staff development to ensure their long-term viability.

Progress 09/01/16 to 08/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:This project serves primarily tribal members within the Klamath, Karuk and Yurok Tribes ancestral territories, along with other members of their communities that live along the Klamath River in Northern California and Southern Oregon. This region is characterized by high rates of unemployment and poverty with populations that are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. During this fifth year of the project, we reached a record 6,994 participants in the target area with food-related workshops, camps, field days, demonstrations, meetings, events, and extension services (includes repeat participants). With most outreach provided by Tribal staff trained through this project, we maintained our successful focus on reaching Tribal and local children and youth with expanded curriculum (K-12 grades) and experiential learning opportunities related to growing, preparing, tasting and preserving local, nutritious and culturally appropriate food, involving 4,743 young participants in these activities. Overall, approximately 64% of project participants were Native, 53% were women, and 68% were youth. Changes/Problems:As detailed in our communication of March 2017, a no-cost extension of one year was requested to accommodate the final drafting tasks for articles and reports presenting research findings in peer-review publications. This request was granted, and we plan to expend our remaining balance of approximately $83,000 during Year 6 (September 1, 2017 - August 31, 2018) primarily to support articles (drafting, submittal, revisions) final report preparation, and sharing project results at Tribal community gatherings. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Providing training opportunities that empower local communities to meet their food needs sustainably remains at the heart of the Food Security goals in the Klamath River Basin. In Year 5 as in years past, community members, undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students, and project staff also had opportunities to be mentored or trained in research, writing and other professional skills: Yu-Jane Chen: UC Berkeley undergraduate in Environmental Science. Assisted with Food Security Project evaluation via calls and emails, learned research techniques and phone skills. May Fournier: Humboldt State University undergraduate. MKWC Foodsheds Program Intern. Participated in a number of workshops and activities spanning the diverse activities including school gardens, skill building workshops, and outreach events. Learned to weld and use carpentry tools. Edith Friedman: UC Berkeley Food Security Project Manager. Trainings in group facilitation, intercultural workplaces, creating core stories for projects, managing conflict across cultures, and community building through restorative practices. Lisa Hillman: Two three-day grant-writing trainings; Indigenous Language Survival and Tribal Archives and Association of American Archivists conference trainings; Eco-Adapt-provided training in developing a regional Climate Vulnerability Assessment. Delmer Jordan: Yurok Seasonal Food Crew. Mentorship in plant voucher identification and collection. Support in leading herbaria demonstrations for high school classes; public speaking skills. Tony Marks-Block: PhD candidate, Stanford University Graduate School of Education. Tribal mentorship and Review Committee participation for his research proposal titled: The Effects of Fire on Gathering Hazelnut Sticks and Other Cultural Resources in Karuk Territory. Deniss Martinez, Christopher Adlam, and Nina Fontana: PhD candidates, University of California at Davis. Tribal guidance and oversight on a research proposal titled: Pathways to restoring traditional Indigenous landscape burning. Megan Mucioki: UC Berkeley Post-doctoral fellow. Peer-reviewed article drafting and editing, Food System assessment report drafting. Policy brief development workshop. Vikki Preston: Cultural Practitioner mentorship on traditional natural resource and cultural foods management. Adult and youth workshop leadership opportunities. Digital data management training. Maymi Preston-Donahue: Karuk Tribal Member and Humboldt State University MSW candidate. Worked with Karuk Tribe and MKWC staff to organize four-part WIC Native Parenting class series for graduate research project. Heather Rickard: Karuk Tribe Seasonal Food Crew. Cultural Practitioner mentorship on traditional natural resource and cultural foods management. Adult and youth workshop leadership opportunities. Digital data management training. Klamath Fire Ecology Symposium; Animal Tracking. Eco-Adapt-provided training in developing a regional Climate Vulnerability Assessment; Training Exchange (TREX) - two weeks of fire management and low-intensity prescribed burn training. Colleen Rossier: UC Davis PhD candidate. Mentorship in traditional plant management research. Opportunity to analyze transcribed Cultural Practitioner interviews. Gabi A. Saiz: Stanford University, undergraduate Tribal student (Ponca). Tribal mentorship during summer work for Tony Marks-Block's research with a focus on hazelnut production. Daniel Sarna: UC Berkeley Post-doctoral fellow. Peer reviewed article drafting and editing. Grant proposal development and drafting. Policy brief development workshop. Developed and delivered Píkyav Field Institute Lecture. Ben Saxon: Karuk Tribe Seasonal Food Crew. Cultural Practitioner mentorship on traditional natural resource and cultural foods management. Digital data management training. Klamath Fire Ecology Symposium; Animal Tracking. Eco-Adapt-provided training in developing a regional Climate Vulnerability Assessment; Training Exchange (TREX) - two weeks of fire management and low-intensity prescribed burn training. Bari Talley: Two three-day grant-writing trainings; Indigenous Language Survival and Tribal Archives and Association of American Archivists conference trainings. Ramona Taylor: MKWC Foodsheds Program Director. Learned to raise honey bees, save seeds, and prune her own fruit trees. Analisa Tripp: Cultural Practitioner mentorship on traditional natural resource and cultural foods management. Adult and youth workshop leadership opportunities. Digital data management training. Alejandra Zeiger: University of California at Santa Cruz undergraduate in Psychology. Assisting with Food Security Project evaluation via calls and emails, learned research techniques and phone skills. In addition: - Nine (9) Peekaavíchvaans summer youth interns trained on a variety of job skills (including resume and cover letters, email setup and protocols, ISSA certification, research and developing presentations). They also attended a 4-day USGS and College of the Siskiyous-sponsored Water Workshop Training, field/technology training with the Center for Digital Archeology, and other trainings and field activities facilitated by Karuk Tribal programs including Food Security, Historic Preservation, Wildland Fire Management, Fisheries, and Water Quality. - Multiple elementary school teachers completed certification in providing Nanu'ávaha K-12 Curriculum lessons to their students. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Throughout Year 5, we shared the results of our work with communities of interest via Facebook postings now reaching over 700 Foodshed page members, through Tribal newsletters, in the Mid-Klamath Watershed Council's online calendars, blog and newsletter, through the UC Berkeley monthly AFRI Food Security newsletter (circulation 365+, also posted online), and through the Píkyav Field Institute's new Lecture Series (inaugurated spring 2017). Project personnel have presented regular updates to Tribal Councils and other Tribal departments, and tabled with information at community events. Our efforts continue to be covered in the widely-read regional newspaper, Two Rivers Tribune, and in numerous other regional and national media outlets. Information about our results has also been shared through radio broadcasts, video productions, and numerous social media posts, shares and tweet/retweet activities- not always the case with research projects. Please see media links provided above for samples of dissemination. Results from our Food System Assessment were shared in reports this year with the Klamath Tribes Health and Family Services director, the Karuk Department of Natural Resources and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families directors, and the Yurok Social Services-Food Distribution (FDPIR) director. In addition, our postdoc researcher provided findings and interpretation to Hoopa Tribe Planning Department staff, requested to inform the design of a new grocery store which will serve members of the Hoopa, Yurok and Karuk Tribes and other local residents. This reporting period also saw growing attention to the Karuk Tribe's Sípnuuk Digital Library, Archives and Museum from other Tribes interested in preserving cultural information and adopting the framework for the protection of Karuk Intellectual Property. The Klamath Tribes contributed cultural documents, and the Yurok Tribe's Historic Preservation Office is pursuing a shared interest in future collaborative project development. The successes of Sípnuuk were also shared with staff at the Field Museum in Chicago, IL and the Peabody Museum in Cambridge, MA as well as classes at Humboldt State University. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?The AFRI Tribal Food Security Project has been granted a one-year no-cost extension. During the next reporting period, UC Berkeley PI and Postdocs plan to complete drafting of 6 articles intended for peer-review publications, a project impact report, related policy briefs/recommendations, and an evaluation report. We will present research findings and recommendations to Tribal partners in community gatherings later in Year 6, and continue to share results as requested to help inform Tribal decision-making with regard to food security and food sovereignty. Though all subaward funds have been expended, all Tribal and community partners have committed to keeping vital Food Security programming and resources available to Klamath Basin residents. During the next (NCE) reporting period, activities by partner in support of the long-term goal of building a vibrant food system in the Klamath Basin will include: Field Institute, K-12 Curriculum, Digital Food Security Library, Herbarium: The Karuk Tribe's new Píkyav (Fix It) Field Institute builds on the Tribe's successful Food Security programming to provide culturally relevant, academically challenging, and traditionally holistic environmental education that supports career development for Tribal and non-Tribal students in Karuk ancestral territory to help address endemic unemployment and poverty. With funding in place through 2020, ongoing activities will include developing and using the Nanu'ávaha ("our food") K-12 Curriculum in more area schools, expanding the Sípnuuk ("storage basket") Digital Library, Archives and Museum collections, continuing to add cultural plants to the Tribal Herbarium, and hosting Native foods workshops, seasonal youth camps, and periodic community programs. The Píkyav Field Institute will also foster collaborative research using both traditional ecological knowledge and environmental science, with partners including UC Berkeley, Humboldt State University and the University of Oregon. Community Greenhouses and Kitchen, Master Gardeners: The Klamath Tribes now have four community greenhouses extending the growing season through November in gardens open to all to volunteer and/or access fresh produce in Chiloquin and Klamath Falls, OR. The construction process for the new Food Security Tribal Community Kitchen is underway and should be completed by the end of the calendar year in Chiloquin. Tribal Master Gardeners trained under the Food Security grant will continue to provide volunteer support to community members who wish to garden in the greenhouse locations, and will lead new Seed to Supper courses next Spring. Community Gardens and Native Food Workshops: The Yurok Tribe will continue to maintain its community gardens in Klamath and Weitchpec, provide fish and other traditional foods to elders, and offer occasional workshops on gathering, preparing and preserving food through its Social Services Department. Food Security community apple presses to lend will be housed at Crescent City Food Distribution and the Weitchpec Tribal Office; the Tribal Herbarium will be housed in the new Klamath Visitors' Center. Agriculture Extension, Farm to School: Technical advice will remain accessible beyond this project via Mid Klamath Watershed Council's online collection of beautiful, easy-to-understand regional agricultural bulletins (http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/) on pest management, climate change, water conservation, planting guides, calendars, and more. Downloadable manuals will share replicable strategies for maintaining and improving soils, implementing a heritage tree revitalization program, choosing fruit and nut trees, and building a lightweight chicken tractor. Laminated hard copies of the garden calendar are also available at the MKWC office. MKWC will assist the Karuk Tribe with student outreach through the Tribe's new Farm to School project, and will continue to host Third Thursday dinners and celebrations. UCCE will continue working with Klamath River Basin tribes on aspects of suicide prevention including teaching teens about cultural foods. Extension staff will continue to connect local small producers to resources such as Extension, NRCS and RCD. Cultural Foods Research - Research Ecologist Frank Lake will continue to support graduate students Colleen Rossier and Tony Marks-Block on their data analysis of best practices for huckleberry (Rossier) and hazelnut (Marks-Block) production. Lake will continue to assess the impact of cool burns on local tanoak acorn productivity and efficiency, and support ongoing food grove assessment work by the biotechnicians (formerly Food Crew) of the Karuk Tribe Department of Natural Resources.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Tribal populations across the country experience high rates of food insecurity and diseases associated with loss of traditional diet, sedentary lifestyles, degradation of natural resources, and poverty. The Klamath Basin Tribal Food Security Project has resulted in countless outcomes related to tribal health and food security among the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Tribes: increased knowledge, capacity, and confidence to manage, gather, grow, prepare, preserve and consume nutritious, fresh, local and traditional food, and a determination to address identified policy barriers, enabling transformation of the food system beyond this grant. In Year 5 alone, project activities reached a record 6,994 participants, the majority of them Native. In a recent Basin-wide evaluation, 77% of respondents said they had learned something new. 67% had tried out new skills at home. 64% of respondents said they felt the community is more food secure; 77% said the programs have changed the community in other positive ways. In Year 5, community-driven outreach and hands-on educational opportunities were provided primarily by the 15 Tribal staff trained through this project. Stakeholders learned new skills focused on subsistence food provisioning, including cooking, gardening, canning, butchering, fruit tree pruning, bread baking, acorn processing, and chicken tractor fabrication, among others. A central focus on engaging youth and developing STEM skills reached a record 4,743 youth (more than double Year 4). NIFA funds also trained new indigenous food system scholars and potential cooperative extension leaders, including 6 PhDs, 2 Postdocs, 2 Masters, and 23 undergraduates. Digital repositories for new K-12 curriculum and other food system resources provide ongoing access to information and skill development. All 3 tribes have leveraged project successes, securing nearly $2M for ongoing and expanded youth and community programming, and over $1.4M for ecological research on Native foods. By objective: 1. Native food system and health assessment: Data analysis is now largely complete for unique community food system assessment for Tribal members and descendants (955 respondents). Key findings include: 50% of households report food is too expensive at local stores; 50% of households run out of food money; over 50% want more Native foods in food assistance programs; rules and permits are among the strongest barriers to obtaining Native foods. We will complete policy recommendations and articles in Year 6. 2. Youth leadership: Development opportunities in Year 5 included food grove assessment, compass-reading, and storytelling skills, and Youth Food Sovereignty and Intertribal Exchange camps. 9 Tribal youth built job skills as Peekaavíchvaans (Tribal Summer Youth Technicians). 3. Access to and availability of Native foods: Best Management Practices for tanoak acorns, huckleberries and hazelnut (priority Native foods) have been shared with Tribal review committees. Long-term research indicates that cool fires (a traditional stewardship strategy) improve acorn quality and access. Postdoc's research on elk was leveraged for a $1.4M grant to the Karuk Tribe to research habitat and population dynamics of this key cultural food source. 4. Community knowledge and capacity: a. 89 Workshops and Youth Camps: Food-related classes and camps reached a 5-year high, with approximately 1450 participants Basin-wide. Between 80 -100% of participants reported learning something new, and 63 - 100% want to try out their new learning or learn more. b. Master Gardeners: 8 Klamath Master Gardeners have been trained. 2 have been active as Seed to Supper curriculum instructors, and two maintain greenhouses serving the community with fresh produce and protected growing space. c. Agriculture extension: UCCE, MKWC, the Klamath Tribes and the Yurok Tribe have continued garden education through group workshops, community gardens, afterschool programs, and 1:1 consultation, this year extending consultation to Hoopa and Tolowa Dee-ni' Nation members. d. Youth 4H development - Ishkêesh'tunviiv: This innovative program integrating Native values and cultural foods into 4-H programming is an institution in its 3rd year, engaging 141 tribal and non-tribal youth. Additional UCCE-led 4-H programs continued to reach 125 children. 5. Changes to the Food System: a. Jobs: In Year 5, 6 Yurok, Karuk and Klamath Food Crew staff worked regularly with TANF clients, Cultural Practitioners, community volunteers and K-12 students to improve and monitor resource habitat, harvest, prepare and distribute Native foods, and maintain community gardens. Food Crew training including wildland fire management, digital resource preservation, and public speaking was leveraged by at least one employee to secure new fulltime employment. c. Orchards, smoker: MKWC and the Karuk Tribe transferred 200 heirloom fruit tree grafts to a local nursery, for care until they are large enough for residents to plant. 17 revitalized orchards provide apples and other fruit shared with the community. Yurok continue to smoke eel and salmon (when available) for distribution to elders. d. Greenhouses and community gardens: At least 650lbs of fresh vegetables from the 8 total new greenhouses has been distributed among food-insecure Klamath Tribes members this year. The final greenhouse opened at Hilyard Tribal Elder Housing, with planter boxes designed for older gardeners. 6 community gardens remain vital sites for community education and access to fresh vegetables Basin-wide. e. Intertribal exchange: The Yurok taught smokehouse building to the Klamath Tribes (14 participants). The Karuk Tribe hosted Yurok, Hoopa and Klamath Tribes youth at a Tribal Youth Food Sovereignty Series, and offered a 3-day Intertribal Youth Camp (84 participants). Learning and exchange among all 3 Tribes continued at 5th Annual AFRI Partners Meeting. f. Buy Fresh Buy Local: MKWC's annual events fostering connections to local producers and consumers drew hundreds. With MKWC support, a new farmers' market now offers fresh produce and locally produced dinners weekly in summer/fall in remote Happy Camp, CA. 6. Collaborative Learning Network: More than 700 people now exchange food-related information on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page (http://tinyurl.com/gub2r7g). AFRI Food Security Newsletter (circulation 365) and AFRI Partners listserv also foster shared learning. Regular articles in local Two Rivers Tribune reach about 6000 readers. The Píkyav Field Institute's new Lecture Series brings researchers to share findings with the local community. 7. Píkyav Field Institute: With the goal of promoting career- and college-readiness for tribal youth in natural resource management fields that support tribal food sovereignty, the Karuk Tribe has established the Píkyav Field Institute to provide environmental workforce development; environmental education for K through college; Food Security programming, and the Sípnuuk Digital Library. A $1M US DOE grant has secured Píkyav's work through 2020 with rehired current Food Security staff in 4 new, related positions. 8. Food Security Library: The Karuk Sípnuuk Digital Library, Archives and Museum has seen rising use, with average 3,800 page views/month from at least 7 countries (Google Analytics; (https://sipnuuk.mukurtu.net/). A second IMLS grant will further expand the collection and train Tribal high school and university students on digitizing cultural resources. 9. Tribal Herbaria: The Karuk and Yurok Food Crews continued to add plant voucher specimens to their Tribal Herbaria and lead numerous workshops for children and adults. 10. K-12 Native Food System Curriculum: Curricula for grades K-12 are complete with 94 multi-part lessons and collateral. During Year 5, 91 lessons reached over 1,000 participating students in 6 schools in 5 school districts.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Salmo, R., Palmer, P. and Karuk Tribe. 2017. Fast, Nondestructive, and Cost-Effective Methods to Detect Pesticide Residues: A Case Study of Several Repatriated Karuk Tribe Artifacts. Collection Forum: Fall 2017, Vol. 31, No. 1-2: 23-33.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Diver, S. 2016. Co-management as a catalyst: Pathways to post-colonial forestry in the Klamath Basin, California. Human Ecology 44(5): 533546.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Karuk  UC Berkeley Collaborative, https://nature.berkeley.edu/karuk-collaborative/. Expanded site now includes In the News page, Food Security Newsletter Archive, and Collaborative Updates blog. Karuk Tribe Sipnuuk Digital Library, Archive and Museum. http://sipnuuk.mukurtu.net/ AFRI Food Security Collection totals 1031 materials to date (401 added Year 5). [Access to culturally sensitive material is password protected  request a password to view additional material not viewable without a (free) account.]
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Other Presentations: A-H Clayburn, Rosie. Yurok Tribe Food Security Program. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Diver, Sibyl. Pathways to Post-Colonial Forestry in the Klamath Basin. P�kyav Lecture Series, Orleans CA. April 20, 2017. Hillman, Lisa. How Important is Digital Preservation to Indigenous Communities? A Karuk Tribal Perspective Presentation to two undergraduate classes, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. October 26, 2016. Hillman, Lisa and Hillman, Leaf. TK Labels - a Model Project Collaboration between the Karuk Tribe and Museum Partners. Collections Management, NAGPRA; IT staff, Field Institute of Natural History, Chicago IL. November 10, 2016. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA. November 16, 2016. Hillman, Lisa. Oral presentations of four grant proposals to support Food Security sustainability. Karuk Resources Advisory Board and Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Monthly presentations of Food Security Project activities. Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Revisions to agreements and policies concerning the protection of Karuk Intellectual Property for project participants and collaborators. Karuk Resources Advisory Board and Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Presentations of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral research, video production and project proposals concerning Karuk Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Cultural Heritage. Karuk Resources Advisory Board and Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Two grant proposals that would support continued implementation of Nanu�vaha K-12 Curriculum at five local schools. Indian Parent Committees, Karuk Education Committee, Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Final drafts of 10th to 12th grade lessons, Climate Change and Plant Biology lesson series. Karuk Resources Advisory Board, Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, Lisa. Karuk Tribes efforts toward implementing TK [Traditional Knowledge] labels. Other Tribal cohorts for Local Contexts project. March 15, 2017. Hillman, Lisa. Presentation of grant proposal to expand S�pnuuk collection scope through collaborative project with Humboldt State University and the Clarke Memorial Museum. Institute of Museum and Library Services. Hillman, Lisa. Presentation of NAGPRA grant proposal to develop a collaborative TK Label project with the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Karuk Resources Advisory Board, Karuk Tribal Council Meeting. Hillman, Lisa. Food Security and Food Sovereignty  What do they mean to You? presentation to Happy Camp High School, Happy Camp, CA, February 15, 2017. Hillman, Lisa. Year 5 activities of the Karuk Tribes Food Security Project. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2017 Citation: Hillman, Lisa and Hillman, Leaf. Preserving Traditional Knowledge through Digitization and Sharing of Personal Cultural Items: A Model Project of the Karuk Tribe. 2017 Conference of International Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries and Museums, Phoenix, AZ. October 11, 2016. Harling, Adrienne, Hillman, Lisa, Hillman, Leaf, and Talley, Bari. Owning Our Stories: Overcoming Barriers to Access of Cultural Heritage kunxayh�ruthunati (were keeping it for someone). 2017 Annual Convention of the Society of American Archivists, Portland, OR. July 28, 2017. Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Working in Indian Country: Issues and Approaches. UC ANR Creating Successful Partnerships with Native American Tribes, Stockton, CA. March 21, 2017. Sowerwine, Jennifer. Promoting a Collaborative, Participatory Approach to Research and Extension: Reflections from a 5-Year Tribal Food Security Project with the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Tribes. UCANR Creating Partnerships with Native American Tribes. Stockton, CA and Pala, CA. March 21 and May 9, 2017. McDaniel, P. "What is Food Sovereignty?" Klamath Tribes Wellbriety Conference, Klamath Falls, OR. March 24, 2017.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2017 Citation: Other Presentations: L - Z Lake, F. Year 5 USDA Forest Service Research Support to the AFRI Tribal Food Security Project. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Marks-Block, Tony, Lake, Frank, and Reece, Wilverna. Fire Effects on Hazelnut for Karuk and Yurok Basketry. P�kyav Lecture Series, Orleans CA. July 13, 2017. McDaniel, Perri. Klamath Tribes Food Security Program. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Mucioki, M. Klamath Basin Food System Assessment: Combined Data for Karuk, Yurok, Hoopa and Klamath Tribes. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Sarna-Wojcicki, Dan. Co-management as a Catalyst: Decentering Watersheds and Decolonizing Foodscapes: Eco-cultural Approaches to Scale for Klamath Environmental Governance P�kyav Lecture Series. Orleans CA. April 20, 2017. Sarna-Wojcicki, Dan. AFRI Annual Meeting UCB Team Reflections. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Sowerwine, Jennifer. Recommendations from surveys, focus groups, interviews for reports, publications, policy briefs, fundraising, program design. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Smith, Carolyn. Collecting, Collaborating, and Coming Home: A Talk about Karuk Baskets at Home and in Museums. P�kyav Lecture Series, Orleans CA. Happy Camp, CA July 12, 2017. Talley, Bari and Cutright, Eric. A New Level of Community Connectivity in Northern California. Aspen Institute Americas Rural Opportunity: Infrastructure Fueling Rural Economic Development. Panel Conversation. Net. 22 May 2017. Taylor, Ramona. MKWC Community Foodsheds  Year 5 Report. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Fort Klamath, OR. May 22, 2017. Tweig, Brendan, Rickard, Heather, Preston, Vikki. Sudden Oak Death. P�kyav Lecture Series, Orleans CA. April 6, 2017. Happy Camp, CA. 12 April 12, 2017.


Progress 09/01/15 to 08/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience:This project serves primarily tribal members within the Klamath, Karuk and Yurok Tribes ancestral territories, along with other members of their communities that live along the Klamath River in Northern California and Southern Oregon. This region is characterized by high rates of unemployment and poverty with populations that are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. During this reporting period, a particular focus on reaching children and youth with curriculum and hands-on experiences related to access to locally produced, healthy and culturally appropriate food resulted in a record number of young participants (2,212) in our activities. A total of 4,449 participants attended workshops, camps, conferences, meetings and events, or were served by extension services (includes repeat participants). Overall, approximately 67% of participants were Native, 42% were women, and 61% were youth. Changes/Problems:As detailed above, the Management Team has ceded the leadership of the former UCB Summer Field Institute to the Karuk Tribe for implementation as the Tribe-led Pikyav Field Institute. The new Institute will expand partnerships beyond the AFRI Team to include additional resource management agencies and land grant institutions, with the goal of meeting the needs of Tribal youth and UCB and other undergraduates for experiential learning about Native food sovereignty, best practices in cultural land management, and potential career paths in food-security-related fields. The Yurok Tribe has been unable since project inception to meet all objectives without the support of a dedicated Food Security Coordinator. Our Yurok Co-PD has a fulltime position, as do the cultural staff who help train and supervise the Yurok Food Crew. Tribal employment policies inhibited our program team's ability to hire. Though our PI has initiated strategies to mitigate the lack of a Coordinator (exploring staffing through other Tribal departments, offering contractor status to a former Tribal administrator, and hiring a Garden Educator to mentor Food Crew and community members on a long-term basis), none of these efforts have come to fruition, and the PI and Yurok Co-PD have reluctantly decided to set aside the objectives of a Mobile Farmers' Market, and additional Yurok-led youth activities. The Yurok Tribe will use the balance of their Year 4 funding through Year 5 to continue supporting Food Crew in community and school gardens, increasing community access to fresh produce, introducing local students to fresh and healthy vegetables and fruits, providing traditional cultural foods to elders, and providing 1:1 support to home gardeners. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Training opportunities continue to be a central focus of project activities in the Klamath Basin for all participants. In addition, the following community members, undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students, and project staff have had opportunities to be mentored in research projects and/or to build their professional skills. Megan Mucioki: UC Berkeley Post-doctoral fellow. Lead researcher on Native food system assessment, ethnoecological profiles and herbarium development. (Conference participation listed above.) NVIVO qualitative data analysis training. Ben Saxon: Karuk Seasonal Food Crew Biotechnician. Best practices in cultural foods baseline habitat assessment, voucher specimen collection, use of technology tools for data collection. Site form data entry and document upload trainings. Mentoring in leading plant collection workshops. Western Klamath Restoration Partnership conferences on Native food, fibers and other cultural resources in the NEPA process; LiDAR training for cultural resource assessment on large scale; Photo Point training. Heather Rickey: Karuk Seasonal Food Crew Biotechnician. Best practices in cultural foods baseline habitat assessment, voucher specimen collection, use of technology tools for data collection. Site form data entry and document upload trainings. Training in presentations to high school students. Western Klamath Restoration Partnership conferences on Native food, fibers and other cultural resources in the NEPA process; LiDAR training for cultural resource assessment on large scale; Photo Point training. Angela McLaughlin: Sipnuuk Library Assistant. Leveraged TANF-funded Center for Digital Archaeology Center trainings for digital preservation and storytelling; in-house Train-the-Trainer workshop for collection prioritization and uploading onto Sípnuuk; IMLS funded on-site digital library training at Washington State University. Delmer Jordan: Yurok Seasonal Food Crew. Best practices in establishing and cultivating community gardens and facilitating youth involvement in gardening activities; traditional methods of smoking and canning salmon and other traditional foods. Arielle Halpern: UC Berkeley graduate student. Lead researcher on acorn ecology/cultural plant diversity project. (See conference presentations above.) Daniel Sarna: UC Berkeley Post-doctoral fellow. Lead researcher on legal and policy barriers to Tribal access to traditional and contemporary Native cultural foods. Opportunity to mentor student interns in library research and interviewing skills. NVIVO qualitative data analysis training. Colleen Rossier: UC Davis PhD candidate conducting research related to the traditional management of huckleberries and the related traditional knowledge that could inform current land management practices. Opportunity to conduct Cultural Practitioner interviews. Rebecca Farmer: UC Berkeley Masters candidate conducting research into local, state, regional and federal laws and regulations governing Tribal access to traditional foods in the Klamath Basin. Sinead Talley: Karuk Tribal member and Stanford University undergraduate, conducting food store surveys in support of the Klamath Basin food system assessment, and research on early results of integrating Food Security Curriculum in area schools. Bari Talley: Karuk Tribal member, conducting research to support the Native Food System Assessment and on the value of culturally relevant K-12 curriculum on Native Foods. IMLS funded on-site digital library training at Washington State University. Sheelah Bearfoot: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System Assessment with health clinic interviews and commodity foods data. Eric Chan: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System Assessment with research into Klamath Tribes historical food source access policies and key informant interviews. Samuel Johnson: University of California, Davis undergraduate currently working with Food Security Project Coordinator to develop lesson content for the Nanu'ávaha K-12 Food Security Curriculum. Deniss Martinez: University of California, Davis undergraduate student of ecology worked with Karuk Food Security Project staff learning first-hand about integrating western science with traditional ecological knowledge, resulting in a poster presentation emphasizing the Tribe's work in asserting tribal sovereignty as it pertains to their ancestral territory, and putting Traditional Ecological Knowledge at the forefront of management practices. Darcey Nicole Evans: University of California, Santa Cruz doctoral candidate, conducting forestry plots and interviews with tribal members to research ecological and social relationships between forestry, fire management, and food security. Meia Matsuda: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System research. Mentoring to conduct in-person key informant interviews. Marie Salem: UC Berkeley undergraduate compiling Basin demographics and conducting key informant interviews. Brian Thorsen: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Food System Assessment data entry and Karuk archival research. Evana Ahsan: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Food System Assessment database setup and data entry. Isabel Pintor: UC Berkeley undergraduate transcribing Focus Group proceedings and key informant interviews per protocols. Natalie Myren: UC Berkeley undergraduate conducting library and database research on funding opportunities for sustaining Food Security Project programs beyond the life of the grant. Joanna Jiang: UC Berkeley undergraduate conducting research on Marine Life Protection Act and Yurok Tribal access to fisheries. Jenny Xia: UC Berkeley undergraduate compiling Basin demographics and conducting food agency interviews. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?In Year 4, our workshops, camps, focus groups and other events have been publicized through 47 event flyers, Facebook postings now reaching over 600 page members, through Tribal newsletters, in the Mid-Klamath Watershed Council's online calendars and newsletter, through the UC Berkeley monthly AFRI Food Security newsletter (circulation 300+), and by word of mouth (an important communication channel in the Klamath River Basin). Our efforts continue to be covered in the widely-read regional newspaper, Two Rivers Tribune, and occasionally in the Siskiyou Daily News. Please see media links provided above for samples of dissemination. Project staff present regular updates to Tribal Councils and other Tribal departments, and also staff tables with information at community events. Early results from our work were shared this year with members of multiple Tribal communities at the California Indian Conference, the Intertribal Agriculture Council, and the Yurok Tribal Food Security Summit, and with Western Region Extension professionals through a journal article in Rural Connections. This year also saw national coverage of the Food Security Project in award-winning online news source Civil Eats. Our Annual AFRI Partners Management Team Meeting was attended by 4 Del Norte and Adjacent Tribal Lands Community Food Council and Tolowa Dee-ni' Nation staff, who wished to explore new collaborations (now underway). What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?All partners have set ambitious long-term goals to leverage and sustain the exciting food system changes that have resulted from this grant. The Klamath Tribes secured funding to build a community kitchen to expand "seed to supper" educational programming including preserving and preparing locally grown produce. The Karuk Tribe plans to expand their digital library and launch a workforce development and educational field research institute (the Pikyav Institute) to prepare the next generation of natural resource managers incorporating Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Research on the determinants of a healthy food system 1. Community Food System & Health Assessment: We are pleased to report that the Hoopa Tribe chose to participate in the Food System Assessment, offering us the possibility of a more comprehensive picture of tribal food security in the Klamath Basin. However, this resulted in a further delay as surveys were prepared, mailed and completed. At the recommendation of our Tribal partners, we also decided to expand our pool of key informants from the original few dozen to over 100 to capture more complete information. The survey window is now closed and interviews are nearly complete. We are currently analyzing all assessment data. In Year 5, we will create reports, peer-review publications, policy briefs and present our findings to all Tribal communities. 2. Enhance productivity of traditional plant foods. Seasonal food crews will continue harvesting, processing, distributing and recording data on traditional food quality and yield. Post-doc Daniel Sarna will continue analysis of laws and policies that enable and inhibit food sovereignty and will develop policy briefs and peer-reviewed articles. Doctoral Student Colleen Rossier will continue data analysis of best practices for huckleberry production with guidance from US Forest Service Research Ecologist Frank Lake and the Karuk Tribe Department of Natural Resources. Extension and Training 3. Community Capacity Building a. Foodshed and Native Food classes: Mid-Klamath Watershed Council will continue to host 6-8 foodshed classes annually on topics identified by the community, and collaborate with new partners to offer additional workshops. MKWC will also host 6 Back to the Garden Summer Youth classes on garden-based activities. The Karuk Tribe will host 4 Seasonal Youth Camps and 3 Native Food Workshops. The Klamath Tribes plans at least 3 - 4 Native Food Workshops. b. Master Gardener program: The 8 Klamath Tribes members who have completed the Master Gardener program will expand the offerings of mentoring and teaching to other Tribal members in the community garden, greenhouses, and once completed, the new community kitchen. Increased knowledge and production of fresh vegetables in greenhouses. Increased consumption of healthy foods. c. Agriculture Extension: UCCE and MKWC will continue to provide technical assistance to farmers and home gardeners through online resource development, newspaper articles, and on-site as requested. Continue to support community garden efforts throughout the basin. Connecting farmers to additional resources such as NRCS and RCD, UC Extension. Community outreach and education on water conservation. d. Ishkêesh-tunviiv program: The Karuk Tribe will continue providing training to at least 5 youth participants monthly in Native food topics through this innovative, tribal-led afterschool program. Increased knowledge of Native plant ecology and food preparation. 4. Innovative Changes to the Food System a. Community gardens: Supported by MKWC, UCCE, and new partner Community Food Council of Del Norte and Adjacent Tribal Lands, Yurok and Karuk will continue preparing and engaging community in the Klamath, Weitchpec and Orleans gardens and distributing produce through their food crew. Yield harvested and distributed will be tracked. Klamath Tribes will continue to explore wocus gathering and assess 2 pilot propagation efforts. b. Greenhouse vegetables: Evaluate 4 private greenhouses and 3 community greenhouses in Klamath Falls and Chiloquin and measure yield, community participation and changes in knowledge and consumption patterns. Site and build final community greenhouse and community kitchen to process harvested vegetables. Continue Seed to Supper courses to increase community knowledge of propagation, harvesting and healthy food preparation techniques. c. Orchard revitalization: Continue the collaboration between Karuk Tribe and MKWC to maintain and improve the current 15 orchard sites. Hold winter pruning & grafting workshops. Increase knowledge among community members about how to prune, improved quality of orchards, increased yields, and propagate desirable varieties through grafting workshops. d. Commercial Salmon Smoker: Continue to increase volume of salmon and other Native foods processed and distributed through food commodities distribution program with the Yurok tribe. Record data. Increased consumption of local salmon; reduction of food insecurity. e. Food Distribution: Continue and expand gathering and distribution of traditional foods, as well as food from community gardens and orchards to elders, ceremonial leaders, and other community members in need. Continue Intertribal Food Exchange. Record data. Increased distribution and consumption of fresh, healthy, locally produced foods. g. Farm/fish/forest to institution: Maintain gains of Farm 2 School programming. Focus on school gardens, purchasing policies/procurement, identify and resolving barriers to incorporating traditional foods and farm fresh local foods, identify training and resources needs. h. Buy Fresh Buy Local Campaign: MKWC will continue to hold 3-4 community food events to increase knowledge, awareness, skills and availability of healthy, seasonal foods, and opportunities to engage in food security program, networking and provide access to/venue to sell value added products. 6. Collaborative Learning: All partners will continue to update and post announcements to workshops and facilitate regional dialogue on food security in the Klamath Basin on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page, the Karuk-UCB Website, the monthly AFRI Food Security Newsletter and the AFRI Partners listserve. Continue to foster inter-tribal collaborations. UCB will share Food System Assessment findings with tribal stakeholders via community meetings. Education: Curriculum and leadership development to address food insecurity 7. UCB Summer Field Institute: As discussed above, the Karuk Tribe is working towards developing collaborative partners for the Pikyav Field Institute through on-site visits and calls with relevant academic institutions including UC Berkeley. With proper funding, the Institute will consolidate the activities undertaken for Food Security objectives, so that developing this objective will sustain our Food Security programming into the future. 8. Develop the Regional Food Security Library: Our Sípnuuk platform is now officially launched. In Year 5, we will offer hands-on and online trainings to orient the community to using the database. Digital librarians will complete their training. 9. Finalize Tribal Herbaria and develop educational program: We will continue to train staff, youth and community members in plant identification, and specimen collection for deposit in new Tribal Herbaria cabinets. Increase knowledge and enduring educational opportunity for tribal members. 10. K-12 Sustainable Food System Curriculum Development: We will continue developing the K-12 curriculum (grades 10, 11 and 12) and pilot lessons with both the after-school project and local schools. Evaluate pilots and integrate changes. Implement in more schools.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Enthusiastic participation by stakeholders of all ages in innovative community-led research, education and outreach programs has led to greatly increased knowledge and capacity to implement food security solutions among the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Tribes in the Klamath River Basin. In Year 4 alone, a total of 4,449 residents attended food security workshops, camps, policy discussions, conferences, extension programming, and other educational events. 94% of returning participants report using their new knowledge and skills (gardening, pruning, grafting, pest management, harvesting, food preservation and safety, baking, nutrition, etc). All three tribes adopted healthy food policies. All partners have leveraged funding to extend project impacts: Farm to School funds to broaden activities to 6 local schools; education funds for development of the Pikyav Field Institute; funds to build a community kitchen. Added to residents' increased engagement in food production, preservation and nutrition, total leverage of $508,138 (to date) is setting a strong foundation for long-term food security in the region. In Year 4, new partnerships with local school districts led by the Karuk Tribe and Mid Klamath Watershed Council have offered youth-centered Native Food Security Curriculum and hands-on experiences focusing on cultural foods and healthy eating. This has resulted in vastly expanded participation of local students (2,212) building their STEM skills through cooking and gardening education in Native food workshops, field days, and camps. Across the Basin, 61% of Food Security activity participants in Year 4 were youth (up from 55% in Year 3), 67% of participants were Native, and 42% were women. Professional development and training has built local capacity to engage in Native food security efforts beyond the life of this grant. Fifteen mostly Tribal staff have worked with UC Berkeley, UC Davis and UCCE to co- design, lead and evaluate projects from classroom and field-based food education, to creating a digital food security library, culturally relevant 4-H programming, and design of the K-12 Native Food Security Curriculum, among others. To date, 6 PhD candidates, 2 Postdocs, 1 Masters, and 19 undergraduates have been trained through our program, and all have expressed their intent to continue supporting Food Security in the Klamath and beyond in future research and work. Additional accomplishments: 1. Native food system and health assessment: Comprehensive research on barriers and opportunities to healthy food access was completed via focus groups, in-depth interviews, food store and mail surveys with a total of 950 Tribal respondents; data now being analyzed. 2. Youth leadership: Tribal partners are expanding educational opportunities for Native Youth in local schools and laying the foundation for the groundbreaking Pikyav Field Institute (see below). 3. Access to and availability of Native foods : Research on tanoak acorns, huckleberries and hazelnut (priority Native foods) continues, including a recently completed dissertation on traditional management through cool fires to combat pests and disease in acorns. Research on laws and policies affecting Tribal access to Native foods resulted in a white paper on Tribal Elk Management now being used to support legislative changes. 4. Community knowledge and capacity: a. 26 workshops: Participation in and demand for hands-on food-related classes and camps continue to rise. MKWC's Foodshed program reached 280 individuals; average 96% report increased knowledge of canning, grafting, bread baking, butchering, animal tracking, drought strategies and more. Karuk Tribe's Youth Camps saw record-breaking enrollment; 80% learned something new. Klamath Tribes' Seed to Supper classes expanded to 3 communities, with previous participants leading the courses. b. Master Gardeners: Prior to this grant there were no Klamath Master Gardeners. This year, 4 more Klamath Tribal members completed Master Gardener certification for a total of 8. Two regularly teach garden skills to others, including youth. c. Agriculture extension: UCCE, MKWC and the Yurok Tribe continue garden education through community gardens, afterschool programs, and 1:1 consultation. Technical advice is also offered through workshops, quarterly newspaper articles, weekly Facebook posts and an online treasury of regional technical bulletins created by MKWC (http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/) on soil, pest management, climate change, water conservation, planting guides, calendars, etc. d. Youth 4H development - Ishkêesh'tunviiv: This innovative program integrating Native values and cultural foods into 4-H programming is in its second year. Parents report children are actively harvesting Native foods introduced in sessions. Additional UCCE-led 4-H programs reach 125 children in the Basin. 5. Changes to the Food System: a. Jobs: Four Food Crew positions created by this grant have built Tribal capacity to offer educational workshops and presentations on Native food production, gathering, processing and distribution, as well as offering a wide range of processed Native foods to their communities. c. Orchards, smoker: MKWC and the Karuk Tribe now maintain 17 reclaimed orchard sites (7 more than projected). Fruits are being harvested and distributed to local residents. 100 heirloom fruit trees grafted last year will be planted soon. Yurok continue to smoke eel and salmon for distribution to elders. d. Greenhouses and community gardens: Yield from new greenhouses has extended the growing season and increased consumption of fresh vegetables among food-insecure Klamath Tribes members. 6 community gardens have become vital sites for community education and increased access to fresh vegetables Basin-wide. e. Intertribal food distribution: 21 members of other tribes attended Klamath Tribes' 3rd Annual 1st Foods Celebration (launched with this grant). Klamath Tribes will hold a Summer Youth Food Sovereignty Program, new this year. Shared learning by all 3 Tribes continued at 4th AFRI Program Directors Meeting, California Indian Conference, and Yurok Tribal Food Sovereignty Summit. f. Buy Fresh Buy Local: Attendance held strong at 3 events where MKWC Foodsheds staff fostered connections to local producers and consumers. MKWC is providing support for groups exploring 2 farmers' markets. Small producer Beaver Creek Trading Company successfully distributed CA state-approved local food products. 6. Collaborative Learning Network: Surpassing project goals, over 600 members now exchange information on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page (http://tinyurl.com/gub2r7g). Karuk-UCB Website, AFRI Food Security Newsletter and AFRI Partners listserv also foster shared learning. MKWC's seasonal newspaper articles reach about 6000 readers. 7. Pikyav Field Institute: The Karuk Tribe has taken ownership of the vision for an Institute that will consolidate, enhance, and sustain long-standing environmental education, training and research opportunities furthered through the AFRI grant. Offerings will promote career- and college-readiness of Tribal Youth in natural resource management fields that support Tribal food sovereignty. 8. Food Security Library: The Sipnuuk Digital Library, Archives and Museum has logged over 280 visitors from 8 different countries (https://sipnuuk.mukurtu.net/). The Tribe was awarded an IMLS Museum Services Grant to expand the collection and train community and staff on digitization. 9. Tribal Herbaria: UCB led a specimen mounting workshop in October 2015. Postdoc Megan Mucioki has continued to provide weekly support to Food Crew in collecting, pressing and mounting techniques, and Food Crew are now leading workshops for local children and adults. 10. K-12 Native Food System Curriculum: Curricula for grades K-9 are complete and five local schools have committed to use the K-12 curriculum in daily classroom plans.

Publications

  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Halpern, A. Prescribed fire and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) associated cultural plant resources of the Karuk and Yurok Peoples of California. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley. Filed May 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Clayburn, R. Teaching traditions: Native food workshops to increase tribal health and food security. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Clayburn, R. Exercising Food and Culture Sovereignty in Yurok Country. Yurok Tribal Food Sovereignty Summit, Klamath, CA. 23 April 2016. Diver, S. Beyond collaborative watershed management: Tribal sovereignty and sustainability on the Klamath River. American Association of Geographers, San Francisco, CA. 29 March 2016. Gilkison, G. and Giraud, D. Building bridges: Emergent collaborations between tribal and non-tribal entities to support Tribal youth development and food security. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Hillman, L. Nanu�vaha: Food Sovereignty and Security in Karuk Country and the Mid Klamath Watershed. Yurok Tribal Food Sovereignty Summit, Klamath, CA. 23 April 2016. Hillman, L. Karuk Tribe: Ensuring security of tribal knowledge while engaging in collaborative research. Intertribal Agricultural Council Annual Membership Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. 10 December 2015. Hillman, L. Nanu'�vaha K-12 Native Food System Curriculum. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Hillman, L. Integrating western science with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to revitalize Native food resources and wisdom. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Hillman, L. Developing Tools to Navigate Intellectual Property and Protect Cultural Heritage. 2015 International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Washington, DC. 10 September 2015. Hillman, L. Designing Your Own Tribal Digital Library, Archives, and Museum. 2015 International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Washington, DC. 10 September 2015. Hillman, L. Ensuring security of tribal knowledge while engaging in collaborative research. California Indian Conference. Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Martinez, D. Centering Indigenous Science and Community in Klamath River Ecosystem Restoration and Management Undergraduate Research Conference. University of California at Davis. 2016. Poster. McDaniel, P. "Enhancing Tribal Food Sovereignty." Intertribal Agricultural Council Annual Membership Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. 10 December 2015. McDaniel, P. Recipes for success: Leveraging innovative partnerships to support food sovereignty among the Klamath Tribes. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Mucioki, M. and Halpern, A. Integrating western science with traditional ecological knowledge to revitalize Native food resources and wisdom. California Indian Conference. Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Mucioki, M, Sarna-Wojcicki, D. and Sowerwine, J. Native Food Sovereignty in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California. American Association of Geographers. San Francisco, CA. 30 March 2016. Sarna-Wojcicki, D. The Politics of Scale in Native Food Sovereignty. California Indian Conference. Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015. Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Democratizing scale in Klamath collaborative watershed governance. American Association of Geographers. San Francisco, CA. 29 March 2016. Sowerwine, J. Enhancing Tribal Food Sovereignty among the Karuk, Klamath and Yurok Tribes in the Klamath Basin through Collaborative Partnerships. California Indian Conference, Berkeley, CA. 12 October 2015.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Sowerwine, J. Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Sovereignty among the Karuk, Klamath and Yurok Tribes in the Klamath Basin through Collaborative Partnerships. Rural Connections vol. 10 no. 1. Western Regional Development Center. Spring 2016.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Karuk Tribe Sipnuuk Digital Library, Archive and Museum. http://sipnuuk.mukurtu.net/ [Revised and expanded: March 2016. AFRI Food Security Collection totals 630 materials to date. Access to culturally sensitive material is password protected  request a password to view additional material not viewable without a free account.]
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2016 Citation: Halpern, A. Prescribed fire and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus, Fagaceae) associated cultural plant resources of the Karuk and Yurok Tribes of California. Botany Lunch Talk, Berkeley, CA. April 15, 2016. Hillman, L. and Mid Klamath Watershed Council. Klamath Basin Food Security Program: A Collaboration between Karuk Tribe and Mid Klamath Watershed Council. Presentations on Klamath Tribal Food Security and Farm to School Project to 2 Local School Districts. Hillman, L. Nanu'�vaha K-12 Native Food System Curriculum. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Klamath, CA. March 23, 2016. Hillman, L. Sipnuuk: Launching Karuk Tribes Digital Library, Archive and Museum. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Klamath, CA. March 23, 2016. Hillman, L. 8 Undergraduate and Graduate draft research proposals on Native Foods. Karuk Resources Advisory Board (KRAB). Hillman, L. Nanu�vaha Curriculum for possible adoption and implementation in K-8 grade classes. Orleans Elementary Administrative staff. Hillman, L. Two grant proposals that would support department staff to implement Nanu�vaha K-12 Curriculum at five local schools. Three school boards, three school administrators, three Indian Parent Committees, the Karuk Education Department, and Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, L. K-12 Curriculum: Final drafts of the Second to Ninth grade lessons. Karuk Resources Advisory Board and Department of Natural Resources Special Meetings with the Karuk Tribal Council. Hillman, L. Proposal for the Happy Camp Native Plants Demonstration Garden. Karuk Peoples Center Advisory Committee. Hillman, L. Introducing the Concept and Skill of Grafting, including background for Food Security Project, ancient responsibility of Land Stewardship, and the current Orchard Revitalization efforts. Happy Camp High School Biology Class. Hillman, L. Regular Tribal Herbaria updates to the Karuk Resources Advisory Board and the Peoples Center Advisory Board. Hillman, L. Regular S�pnuuk updates to the KRAB and Karuk Tribal Council; S�pnuuk official launch presentations to three Karuk Service Area sites. Lake, F. USDA Forest Service Research and Science Support to the AFRI Food Security Project 2016. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Klamath, CA. 23 March 2016. McDaniel, P. "Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California by Building a Sustainable Regional Food System." FEAST (Food Education and Agricultural Solutions Together). Chiloquin, OR. 2 April 2016. McDaniel, P. "Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California by Building a Sustainable Regional Food System." Oregon State University Master Gardener class. Klamath Falls, OR. 4 May 2016. McDaniel, P. "Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California by Building a Sustainable Regional Food System." OHSU School of Nursing at Oregon Institute of Technology. Klamath Falls, OR. 16 May 2016. Mucioki, M. Presentation of Cultural Practitioner Interview Plan to Karuk Tribal Council. Orleans, CA. September 2015. Mucioki, M. Food System Assessment: Preliminary Results and Discussion. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Klamath, CA. March 23, 2016. Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Law and Policy Analysis and Report Back. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project. AFRI Tribal Food Security Project Annual Partners Meeting. Klamath, CA. 23 March 2016. Sowerwine, J. Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Sovereignty in the Klamath Basin. Presentation to UC Berkeley undergraduate class with 100 students. November 27, 2015.


Progress 09/01/14 to 08/31/15

Outputs
Target Audience:This project serves primarily tribal members within the Klamath, Karuk and Yurok Tribes ancestral territories, along with other members of their communities that live along the Klamath River in Northern California and Southern Oregon. This region is characterized by high rates of unemployment and poverty with populations that are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. During this reporting period, a total of 4,047 participants attended 384 workshops, camps, conferences, meetings and events, or were served by extension services (includes repeat participants). Overall, approximately 69% of participants were Native, 54% were women, and 59% were youth. Changes/Problems:As reported in Year 2, after extensive consultation, the Management Team determined that replacing the planned College of the Redwoods certificate program with a Summer Field Institute would best serve the objective of creating an educational option that would meet the needs of both Tribal youth and UCB undergraduates for experiential learning about Native food sovereignty and best practices in cultural land management. As reported above, comprehensive research and planning are underway and the Institute will be piloted in Summer 2016. The long-term sustainability of our flourishing community and school gardens, while not yet a problem, is cause for reflection as we move into the closing years of the AFRI project. Purchasing garden supplies from grant funds provides short-term relief, but identifying a source of ongoing support is critical to sustain these accomplishments into the future. The Klamath Tribes continue to explore the possibilities for accessing wocus and are now researching propagation on private land. The owners of the land where private greenhouses have been situated are sometimes unwilling to maintain records, making evaluation difficult. The Tribes' lack of land ownership continues to compel creative solutions that vary somewhat from our original plans. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?In addition to the many development opportunities afforded to Klamath Basin community members through planned project activities, additional training and professional development opportunities have been offered to the following community members, undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students, Management Team partners, and project staff. Megan Mucioki: UC Berkeley Post-doctoral fellow. Lead researcher on Native food system assessment, ethnoecological profiles and herbarium development. Sara Reid: Staff Research Associate. Native food system assessment tools development, focus group planning and coordination, background research and student supervision. Ben Saxon: Karuk Seasonal Food Crew Biotechnician. Best practices in cultural foods baseline habitat assessment, voucher specimen collection, use of technology tools for data collection. Norinne McLaughlin: Karuk Seasonal Food Crew Biotechnician. Best practices in cultural foods baseline habitat assessment, voucher specimen collection, use of technology tools for data collection. Delmer Jordan: Yurok Seasonal Food Crew. Best practices in establishing and cultivating community gardens and facilitating youth involvement in gardening activities; traditional methods of smoking and canning salmon and other traditional foods. Arielle Halpern: UC Berkeley graduate student. Lead researcher on acorn ecology/cultural plant diversity project. Daniel Sarna: UC Berkeley graduate student completed research on policy barriers and opportunities for increased Tribal access to Native foods (elk management policy). Sibyl Diver: UC Berkeley graduate student completed research on policy barriers and opportunities for increased Tribal access to Native foods (forest management policy). Colleen Rossier: UC Davis graduate student conducting research related to the traditional management of huckleberries and the related traditional knowledge that could inform current land management practices, Tony Marks-Block: Stanford University doctoral candidate conducting research on effects of anthropogenic fires on deer, elk and hazelnut in Karuk Territory. Sinead Talley: Karuk Tribal member and Stanford University undergraduate, conducting food store surveys in support of the Klamath Basin food system assessment. Bari Talley: Karuk Tribal member, conducting research to support the Native Food System Assessment and on the value of culturally relevant K-12 curriculum on Native Foods. Caroline O'Callahan: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System research with agricultural data collection. Jenna Keller: UC Berkeley undergraduate conducting fire management policy research. Elizabeth Earls: UC Berkeley undergraduate researching commercial agricultural resources for Native Food System Assessment. Sheelah Bearfoot: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System Assessment with health clinic interviews and commodity foods data. Jordy Coutin: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System Assessment with school district information. Eric Chan: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System Assessment with research into Klamath Tribes historical food source access policies. Meia Matsuda: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Native Food System research. Marie Salem: UC Berkeley undergraduate compiling demographics, national and 3-county diet related disease information, supporting recruitment for Food System Assessment focus groups. Danny DeSantiago: UC Berkeley undergraduate supporting Food System Assessment Focus Groups. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Workshops, camps, focus groups and other events have been publicized through 69 event flyers, Facebook postings now reaching over 500 page members, through Tribal newsletters, in the Mid-Klamath Watershed Council's online calendars and newsletter, through the new UC Berkeley AFRI newsletter, and by word of mouth (an important communication channel in the Klamath River Basin). Project staff present regular updates to Tribal Councils and other Tribal departments, and also table with information at general community events. Our Annual AFRI Partners Management Team Meeting is open to guests, who attend in significant numbers. Our efforts continue to be covered in the widely-read regional newspaper, Two Rivers Tribune. Information about the AFRI Food Security Project was shared with 40 Tribal youth and families from 6 California Tribes during Cal Day (UC Berkeley's annual open campus day) special Native American outreach activities, April 2015. By the end of Year 3, focus group recruitment and the Food System Assessment Survey will bring news of project activities to over 4000 Tribal stakeholders in the Karuk, Yurok, and Klamath Tribes communities. Please see media links provided elsewhere in this REEport for examples of how results have been disseminated. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Research on the determinants of a healthy food system 1. Community Food System & Health Assessment: This objective has been slightly delayed by the need for multiple rounds of review of all tools by tribal partners and Tribal Councils to ensure protection of culturally sensitive information and Tribal sovereignty. In Year 4, we will analyze data from research in year 3 and create reports, peer-review publications, policy briefs and presentations back to all Tribal communities. Up to 8 UC Berkeley undergraduate students will receive additional training in Native Food Systems research. 2. Enhance productivity of traditional plant foods. Seasonal food crews will continue harvesting, processing, distributing and recording data on traditional food quality and yield. UC Graduate student Arielle Halpern will finalize her dissertation on acorn ecology research, develop publications for peer-review and report back to Tribal partners. Post-doc Daniel Sarna will continue analysis of laws and policies that enable and inhibit food sovereignty and will develop policy briefs and peer-reviewed articles. Doctoral Student Colleen Rossier will continue data analysis of best practices for huckleberry production. UCB Post-doc Megan Mucioki will evaluate best management practices for hazelnut production. Extension and Training 3. Community Capacity Building a. Foodshed and Native Food classes: Mid-Klamath Watershed Council will continue to host 6-8 foodshed classes annually on topics identified by the community. MKWC will also host 6 Back to the Garden Summer Youth classes on garden-based activities. The Karuk Tribe will host 4 Seasonal Youth Camps and 3 Native Food Workshops. The Yurok and Klamath Tribes plans 3 - 4 Native Food Workshops each; UCCE will work with the Yurok Tribe to offer informal garden workshops in the summer and fall. b. Master Gardener program: Two additional Klamath Tribes members will complete the Master Gardener program. Ongoing mentoring will be provided to other Tribal members in the community garden and greenhouses. Increased knowledge and production of fresh vegetables in greenhouses. Increased consumption of healthy foods. c. Agriculture Extension: Continue to provide technical assistance to farmers through online resource development, newspaper articles, and on-site as requested. Continue to support community garden efforts throughout the basin. Connecting farmers to additional resources such as NRCS and RCD, UC Extension. Community outreach and education on water conservation. d. Ishkêesh-tunviiv program: The Karuk Tribe will continue providing training to at least 5 youth participants in Native food topics through this innovative, tribal-led afterschool program. Increased knowledge of Native plant ecology and food preparation. 4. Innovative Changes to the Food System a. Community gardens: Supported by MKWC and UCCE, Yurok and Karuk will continue preparing and engaging community in Klamath Glen, Weitchpec and Orleans gardens and distributing produce through their food crew. Yield harvested and distributed will be tracked. Klamath Tribes will continue to explore wocus gathering and pilot 2 propagation efforts. b. Greenhouse vegetables: Evaluate 4 private greenhouses in Klamath Falls and Chiloquin and measure yield, community participation and changes in knowledge and consumption patterns. Complete 3 additional community greenhouses. Continue Seed to Supper courses to increase community knowledge of propagation, harvesting and healthy food preparation techniques. c. Orchard revitalization: Hold winter pruning & grafting workshops. Increase knowledge among community members about how to prune, improved quality of orchards, increased yields, and propagate desirable varieties through grafting workshops. d. Commercial Salmon Smoker: Continue to increase volume of salmon and other Native foods processed and distributed through food commodities distribution program with the Yurok tribe. Record data. Increased consumption of local salmon; reduction of food insecurity. e. Food Distribution: Continue and expand gathering and distribution of traditional foods, as well as food from community gardens and orchards to elders, ceremonial leaders, and other community members in need. Continue Intertribal Food Exchange. Record data. Increased distribution and consumption of fresh, healthy, locally produced foods. f. Farm/fish/forest to institution: Supervise implementation of Farm to School activities. Focus on school gardens, purchasing policies/procurement, identify and resolving barriers to incorporating traditional foods and farm fresh local foods, identify training and resources needs. g. Buy Fresh Buy Local Campaign: MKWC will continue to hold 3-4 community food events to increase knowledge, awareness, skills and availability of healthy, seasonal foods, and opportunities to engage in food security program, networking and provide access to/venue to sell value added products. 6. Collaborative Learning: All partners will continue to update and post announcements to workshops and facilitate regional dialogue on food security in the Klamath Basin on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page, the Karuk-UCB Website, the new AFRI Food Security Newsletter and the AFRI Partners listserve. Continue to foster inter-tribal collaborations. Education: Curriculum and leadership development to address food insecurity 7. UCB Summer Field Institute: Develop administrative structure, funding mechanism and initial curriculum for Summer 2016 pilot Institute. 8. Develop the Regional Food Security Library: Our Sípnuuk platform will be launched this summer, and we plan hands-on workshops (3) for the entire Karuk Tribal service area as well as online webinars to aid the community in learning to use the database. Trainings for the library coordinators are planned, and will be funded through other sources. 9. Finalize Tribal Herbaria and develop educational program: Continue to train staff, youth and community members in plant identification, and specimen collection for deposit in Tribal herbaria. Increase knowledge and enduring educational opportunity for tribal members. 10. K-12 Sustainable Food System Curriculum Development: Continue developing K-12 curriculum. Complete the 4-12 grade lessons by the end of Year 4 (38 lessons), as well as further pilot lessons with both the after-school project and local schools. Evaluate pilots and integrate changes. Implement in more schools.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Inspiring and deep-rooted food system change is starting to take hold in the ancestral territories of the Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Indian Tribes. Through multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional partnerships, with over 12 FTE staff, 15 students, and countless community-based volunteers, we have designed and launched innovative community-led solutions to Tribal food insecurity with rising impact. Most notably, we are seeing widespread increases in awareness and understanding of food system challenges, and active Tribal participation in new solutions. In Year 3 over 4,000 participants (some repeat) engaged in community gardens, surveys, focus groups, policy discussions, food production workshops, Native food camps, after school programs, and other events, gaining knowledge and new skills. Widely successful and practical hands-on workshops ranged from pruning to grafting; bread baking to drip installation; and seed exchange to greenhouse building, resulting in increased production and consumption of healthy, locally grown food. Native and non-Native organizations have built relationships for program and policy work aimed to increase access to healthy, affordable and culturally appropriate foods in stores, school lunch programs, Tribal meetings and commodity programs, senior meals, WIC, and harvested from the landscape. UCB continues to lead and promote capacity building for partnerships via monthly coordination calls, 1:1 technical support, and co-hosting the 3rd Annual AFRI meeting with the Karuk Tribe (46 stakeholders attending). All partners have leveraged this project to secure additional resources for food security efforts, such as a USDA Farm-to-School grant, collaboration with Oregon Institute of Technology on greenhouse design, and aligning our programs with K-12 curricula and Tribal TANF to reach youth and the most underserved Tribal populations in the region. Additional accomplishments: 1. Comprehensive community food system and health assessment currently underway to evaluate assets and challenges from a Tribal perspective. 27 community focus groups with 190 participants, 20 food store surveys, a survey reaching 4,000 Tribal households, and several dozen key informant interviews. 2. Youth leadership. This objective is complete; youth leadership remains a priority. Train-the-trainer events transferred youth-led health assessment tools to 6 project partners and resulted in program implementation at Hoopa High with further replication plans. 3. Enhance traditional plant food productivity. UC/Tribal/USFS research on best practices to increase productivity and quality of tanoak acorns, huckleberries and hazelnut (three priority Native foods) is ongoing. Early findings suggest the importance of frequent, cool fires (a historical Indian management practice) to improve abundance and quality of these foods. 4. Increase community knowledge and capacity through: a. Foodshed and Native Food workshops: Practical education on food production, processing, gathering and storage continued to draw enthusiastic audiences and rising enrollment. MKWC's Foodshed program (established by this grant) led 17 workshops (canning, apple pressing, fermented foods, beekeeping, fruit-tree pruning, Bread University, grafting, and more). Over 33% plan to implement what they learned. The Karuk Tribe held 4 Seasonal Youth/Food Camps integrating western science with Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK). 71% reported attending previous camps; 90% plan to use what they learned. Through this grant, the Yurok Tribe has launched Native foods workshops teaching Tribal members to gather, process and prepare seaweed, salmon, tanoak mushrooms, acorns, and medicinal teas. Klamath Tribes' 15 graduates of Seed to Supper classes will try new garden-to-table techniques. b. Master Gardeners: 4 Klamath Tribes members are now Master Gardeners. One is mentoring 13 youth ages 9-14 to manage the Klamath Sustainable Communities garden. c. Agriculture extension: UCCE and MKWC continue to support community gardens and afterschool programs throughout the Basin, and provide technical assistance through visits, newspaper articles, and a vast expansion of online regional technical bulletins on soil and pest management, climate change, water conservation, planting guides and calendars, and vegetables, fruit and nuts. d. Youth 4H development - Ishkêesh'tunviiv. The Karuk Tribe, UCCE and MKWC continue to collaborate to adapt traditional 4-H curriculum to culturally appropriate afterschool programming. 95% of parents support this approach (which incorporates heritage, traditional foods and medicines). 5. Innovative Changes to the Food System: a. Jobs - Food Crew: Karuk and Yurok Native Food Crews began taking leadership in community training on food production, gathering, processing and distribution. Food crews are testing draft seasonal food calendars and ethnoecological food species profiles. Food Security Coordinators hired by two Tribes are leveraging this project to expand programs and seek ongoing support. b. Reintroducing traditional management - Food Crew activities provide opportunities for community and TANF engagement and food distribution to Tribal elders. We have seen changes in the landscape due to culturally appropriate management of plants (e.g. orchard and huckleberry pruning, canopy cover removal) and soil (e.g. Injun potato harvest last year improved the size of this year's crop). c. Orchard revitalization, salmon smoker: MKWC provided training on orchard restoration (6 days) and grafting (4 days), propagating 220 heirloom fruit trees. A high 90% success rate for grafted trees shows trainee proficiency. Yurok Co-PD taught Food Crew and youth to smoke salmon, then distributed to 300 elders. d. Greenhouses and community gardens: With ongoing UCCE support, Yurok Tribe ran 3 community gardens; produce was distributed and used for TANF canning classes. Klamath Tribes built 5 greenhouses with community participation including high school students. MKWC now works with 6 schools on curriculum, procurement and gardens. e. Food distribution: All three Tribes continue intertribal food exchange with special efforts to involve youth, holding 4 exchanges of deer for salmon in Year 3. All participants report learning about traditional trade routes, items and methods. The Yurok Tribe brought 8 youth to Klamath Tribes' 2nd Annual 1st Foods Celebration, trading coastal resources (clams, tuna, swordfish, salmon) for deer and elk. MKWC is exploring setting up a meat co-op; 93% of 70 residents surveyed are interested. f. Buy Fresh Buy Local: MKWC staff reported over 350 event guests and record sales in Year 3. 6. Collaborative Learning Network: Exceeding Year 5 goals, over 500 members now exchange information on regional food security on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page. The Karuk-UCB Website, AFRI Food Security Newsletter and AFRI Partners listserve foster shared learning. MKWC's monthly newspaper articles reach about 6000 readers with seasonal information. 7. UCB Summer Field Institute: Comprehensive background research and initial strategizing for a Summer Field Institute (replacing Native Food Certificate) is complete. We will pilot a 1-week Native Food Security program with 5 -10 Tribal youth and UCB students in summer 2016. 8. Food Security Library: Initial collection policies and procedures were established, staff hired, and prototype Digital Food Security Library site will launch this summer. 9. Tribal Herbaria: Karuk Tribe and UCB held 2 summer workshops with 40 attendees. Food Crews collected over 100 specimens and led field days with tribal youth. Herbaria will be located in Weitchpec and Happy Camp. 10. K-12 Sustainable Food System Curriculum: Tribal Council-approved K-3 lessons were piloted in local schools. 100% of teachers and administrators recognize the value of the new curriculum; many are willing to integrate these resources into classroom plans.

Publications

  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Diver, S. Negotiating knowledges, shifting access: Natural resource governance with Indigenous communities and state agencies in the Pacific Northwest. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. Filed November, 2014.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Under Review Year Published: 2015 Citation: Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Scales of Sovereignty: the Search for Watershed Democracy in the Klamath Basin. See esp. Ch 5,"Watersheds, Firesheds, Foodsheds: Towards multiscalar epistemologies and ontologies for ecological democracy". University of California, Berkeley. Doctoral Dissertation. To be filed June, 2015.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Andrade, K., Corbin, C., Diver, S., Eitzel, M.V., Williamson, Brashares, J. and Fortmann, L. Finding your way in the�interdisciplinary�forest: Notes on educating future conservation practitioners. Biodiversity and Conservation.� October, 2014. Diver, S.W. and Higgins, M.N. 2014. Giving Back Through Collaborative Research: Towards a Practice of Dynamic Reciprocity. Journal of Research Practice. 10(2). Diver, S.W. 2014. Giving Back Through Time: A Collaborative Timeline Approach to Researching Karuk Indigenous Lands Management History. Journal of Research Practice. 10(2).
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lake, F. 2013. Impact of Climate Change on Traditional Tribal Foods. Lyn et al 2013, Climatic Change. 120(545). (previously unreported) Lake, F. 2013. Impact of Climate Change on Traditional Tribal Foods. Voggesser et al, Cultural Impact to Tribes from Climate Change Influences on Forest. 2013, pp 615 - 622. (previously unreported)
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Diver, S.�Negotiating Indigenous knowledge and science: A case study of co-management and eco-cultural restoration with the Karuk Tribe (Klamath Basin, California).� Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Sacramento, California, August 2014. Diver, S.� Leveraging co-management for resource access: Karuk eco-cultural restoration strategies in the Klamath Basin, California.� Rural Sociological Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 2014. Halpern, A., F. Lake, B. Tripp, R. McConnell, T. Carlson, and W. Sousa, Effects of altered fire regimes on tanoak understory assemblage diversity and cultural resources of the Karuk and Yurok Peoples of Northwestern California. Poster presented at the 2014 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, August 10-15, 2014, Sacramento, CA. McDaniel, P. Klamath Tribal Health & Family Services Food Security Project. Coming Full Circle: Northwest Tribal Food Sovereignty/Security Initiatives, University of Washington American Indian Studies Department 2nd Annual Symposium, The Living Breath of W???b?altx?, Seattle, Washington, September 2014. McDaniel, P. Klamath Tribal Health & Family Services Food Security Project. Northwest Tribal Cancer Coalition Quarterly Meeting, Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board, Portland, Oregon, November 2014 Reed, R. Environmental Justice and World Renewal People", talk sponsored by Karuk-UC Berkeley Collaborative and Students For Economic and Social Justice. Berkeley Law School, October 9, 2014. Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Scales of Sovereignty in Klamath Environmental Governance. Native American and Indigenous Studies Association Meeting, Austin, Texas, May 2014.� Sarna-Wojcicki, D. Multiple waters: scalar politics and epistemic diversity in Klamath waterscape governance. Society for the Social Studies of Science/ Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estudios Sociales de la Ciencia y la Tecnolog�a (ESOCITE), Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2014. Sowerwine, J. and Hillman, L. Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California by Building a Sustainable Regional Food System. USDA-AFRI Project Director Meeting, Washington, DC, September 2014.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Halpern, A., F. Lake, T. Carlson, and W. Sousa, Effects of altered fire regimes on tanoak acorn cultural resources of the Karuk and Yurok Peoples of California. Presented at the 2015 California Native Plant Society Conference, San Jose, California, January 2015. Kim, K. Health Literacy and Consumer-Facing Technology, A Workshop, Institutes of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, District of Columbia, April 2015. http://www.iom.edu/Activities/PublicHealth/HealthLiteracy/2015-MAR-24/Panel_3/Kim.aspx
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Karuk Tribe Sipnuuk Digital Library, Archive and Museum. http://sipnuuk.mukurtu.net/ [Soft launch preview site. Please note that access to culturally sensitive material is password protected - much more material is housed in the library than is viewable via this link.]
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hillman, L. Library Advisory Committee, Protocol with Agreement for Intellectual Property Rights of the Karuk Tribe: Research, Publication and Recordings June 2014. Hillman, L. Orleans Elementary School Administration and After-School Program Karuk Tribes collaboration on Obj. 15 with UC Cooperative Extension for the Ishkeeshtunviiv (River Kids) Project June 2014 Hillman, L. Karuk Resources Advisory Board, Draft Protocol July 2014 Hillman, L. Karuk Tribal Council, Draft Protocol October 2014 Hillman, L. Karuk-UC Berkeley Collaborative Law Students, Need for Karuk Intellectual Property Rights on Traditional Ecological Knowledge with regard to Native food sovereignty Berkeley, CA, October 2014 Hillman, L. Educational Training workshop on National Environmental Policy Act, Karuk Tribes land management goals and concerns Eureka, CA, March 2015 Hillman, L. Karuk Tribes Food Security Project Overview: PowerPoint presentation at the annual USDA-NIFA, AFRI Annual Meeting in Orleans, CA in March 2015. Hillman, L. Regular oral presentations given to Karuk Tribal Council and Karuk Resources Advisory Board on the Food Security Project (15 presentations). Hillman, L. Oral presentations, Powerpoint, handouts, to elicit support for our K-12 Native Food System Curriculum, presentations to School Boards, Indian Parent Associations, Karuk Resources Advisory Board, and Karuk Tribal Council (10 presentations). Hillman, L. Oral presentation on proposal for the Happy Camp Native Plants Demonstration Garden to the Peoples Center Advisory Committee. Hillman, L. Community Needs Assessment PowerPoint presentation, Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries and Museums. Palm Springs, CA. June 2014.


Progress 09/01/13 to 08/31/14

Outputs
Target Audience: This project serves primarily tribal members within the Klamath, Karuk and Yurok Tribes and other members of their communities that live along the Klamath River. This region is characterized by high rates of unemployment and poverty with populations that are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. A total of 1,420 participants attended workshops, camps, conferences, meetings and events, some of whom are repeat participants. 75% are Native, 55% are women, and 33% are youth. Changes/Problems: After extensive consultations with College of the Redwoods (CR), Tribal, and UC staff it was decided that CR did not have the internal capacity to create and administer a sustained program. During the consultations we identified specific course topics of critical need for the tribal communities as well as community educators who are committed to teaching the topics. After much deliberation, we decided to shift our focus toward creating a UC Summer Field Institute for Native youth attending college to have hands-on practical training on food security, food sovereignty and cultural land management for Native foods revitalization. We plan to build the program in year 3 and launch it in year 4. Progress had been slow on several objectives due to personnel changes within the Karuk Tribe. With the Karuk Tribe’s new Co-PD and part-time Food Security Coordinator on-board many of those objectives have taken off. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Karuk Tribe’s Temporary Aid for Needy Families (TANF) approved in December 2013, the new project coordinator has been able to reach vulnerable and needy Tribal families more directly, and achieve many of the stated objectives in the grant. These include the digital library, K-12, Native plant herbaria, and Native workshops and camps. The original company contracted by SFSU to create the mobile walk application went under. After working with other consultants, they were unable to produce what was intended due to regulations of Google Maps. A proof of concept was created that can be further developed if additional funding is secured. Our initial plan for greenhouse production called for the construction of 8 greenhouses (4 private and 4 community). Because the Klamath Tribes were terminated, they have not received researation land back since being restored, and the land they have purchased is limited and usually designated with a specific use. As such, it is challenging to idetnfiy places to locate a community greenhouse. We are therefore now planning to put two of the community greenhouses at local schools. Scarcity of tribal owned land have also hampered the development of the wocus pond. We may change the plan from developing an “artifical” wocus pond to creating improved access to existing wocus on Agency Lake. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Training and professional development have occurred in several ways for students, Management Team partners, as well as community members. UC Berkeley graduate student, Arielle Halpern, continued to conduct her doctoral research on acorn ecology/cultural plant diversity. She continues to be mentored by Frank Lake (USFS) and Tom Carlson (UC Berkeley.) UC Berkeley graduate students Daniel Sarna and Sibyl Diver are finishing their doctoral research and conducted a classroom project on laws & policies affecting Native access to cultural foods. USFS Frank Lake instructed two volunteers Taylor Johnson and Gary Jury on how to research ethnographic information for details related to tribal food management and use. Colleen Rossier, UCD PhD student was mentored by Frank Lake to develop research plots for measuring and monitoring effects of cultural land management on huckleberry yield and quality. Nicole Wong: UC Berkeley undergraduate student did a study on barriers and opportunities to integrate native foods into school lunch programs. Michelle Lin: UC Berkeley undergraduate is doing summer internship with the Karuk Tribe helping to compile existing health data for the Health Assessment objective. Lisa Hillman: Karuk food security project coordinator attended the webinar titled, “Creative thinking about developing rural food systems” May 8, 2014. Jesse Goodwin and Norinne McLaughlin: Since their starting date of March 15, these two Karuk seasonal food crew have attended 13 trainings/events/activities/webinars: Orientation, Native Foods Workshops (2), GPS-, Emergency Response Certificate-(ICS 100 and 700), Food Handler’s Certificate-, and IPod-training, GIS seminar (5), and Seasonal Youth Camp. Karuk Food Crew and project staff were trained by SFSU in data collection using Ipod technology and Magpi software. They were also trained in purning, grafting, gardening, food handler’s certificates, and GPS training. GIS training (six weeks of 1 day training). Karuk Youth Leadership Council: In collaboration with SF State and the Youth Leadership Institute, MKWC staff and Karuk Youth Leadership Council students and mentors were trained to use the Magpie software to fulfill the Youth Lead Health Assessment. Youth learned public speaking skills through presentation at UC Davis. Program Team Management development: All co-PDs participated in a 2 day workshop, in which PI provided training in work plan development, communication tools, and evaluation strategies. Ongoing conversations to provide technical support to training through conference calls, and face to face meetings. Community Food Workshops: provided training to over 300 community members in the areas of seasonal food production including gardening, pruning, grafting, home-scale butchering, canning and bread-making. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Workshops and events have been publicized through 39 event flyers, as well as over 1,000 postings on Facebook, 26 conferences, presentatiosn or other publications such as in Tribal newsletters, in the Mid-Klamath Watershed Council newsletters and websites, and extensively in the regional paper, the Two Rivers Tribune. MKWC has launched a new website with a calendar of events. Needs assessment surveys were circulated at Tribal events and public meetings, seeking input regarding topics they would like to be taught. Links to some examples of how the results have been disseminated are as follows: http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/ New! Mid-Klamath Watershed Council’s new Foodsheds Website http://nature.berkeley.edu/karuk-collaborative/ New! Karuk-UC Berkeley Collaborative website set to launch July 1 https://www.facebook.com/groups/164617520311363/ Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/04/food-security-draws-big-crowd-and-money/ Press in the Klamath regional newspaper “Two Rivers Tribune” about the AFRI grant—year 2 annual PD meeting. http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/01/karuk-food-workshops-and-youth-groups/ Article on Karuk Food Workshops and Youth Groups in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/02/karuk-winter-youth-camp-artisans-and-oral-tradition-say-what/ Article on Karuk seasonal food youth camp titled, “Karuk Winter Youth Camp Artisans and Oral Traditions” in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/02/a-river-runs-through-us-2/ Article on a symposium about food and water security on the Klamath, co-hosted by Karuk Tribe in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.siskiyoudaily.com/article/20140214/NEWS/140219720/0/SEARCH Article on Karuk seasonal food youth camp titled, “Karuk Winter Youth Camp Artisans and Oral Traditions” in Siskiyou Daily News. http://www.heraldandnews.com/email_blast/group-discusses-food-and-relation-to-democracy/article_d22103d6-c2c1-11e3-b44e-0019bb2963f4.html Article about Klamath Tribe’s Food Security project http://www.klamathtribalhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Tribal-Health-News-April-June-2014.pdf What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Team Plan-of-Work for next year of funding (see individual reports) Research on the determinants of a healthy food system 1. Community Food System & Health Assessment: Finalize assessments in all 7 sites, compile data and report back to each community. Community partners trained in community food security assessment methodology. Increased knowledge and understanding of food system challenges and opportunities. Reports published. 2. Enhance productivity of traditional plant foods. a. Seasonal Food crews: Continue harvesting, processing, distributing and recording data on traditional food quality and yield. b. Acorn ecology research: Continue analyzing data for publications. c. Policy Analysis: Continue to evaluate policy barriers and enablers of a healthy, culturally appropriate food system and develop policy brief with an explicit focus on forest land management and forest/fish to institution. Publish 2 peer-reviewed articles. Develop and publish 3 “best management practices” for 3 focal species (tanoak acorn, huckleberry, hazelnut). Extension and Training 3. Community Capacity Building a. Foodshed classes: Mid-Klamath Watershed council will continue to host 6-8 foodshed classes annually on topics identified by the community. 3-5 Tribal foodshed classes will be held among Karuk, Yurok and Klamath Tribes. Topics may include: food gatherings and preparation, peer-to-peer skills and education workshops. Increased knowledge and capacity of identifying, harvest, processing and eating Native and fresh, locally grown and prepared contemporary foods. b. Master Gardener program: Four Klamath Tribal members who completed the master gardening and how to build a greenhouse training will provide ongoing training and mentoring to other Tribal members. Three workshops on gardening will be conducted for Klamath Tribe members. Increased knowledge and production of fresh vegetables in greenhouses. Increased consumption of healthy foods. c. Agriculture Extension: UCCE and MKWC will continue to provide technical assistance to 30 farmers or aspiring farmers in the region. Begin evaluation. Farmers will have increased knowledge and skills to address challenges they face with starting or managing their garden or farming operations. d. Ishkêesh-tunviiv program: The Karuk Tribe will provide training to at least 5 youth participants in Native food topics through this innovative, tribal-led afterschool program. Increased knowledge of Native plant ecology and food preparation. 4. Innovative Changes to the Food System a. Community gardens: Yurok and Karuk will continue preparing and engaging community in Klamath Glen, Weitchpec and Orleans gardens and distributing produce through their food crew. Yield harvested and distributed will be tracked. Klamath Tribes will finalize the installation of a wocus pond and additional gardens to grow the healthy and traditional food staples for education, harvest, and consumption. b. Greenhouse vegetables: Evaluate success of 4 greenhouses in Klamath Falls and Chiloquin and measure yield, community participation and changes in knowledge and consumption patterns. c. Orchard revitalization: Continue orchard assessment and select orchards to prune. Gather follow up data. Hold winter pruning workshops. Revitalize orchards with technical support from UCCE farm advisors, community volunteers (including youth) and seasonal food crews so they are more optimally productive and utilized by local populations. Begin harvesting and monitoring yields. Increased knowledge among community members about how to prune, improved quality of orchards, increased yields. d. Commercial Salmon Smoker: Increase volume of salmon and other Native foods processed and distributed through food commodities distribution program with the Yurok tribe. Record data. Increased consumption of local salmon; reduction of food insecurity. e. Food Distribution: Continue and expand gathering and distribution of traditional foods, as well as food from community gardens and orchards to elders, ceremonial leaders, and other community members in need. Record data. Increased distribution and consumption of fresh, healthy, locally produced foods. f. Farmers’ market: Begin recording sales data from farmer’s market. g. Farm/fish/forest to institution: Begin piloting Native foods in Orleans school. h. WIC program: Continue working with regional WIC staff to increase regional access. i. Buy Fresh Buy Local Campaign: MKWC will continue to hold 3 community food events annually including spring seed exchange, fall harvest festival and community food meeting. Continuing to increase knowledge, awareness, skills and availability of healthy, seasonal foods, and opportunities to engage in food security program. 6. Collaborative Learning: continue to update and post announcements to workshops and facilitate regional dialogue on food security in the Klamath Basin on the Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page and the Karuk-UCB Website. Continue to foster inter-tribal collaborations through working groups, coordination committee, etc. Education: Curriculum and leadership development to address food insecurity 5. UCB Summer Field Institute: Evaluate the possibility of establishing a UC Summer Field Institute in the Klamath and pilot it with a few UC undergraduate students in the summer of 2015. (This replaces College of the Redwoods Food Security Certificate program) 6. Establish a Regional Food Security Library: Continue developing the food security library and seek additional funding for more training and library staff. 7. Creation of Tribal Herbaria: Continue to train staff and gather specimens for deposit in Karuk and Yurok Tribal Herbaria. Increase knowledge and enduring educational opportunity for tribal members. 8. K-12 Sustainable Food System Curriculum Development: Continue developing K-12 curriculum based on knowledge gained from field trips, evaluation of existing curricula, and discussions with regional educators. Evaluate pilot and integrate changes. Implement in more schools.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Our project team has made significant progress toward meeting many of our objectives. Increased capacity for creating and implementing work plans and measuring impact: Monthly conference calls have supported shared learning regarding programmatic strategy, data tracking, community outreach and reporting. We have seen a tremendous increase in knowledge, confidence and capacity to effectively track and report progress. Foodshed workshops and Native food camps and workshops: Practical education and training on food production, processing, gathering and storage (including fishing, gardening, pruning, canning, gathering) have been heavily attended and enthusiastically welcomed. In year 2, MKWC led 14 workshops reaching 370 participants. Four Know Your Farmer Know Your Food events reached over 400 participants. Based on pre/post assessments from workshops, on average, 58% expressed an increase in knowledge and 21% of all participants have reported applying something they learned at one of the workshops. Workshops with the highest rate of change in action were the grafting (61%), bee keeping (44%) and pruning (25%) workshops. Four Native camps/workshops were held to engage and educate multi-generational tribal and non-tribal members about Native cultural food traditions. Topics focused on traditional early greens, Injun potatoes, traditional salmon preparation, and basket materials. At least 40% of participants learned something new, and half intended to implement what they learned. Using skills and knowledge acquired from pruning and gardening activities, participants have reported to be continually improving upon what they learned. Oral Native history and stories combined with hands-on practical training builds both knowledge of Native foods and cultural resilience. All partners are seeing increasing enrollment with each season. Native food crew for both the Karuk and Yurok Tribes have been hired and trained, and are beginning to make strong contributions to supporting production, gathering, processing and distribution of both Native and other locally grown foods. All three Tribes have begun working together on inter-tribal food exchange, with an added focus on inter-tribal youth exchange, hosting three food/youth exchanges with 20 participants at each. Education: The librarian for the digital library is now hired and has identified solutions to many of the previous obstacles and development is underway. We have acquired and are theming Native K-12 curriculum, to focus explicitly on Karuk Native food traditions, and will be linked in with the existing Native plant garden and herbarium, which is being developed. Due to change in Tribal personnel, there was a delay in the creation of Tribal herbaria, however in-depth training will be provided this July/August to both Karuk and Yurok food crews and Native youth. As such, the training and collections will be right on schedule. After numerous roadblocks including uncertain administrative support on the part of the College of the Redwoods, due to personnel turnover and significant budget cuts, the objective to develop a Native Food Security Certificate program at the College has been changed. Based on lengthy discussions with all partners, it was decided that we would explore launching a UC Berkeley Summer Field Institute, to provide in-depth in-situ training to Tribal youth in topics identified through our collaborations. Frank Lake has compiled with Tribal volunteers, several Ethnobotanical Profile Information Sheets for the focal species for each the Karuk and Yurok Tribes. These, and others will be compiled into the TEK Field Guide. Lake has nearly completed (April 2014) the Karuk seasonal food calendar, the list of species used by the Karuk as food, after an exhaustive lit review of published and unpublished documents and is working on the Yurok seasonal food calendar. The Tribe has directed the 4-H program to educate youth about their cultural heritage including traditional foods and medicines. Together with the local schools, they created an exciting new after-school program called “Ishkêesh-tunviiv” (River Kids). SFSU-Youth Leadership: Youth participating in the health assessment analyzed their data and presented their multi-media presentation at UC Davis and at a Native Symposium at Southern Oregon University in Ashland. This program was successfully completed. Due to technological difficulties, the Walkabout project will not be completed as planned. SFSU (project now transferred with PI Katherine Kim to UC Davis) was able to provide proof of concept for the technology, but due to lack of wifi-connectivity in the remote regions of the Klamath, the technology could not be used as described in the objective. Native Foods Research: We developed a set of metrics for ecological characteristics and socio-cultural elements at multiple scales to inform baseline data collection our Tanoak Acorn, Hazelnut and Huckleberry plots. Plots for tanoak and hazel nut research were identified and established. Arielle Halpern continues to analyze her data on the effects of cultural fires on tanoak acorn productivity and quality. Colleen Rossier, a new UCD graduate student has begun work with Frank Lake, USFS, on establishing long term plots for huckleberry study. Two graduate students, Dan Sarna and Sibyl Diver conducted legal and policy analysis on barriers and opportunities for Tribes to access Native foods. Reports/publications will be generated in year 3. Community Food Assessment: Preliminary surveys have been circulated among the Klamath Tribes. Year 3 we plan to conduct the comprehensive assessment with the addition of community foodshed mapping exercises included. Orchards, Gardens and Greenhouses: All three Tribes and MKWC have met or exceeded their goals with respect to establishing school gardens, assessing orchard health, and greenhouse development. The school gardens have seen an increase in youth participation from 15 to 100. The Native plant garden is being revitalized and establishment of 4 greenhouses have been huge successes. All participants in the greenhouse and gardening classes have indicated a strong interest to apply what they learned Communications: UC Berkeley launched a new website to increase visibility of the project among both university and the general public, and to help recruit new researchers, students and Tribal Departments to engage in eco-cultural revitalization and food security efforts in the Klamath bio-region http://nature.berkeley.edu/karuk-collaborative/. The Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page continues to be a vibrant portal for sharing information on workshops, events, success stories from our program, and food production and preservation strategies with 353 members (up from 100 last year): https://www.facebook.com/groups/164617520311363/ The Mid-Klamath Watershed Council also launched its foodshed website this year with 60 pages covering agricultural topics from soil to pests, climate change, planting guides and calendars, etc: http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/ . Over 9 articles were in the local newspaper and Tribal newsletters about the work. Farm/Fish/Forest to Institution: Two UCB undergraduate students evaluated integrating Native foods into local institutions. Based on a survey by the Karuk, 92% of respondents indicated they “strongly agree” that they would like to see Native foods being served at schools and senior lunch programs. The Yurok Tribe has fixed their smoker and has smoked and distributed 165 pounds of salmon and 45 pounds of buffalo. They have also harvested and distributed swamp tea, acorns, eels, seaweed, razor clams, and wild mushrooms increasing the amount of cultural food available for consumption.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Submitted Year Published: 2013 Citation: Diver, S. Building Indigenous institutions for eco-cultural resource management in the Pacific Northwest: The role of resource management agreements. Native American Indigenous Studies Association Annual Meeting, Austin, Texas, May 2014. Diver, S. and Conrad, A. Creating Ties, Maintaining Ties: Travels from the Klamath to Berkeley, and Back Again. Crossing Paths: Graduate & Undergraduate Exchanges of Indigenous Research Speaker Series, April 2014. Diver, S. Negotiating Indigenous knowledge and science: Karuk eco-cultural revitalization in the Klamath Basin (Northern California). Research Symposium: Perspectives on Native Landscapes: Exploring Relationships Between Our Peoples and the Environment, February 2014. Lake, Frank. 2014. Incorporating Tribal knowledge with Scientific Inquiry to Understand the History and Ecology of the Klamath-Siskiyou Region. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, a Cultural Planet-recovering Voices Program. Washington DC. (4/25/14) Lake, Frank. 2014. Klamath Fire Ecology Symposium, Orleans, CA. 4/17/14. Evaluating the Effects of Fuels Reduction and Wildland Fire Management on Tribally Valued Resources and Habitats. Halpern, Arielle 2014. Prescribed Fire and Tanoak Cultural Resources of the Yurok People of California at the Yurok Tribe-TNC TREX meeting. May 27th. members of the Yurok Tribe, TNC, USFS, Firestorm, in attendance) Halpern, Arielle, 2014. UCB Integrative Biology Eco-Lunch, Prescribed Fire and Tanoak Cultural Resources of the Karuk and Yurok People of California, 4/7/2014. Halpern, Arielle. 2014. Poster titled, Effects of altered fire regimes on tanoak understory assemblage diversity and cultural resources of the Karuk and Yurok Peoples of California presented at the Ecological Society of American Annual Meetings, Aug. 14, 2104. Hillman, Lisa 2014. Presentation on Karuk Tribes program at A River Runs Through Us community meeting. Hillman, Lisa. 2013-2014. To elicit support for our K-12 Native Food System Curriculum, we presented to the Karuk Tribal Council Meeting in March, the Indian Parent Committee in Happy Camp, CA, in early April, as well as to school administrators at Orleans Elementary and Junction Elementary in April (4 presentations). Hillman, Lisa. 2013. At a grass-roots public meeting on integrating Native Foods into the Klamath-Trinity Joint Unified School District meal program, the Karuk Food Security Project presented information on the newly passed Farm Bill and solicited partnerships with parents, teachers, and Yurok educators (1 presentation). Hillman, Lisa. 2014. At the Klamath Basin Tribal Youth conference held at the Quartz Valley Indian Reservation, the Food Security Project gave a short oral presentation on our objectives and program goals. The Bureau of Reclamation, Klamath Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, University of Oregon, as well as other tribal and non-tribal organization attended the meeting. Reed, Ron et al. 2014. On May 7, Food Crews and the Cultural Biologist made a presentation at the annual Career Day at Happy Camp High School to students on possibilities for careers in the natural resources. Sarna, Daniel. 2014. 'Scales of Sovereignty in Klamath environmental governance' presented at the Native American and Indigenous Studies conference in Austin, Tx. May 29th, 2014. Sowerwine, J. 2013. Presentation about AFRI food security program in job talk for Extension Specialist position at UC Berkeley. December 9. Sowerwine, J. 2014. Presentation about food security program in Environmental Science, Policy and Management Class 10 to 75 undergraduate students. March 6. Sowerwine, J. 2014. Participatory Research Methods for Agricultural Extension presented at the Berkeley Food Institutes speaker series, May 5.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: http://nature.berkeley.edu/karuk-collaborative/
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Rossier, C. and F. Lake, Protect Your Land: Using Agroforestry Techniques and Tribal Values to Mitigate Wildfire Danger. Inside Agroforestry, vol. 22. No. 1, Pages: 6-7 Rossier, C. 2014. Indigenous Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Agroforestry in Inside Agroforestry Notes, 44, May. http://nac.unl.edu/documents/agroforestrynotes/an44g14.pdf Wong, Nicole. 2014. Undergraduate class paper titled, Revitalizing Karuk Tribe Food Sovereignty: The Environmental Health Challenges of Traditional Food Removal and Potential Program and Policy Solutions. Sarna, Daniel. 2014. Graduate paper for Tribal Law class titled, Karuk sovereignty in elk habitat and herd management.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: In the news/web presence http://www.mkwc.org/programs/foodsheds/ New! Mid-Klamath Watershed Councils new Foodsheds Website http://nature.berkeley.edu/karuk-collaborative/ New! Karuk-UC Berkeley Collaborative website set to launch July 1 https://www.facebook.com/groups/164617520311363/ Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/04/food-security-draws-big-crowd-and-money/ Press in the Klamath regional newspaper Two Rivers Tribune about the AFRI grantyear 2 annual PD meeting. http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/01/karuk-food-workshops-and-youth-groups/ Article on Karuk Food Workshops and Youth Groups in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/02/karuk-winter-youth-camp-artisans-and-oral-tradition-say-what/ Article on Karuk seasonal food youth camp titled, Karuk Winter Youth Camp Artisans and Oral Traditions in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2014/02/a-river-runs-through-us-2/ Article on a symposium about food and water security on the Klamath, co-hosted by Karuk Tribe in Two Rivers Tribune http://www.siskiyoudaily.com/article/20140214/NEWS/140219720/0/SEARCH Article on Karuk seasonal food youth camp titled, Karuk Winter Youth Camp Artisans and Oral Traditions in Siskiyou Daily News. http://www.heraldandnews.com/email_blast/group-discusses-food-and-relation-to-democracy/article_d22103d6-c2c1-11e3-b44e-0019bb2963f4.html Article about Klamath Tribes Food Security project http://www.klamathtribalhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Tribal-Health-News-April-June-2014.pdf


Progress 09/01/12 to 08/31/13

Outputs
Target Audience: The project serves primarily tribal members within the Klamath, Karuk and Yurok Tribes and other members of their communities that live along the Klamath River. This region is characterized by high rates of unemployment and poverty with large populations that are socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged. Changes/Problems: Due to the delay in finalizing the award (January 2013) and the subawards (February—May 2013) there has been a signficant delay in the rate of expenditure. In spite of the delay, we are making great strides toward achieving our objectives. Much of the activities in the first year (actual 3-5 months) has largely been dedicated to finalizing the award, establishing subawards, hiring staff, and laying the foundation for coordination and collaboration among all project partners and tribal communities, and launching key activities slated for year 1. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Training and professional development have occurred in several ways for students, Management Team partners, as well as community members. UC Berkeley graduate student, Arielle Halpern, conducted her doctoral research on acorn ecology/cultural plant diversity. She taughted Karuk Tribal members how to identify and collect plant speciments for the tribal herbaria. She has been mentored by Frank Lake (Collaborating Stakeholder) and Tom Carlson (UC Berkeley.) HSU undergraduate student, Taylor Johnson, was mentored by Arielle Halpern and Frank Lake in the summer of 2013 to compile published data on cultural plant resources in support of the seasonal food calendar. She also asssisted in the collection of herbarium specimens. Klamath Tribes: Christa Runnels, MPH (Co-PD) participated in a webinar titled, “Food Insecurity and Diabetes: What’s the Connection?” Indian Health Service (IHS). Perri McDaniel, MPA (Klamath Tribes Food Security Program Coordinator) Participated in the First Nations Development Institute & USDA Community Foods Project Webinar series: “Creating Sustainable Programs” “Farm to School Best Practices” “Community Engagement” Karuk Youth Leadership Council: In collaboration with SF State and the Youth Leadership Institute, MKWC staff and Karuk Youth Leadership Council students and mentors were trained to use the Magpie software to fulfill the Youth Lead Health Assessment. Program Team Management development: All co-PDs participated in a 2 day workshop, in which PI provided training in work plan development, communication tools, and evaluation strategies. Ongoing conversations to provide technical support to training through conference calls, and face to face meetings. Community Food Workshops: provided training to over 130 community members in the areas of seasonal food production including pruning, grafting, home-scale butchering, canning and compost tea making. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Since the project is in its beginning stages, most of the press is oriented toward educating both the university and tribal communities about the project. Several presentations at UC Berkeley, San Francisco State, Sonoma State, and at the Tribal EPA conference in San Francisco has reached members of the academic communities. Tribal and other community members have learned about opportunities and results to-date through participation in community meetings and educational events (over 60 attendees), 5 community foodshed workshops reaching 130 individuals, as well as through announcements posted in the AFRI-supported Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook page (see below), in the Karuk Tribal , Klamath Tribal, and Mid-Klamath Watershed Council newsletters and websites, and extensively in the regional paper, the Two Rivers Tribune. The Mid-Klamath Watershed Council has created a Community Foodshed Program tri-fold that is handed out at all MKWC events. For links to some of the articles and press, please see the following: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu Press about the grant on the University of California Jepson Herbaria website. http://www.healthequityinstitute.org/our-work/research/mHealth-enabled-Youth-Initiatives.html Press about SFSU Youth Leadership/iPod component of the grant http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2013/03/from-acorns-to-apple-to-ipods/ Press in the Two Rivers Tribune about the grant. http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2013/03/training-the-next-generation-of-karuk-leadership/ Press in the Two Rivers Tribune newspaper about the SFSU Youth iPod Health Assessment training. http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2012/09/tribe-invites-uc-researcher-to-study-acorns/ Press in the Mid-Klamath regional newspaper about UCB Graduate student research on acorn ecology, funded in part by AFRI grant. https://www.facebook.com/groups/164617520311363/ Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook Page: started in 2011 with BFRDP funds, has expanded with support from AFRI grant. To date: 177 members. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Much of the work in year one has been dedicated finalizing awards, and educating tribal leadership about food security issues, laying the foundation for launching the food system assessment, seasonal food crew distribution program, traditional foods research plots, tribal herbaria, and community education programs in years 2-5. Participation in inter-agency policy meetings is raising awareness among non-tribal agencies about the relationship between traditional land management, cultural food habitat health, and food security. Obj. 1) Food and Health Assessments: A community stakeholder meeting was held with over 40 attendees to provide input for the survey, based on community prioritized food security and health concerns. Obj. 2) Youth-led health assessment and adventure walk: Thirteen youth were successfully recruited and trained, and participated in the Karuk Youth Leadership Council (KYLC) iPod/Youth Lead Health Assessment in collaboration. KYLC members/affiliate members have experienced increased confidence, knowledge, and skills. Obj.3) Enhance productivity and availability of traditional plant foods: Policy: An important outcome from this first year is that the Karuk Tribe initiated formal consultation with the California Department of Fish and Wildlife in regards to Elk and Lamprey as per Executive Order B-10-11. This resulted in the establishment of a formal working relationship between the Tribe and CDFW at a government to government level. As a result of these discussions, there has been an increase in knowledge about opportunities and constraints for greater tribal management of the harvesting actions of Elk and Lamprey by the tribal membership within the Karuk Aboriginal Territory by the CFGC. A white paper is currently being developed. Seasonal Food Crew: Site selection for seasonal food crew gathering areas has been initiated and accompanied by the development of a GIS map. This process will enhance the tribes understanding of where food and other traditional resources are likely to be located, along with identifying where collaboration on future management needs to be focused. Acorn Ecology Research: Four spring (2013) prescribed fires were conducted on approximately 50 research plots in 3 research sites in heritage Tanoak acorn orchards. Video footage of conversations between government, private, NGO, and tribal stakeholders was gathered for one of the prescribed fires. Extensive photo-documentation has been taken of all fires. Data on plant diversity and acorn infestation rates have been recorded. Presentations to youth at schools, and to Karuk and Yurok tribal council have increased knowledge of the effects of spring burning on acorn cultural resources particularly effects on frugivorious insect life history stage Cultural Practitioner need: Based on this preliminary work, there is increased awareness by the tribes and the management team about the need for identifying cultural practitioners who can provide a list of which species are used for food, and how best to field identify them, and assess when to gage the timing of harvest and evaluate the quality (e.g., is it worth harvesting) for many food plants. Obj. 4) Mid-Klamath Foodshed classes: As of July 2013, MKWC has held seven workshops and foodshed events including 1) home scale butchering, 2) pruning, 3) grafting, 4) community seed swap, 5) community plant sale, 6) compost tea workshop and 7) canning. Over 260 tribal and community members participated in these events. Attendance at community foodshed events continues to rise, and is becoming increasingly diverse, spanning multiple, cross-cultural segments of the community. Seasonal food calendar: is being compiled by the Karuk Tribe and MKWC . Drafts have been developed of the regional agricultural bulletins (see publications). Traditional Foods Workshop: In August, 2013, the Karuk Tribe together with UCB graduate student piloted a 2-day workshop on traditional foods, educating youth and tribal land managers about traditional foods habitat identification, management, preparation and consumption. Obj. 5) Seasonal Food Crew: The Yurok seasonal food crew has been established and is beginning to harvest surf smelt and will distribute it through July. A commercial smoke house has been re-located from Klamath to Crescent City. It is being refurbished in anticipation of the upcoming fall salmon season. The Karuk Tribe is currently developing a plan for their seasonal food crew including sites for harvest, training materials, etc. Orchard revitalization: Two meetings were held with interested stakeholders to develop a plan of action for the orchard revitalization project. An orchard assessment form was and piloted in two orchards, evaluating existing types of trees, current yield, health/pests/diseases and future potential for productivity. Further assessments and management plans will continue in year 2. Community Gardens: The Klamath Tribes have identified 2 locations and prepared organic non-GMO native food and plant garden beds. The Yurok tribe seasonal food crew has successfully planted a garden in Klamath Glenn. Farm/Fish/forest to institution: Began communicating with food commodities, school lunch personnel, the Community Alliance with Family Farmers Farm to School program, and USDA farm to school staff to identify opportunities for farm/fish/forest to school. Preliminary discussions about inter-tribal food distribution have begun between the Karuk and Yurok Tribes. WIC: MKWC staff learned that California is no longer issuing any more sites for WIC, and that the small size of the local stores would make them ineligible. The project has shifted focus to work with County WIC staff to increase participation in our area. A report documenting the challenges and proposed solutions associated with implementing WIC in small rural communities is being compiled. By Fresh-Buy Local: Communication has been established with the Community Alliance with Family Farmers to establish a partnership to be able to use the Buy Fresh Buy Local campaign logo and materials. Obj. 6: Shared learning: Facebook is serving to be a valuable networking tool for outreach and awareness raising about AFRI Food Security Activities. The KTHFS Facebook Page and the Klamath Tribes e-mail distribution lists have been utilized to: Recruit volunteers to help with the Chiloquin garden project, promote the OSU Junior Master Gardener Summer Program (and pay for tribal youth participation), promote full scholarships for two Klamath Tribal Members to participate in the Aprovecho Research Center intensive 6 week Permaculture Design Certification Course. The Mid-Klamath Foodshed Facebook Page: started in 2011 with BFRDP funds, has expanded with support from AFRI grant, posting notices about workshops, opportunities for exchange of skills and resources, and policy updates related to sustainable local foods. By July 2013, there were 177 members. https://www.facebook.com/groups/164617520311363/ Obj. 7) The community college working group, has developed relationships with administrators of the college and had five face to face meetings and many conference calls to develop plans for new certificate program. Budget review and institutional reports were necessary after the reduction in fall 2012 and was accomplished after three months. Selection of existing courses, and plans for developing new courses is mostly done. Fall of 2013 will start another round of planning meetings, with first classes underway in Fall 2014. Obj. 8) The scope and plan for the digital library is under review by the Karuk Tribe. Obj. 9: Collections were initiated for the Karuk Tribal Herbarium. Further collections will take place in spring of 2013. Obj. 10: A K-12 working group has been established. Examples of existing curricula are being assembled & evaluated for possible adaptation to local conditions.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: 5/9/13 UC Berkeley, ESPM Dept., Jennifer Sowerwine. Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin-Presentation to 10 students and faculty. 4/19/2013 UC Davis, Clinical Translational Sciences Center, Karuk Youth Council youth leadership project members presented a noon-time research talk to a standing-room only audience of approximately 60 native youth, graduate students, physicians, nurses, researchers, and community members. 4/18/13. UC Berkeley, Sustainable Food Systems Institute Working Group Mixer on Land Politics, Sustainable Agriculture, and Climate Change, Jennifer Sowerwine presented talk on Two sustainable food system projects in the Central Valley and in the Klamath River Basin, involving immigrant, minority, and Native American communities to approximately 50 faculty, students, researchers and food activists. 4/16/2013 Sonoma State University, Community Engagement Center, Kathy Kim (SFSU) presented a 3-hour workshop on community-based participatory research using this project as an example to 10 faculty and graduate students from diverse departments. 1/19/13 Karuk Tribe Dept. of Natural Resources, Orleans, Ca. Jennifer Sowerwine launched the Management Team meeting, and provided guidance on developing logic models, work plans, and evaluation plans. 12/28/12 Tribal EPA Conference, San Francisco, Ca. Jennifer Sowerwine, and Deborah Giraud co-presented on Tribal outreach in the Klamath Basin. Enhancing Tribal Health and Food Security in the Klamath Basin Other Publications: " The first draft of the technical manual "How to Select and Grow Fruits, Nuts and Berries in the Mid Klamath Region" is 3/4 complete. " MKWC has also published a technical information guide on four significant regional pests: o The Two Spotted Drosophila Drosophila suzukii, o The Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, o The Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, and o Peach Leaf Curl, Taphrina deformans. " MKWC Newsletter Articles " Karuk Newsletter " MidKlamath Watershed Council Community Foodshed Program tri-fold