Source: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY submitted to
WHOLE-FARM ORGANIC MANAGEMENT OF BMSB AND ENDEMIC PENTATOMIDS THROUGH BEHAVIORALLY-BASED HABITAT MANIPULATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0230933
Grant No.
2012-51300-20097
Project No.
NJ08931
Proposal No.
2012-02222
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
113.A
Project Start Date
Sep 1, 2012
Project End Date
Aug 31, 2017
Grant Year
2012
Project Director
Nielsen, A.
Recipient Organization
RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
3 RUTGERS PLZA
NEW BRUNSWICK,NJ 08901-8559
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
This integrated project utilizes a multi-regional, transdisciplinary approach for the development and dissemination of whole-farm organic management for the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). It is the direct result of a 2011 USDA-OREI planning project. BMSB is an invasive insect causing severe economic loss in Mid-Atlantic States, with damage increasing in Southern states. It is an especially devastating pest for organic farmers. Current organic management tactics have not mitigated damage because BMSB is highly mobile, feeds on a diverse number of crops and occupies a large geographic area. Thus, whole-farm management is required for effective organic control. This will aid growers in the selection and planning of trap crops, enhancing natural enemies and cultural control, all of which will be researched in this project. We will investigate the cues and capacity for dispersal and identify movement patterns that will be integrated into development and execution of proactive stink bug management. We will partner with eOrganic to aid in the novel dissemination of research findings, which will be supplemented with annual on-farm demonstrations and social media. This project directly addresses OREI goals 1 and 6 as BMSB represents a major threat to organic production across many commodities. Our project has the support or involvement of 25 researchers, 3 organic organizations, and 12 organic farmers and will have national impact. Seven farmer-stakeholders have been fully engaged in the development of this proposal and will continue to play an integral role in research and outreach activities.
Animal Health Component
85%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
15%
Applied
85%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2112410113010%
2111499113010%
2111599113010%
2113110113010%
2151510113010%
2151499113010%
2162410113040%
Goals / Objectives
The long-term goal of our project is to develop and deliver sustainable, whole-farm management programs for the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Halyomorpha halys), and endemic pentatomids, that are true to the legal definition and ethos of organic agriculture. BMSB has rapidly become a devastating pest of conventional and organic agriculture in Southern and Mid-Atlantic regions and is expanding to surrounding states. Management of this pest with conventional/synthetic insecticides has proven extremely challenging and there are currently no viable organic management tactics. The programs developed in our project will be based on BMSB dispersal and whole-farm movement integrated with core organic pest management strategies, i.e. conservation biological control, habitat manipulation and the use of trap crops and crop barriers. Our specific objectives are: 1. Develop habitat manipulation tactics based upon how host plant phenology impacts BMSB preference and dispersal. 2. Determine biotic and abiotic factors affecting adult and juvenile BMSB whole-farm movement. 3. Determine the identity and importance of extant natural enemies of stink bugs and their impact on BMSB populations. 4. Evaluate integrated management plans for BMSB and endemic stink bugs specific to organic production systems. 5. Develop and deliver extension materials for organic growers. Outputs: The primary research output will be the relative efficacy of integrated, whole-farm tactics opposed to single pest management tactics for BMSB. We will establish dispersal behaviors and whole-farm movement patterns of adult and nymph BMSB to identify the spatial scale and sequence in which BMSB interacts with the landscape to develop management strategies. In addition, we will field-test pest management systems such as trap crops, row covers, insectary strips and enhancing natural enemies as the best integrated organic management practices for BMSB. Select grower sites will also serve as integrated farms to further evaluate project impact. Data collected and feedback received from the integrated farms will be used in final preparation of outreach material. We aim to strengthen partnerships with organic growers by providing a diverse set of educational opportunities that increase grower understanding of BMSB behavior and ecology and initiate the use of whole-farm habitat manipulation strategies developed by this project. Outreach for organic management of BMSB will occur in four primary ways: 1) web-based materials 2) on-farm demonstrations, instructional clinics, and field days 3) education materials through eOrganic and 4) traditional extension materials.
Project Methods
Objective 1) Develop habitat manipulation tactics based upon how host plant phenology impacts BMSB preference and dispersal. We will identify the most suitable trap crop for BMSB based on density and temporal susceptibility to BMSB through a Latin-square design. Two trap crops will be further evaluated for their management potential to protect select vegetable and field crops and we will compare management strategies within the trap crop. Finally, the whole-farm movement patterns by BMSB between trap and cash crops will be studied using ELIS based methods. Objective 2) Determine biotic and abiotic factors affecting adult and juvenile BMSB whole-farm movement. Through whole-farm sampling at multiple sites, we will establish spatiotemporal distribution patterns and relationships of BMSB within individual farms to crops, structures and non-host plants. We will also determine the abiotic and biotic factors affecting BMSB adult flight behavior using flight mills and flight tunnels and conduct two mark-release-recapture experiments with nymphs to elucidate their spatial scale of movement and host preferences. To reduce the population pressure in future years, overwintering site selection within human-made structures will be investigated. Specifically, we will characterize commonalities of human-made structures to develop a predictive model identifying sites most likely to host BMSB overwintering populations and develop an overwintering trap incorporating those characteristics. Objective 3) Determine the identity and importance of extant natural enemies of stink bugs and their impact on BMSB populations. We will conduct region-wide surveys to identify the species composition and rates of egg parasitism and predation for BMSB and endemic stink bugs in candidate trap crops and a wide range of organic cash crops. A subset of sentinel BMSB eggs will be monitored using day/night vision cameras to quantify predator species rates. The incorporation of insectary plants to enhance natural enemies, specifically egg parasitoids, in field corn and vegetables will be investigated. Due to the use of non-synthetic insecticides on organic farms, the impact of these applications to natural enemies will be assessed at both individual species and at the broader community level. Objective 4) Evaluate integrated management plans for BMSB and endemic stink bugs specific to organic production systems. We will determine the efficacy and limitations of barrier fabrics as cultural control tactics by comparing row cover materials and the impact on natural enemy populations in peppers. In the final project year, together with eOrganic, 5 cooperating growers will integrate the management tactics describe in the above objectives and evaluate successful management tactics for BMSB. All data will be analyzed with either ANOVA or t-tests with each farm as a blocking factor. Objective 5) Extension and Outreach. Outreach for organic management of BMSB will occur in four primary ways: web-based materials, on-farm demonstrations, eOrganic materials and traditional extension materials.

Progress 09/01/12 to 08/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:The target audience for the final project year remained growers who wish to manage brown marmorated stink bug using organic methods. Much of the activity within this final year was writing scientific manuscripts to disseminate findings to the scientific community. Our social media outlet, via the Facebook page, remained live, although not very active. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?The project has trained 6 graduate students (1 PhD, 5 MS) on organic management of invasive species with a special focus on biological control. Additionally, training for 5 post-doctoral research associates on insect dispersal, management, and biological control was conducted during the course of this project. Both students and postdocs had multiple opportunities to share their research findings with communities of interest and form research collaborations with the broader group. Many were involved in our annual planning meetings,quarterly phone calls, and provided feedback on experimental design and data as it was being collected.Over 30 undergraduate students have been trained on insect colony maintenance, survey and monitoring techniques, insect identification, and organic management. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results have been transferred to organic farmers and the general public. We used social media to engage a broad audience through the development of a Facebook page ("Organic Management of BMSB"), two webinars hosted by eOrganic including a YouTube video of the webinar. The webinars have been viewed in total over 1000 times and were originally attended by homeowners, extension educators, and farmers. Findings from this project have been discussed at multiple extension meetings within the US, reaching an audience of both conventional and organic growers. Field days hosted by Universities or participating organic growers reached hundreds of farmers, homeowners, and extension educators annually.Much of the project findings are applicable at multiple scales and management approaches. Due to the overwintering behavior of this pest species, a citizen science project was created that engaged homeowners in the Washington DC area to count stink bugs on their houses in September and October. Over 100 homeowners participated with usable data and from this, we were able to identify commonalities in houses and landscape features that have the highest number of BMSB aggregation. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This project has trained 6 graduate students and 5 postdocs in entomology, specifically on the behavior, biological control, and organic management of an invasive agricultural pest. Our work has resulted in 11+ peer-reviewed scientific publications. Key project findings are the development of a trap crop system for brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and identification of predator taxa that are feeding on BMSB within organic farms. We have been able to identify how BMSB moves within an organic farm landscape, how they select host plants, and finally characteristics of overwintering sites. This project was a collaborative effort by Universities, the USDA, and organic farmers. Through our work, we have educated hundreds of farmers annually through our extension efforts within the mid-West and Eastern US on organic management tools that can be adopted broadly. Our specific objective accomplishments are below: Develop habitat manipulation tactics for stink bugs: Multi-state testing in 2013 identified grain sorghum and sunflower as preferred plant species that attract stink bugs and could be used as a management tool.On 7 commercial organic farms and 3 Universityexperiment stations we evaluated a polyculture of sunflower and sorghum trap crop surrounding organic peppers in 2014-2015.We asses insect numbers and injury on peppers weekly. The trap crop significantly reduced minor stink bug injury, but not major (>2 feeding sites/fruit). Retention and/or mortality of an insect within the trap crop increase its success. Incorporation of traps baited with the BMSB aggregation pheromone did not further reduce injury to peppers. However, evaluations of thedispersal between trap crop and peppers through harmonic radar and protein marking showed thatminimal movement occurs between the trap crops to the peppers. The trap crop is able to retain BMSB for at least 7 days but management within the trap crop would be needed to reduce injury to acceptable levels. Whole-farm movement: In two experiments we identified that BMSB nymphs (immatures) move at a rate of 2 m/hr. Further, we used mark-release-recapture methods to identify that BMSB nymphs make feeding choices and disperse to a more suitable crop depending on ripening. We have further collected, analyzed, and evaluated host plant volatiles emitted from these crops as well as peach and apple to investigate specific cues that are used by BMSB. Laboratory experiments confirm that a blend of volatiles was most attractive to nymphs.These manipulative experiments were further validated by large-scale sampling to look at the sequence of crop use and hot spots within organic farms. Hot spots occurred withinornamental and fruit trees, typically in the family Rosacea, but also showed an edge effect along wooded edges, and areas with the highest number of BMSB shifted depending on ripening of the crop. The overwintering behavior of BMSB was investigated in western MD. Research focused on the pre, during and post mass-flight behavior of BMSB. A trap was developed that can mass trap BMSB on buildings. A citizen science project engaged homeowners to collect data on characteristics of overwintering structures used by BMSB. In 2013 and 2014, roughly 150 data sets were collected from participants who counted BMSB on their homes and results suggest brown homes situated in agricultural and woodland dominated landscapes have the highest populations of overwintering BMSB. Determine natural enemies of BMSB: A multi-state survey identified that native egg parasitoids had minimal impact (<1% parasitism) in organic systems. Surveys on organic farms did not find the Asian parasitoid of BMSB, Trissolcus japonicus. Generalist predators caused 10-15% egg mortality in organic farms. A photographic library that defined predator feeding damage categories was compiled to assist with identifying key predators attacking BMSB eggs in the field. Laboratory studies showed that predators exhibit life-stage preferences with taxa such as grasshoppers and damsel bugs feeding on eggs and nymphs, respectively. This indicates that natural enemy impacts are underestimated through sentinel egg mass surveys. We developed a protocol for detecting small amounts of BMSB DNA using molecular gut content analysis. This allows descriptive assessments of predator identify and feeding rates under field conditions. Fourteen percent of field collected predators in NJ tested positive for BMSB DNA and suggests that the predatory insects fed on BMSB within the last 48h. This is higher than would be expected for predators who are not co-evolved and suggests that predators may play an important role on organic farms for managing BMSB. Most of the positive predators were found in soybean, which is also highly attractive to BMSB. Insectary plantings were evaluated to increase natural enemy response to BMSB. In MD and OH, partridge pea was studied in organic field corn and blackberry plantings. Overall there was a high rate of parasitism and predation of all stink bug eggs assessed, but the impact of natural enemies on BMSB was not enhanced through the addition of partridge pea. In NJ, parasitism and predation within perennial wildflower plots were assessed. Despite an overall increase in the natural enemy community in the wildflower plots and higher predation due to piercing- sucking predators, there was no difference in chewing predation or parasitism between the control and wildflower plots. Evaluate organic management options for BMSB: Mechanical exclusion of stink bugs was studied using various sizes of mesh netting over organic bell peppers. Laboratory studies indicated that netting smaller than 1⁄4" was needed to impede adult BMSB movement. Field studies evaluated sizes of 1/6", 1/8", and 1 mm mesh as a full season management tactic. Measurements on yield, stink bug injury, and natural enemy populations were made. There was a correlation between netting size and the proportion of the stink bug injury and all netting sizes reduced damage compared to the open controls. However, the finest mesh cages had secondary outbreaks of aphids due to exclusion of natural enemies.? Field trials on pepper and tomato evaluated the efficacy and rate of organic insecticides for control of stink bugs. BMSB was the most predominant species in pepper, and the most effective treatments included Veratran D at 15 lbs/acre (93% control of adults) and Azera at 56 oz/acre (68%). Compost tea also causes egg mortality. Insecticides, such as Entrust, were found to cause high mortality against native egg parasitoid species. Develop and deliver extension A Facebook community page, BMSB in Organic Farming Systems, has 156 followers from 10 different countries. The Facebook page was created to inform and update growers and the public on the status and results from this project. Two webinars hosted by eOrganic were delivered to homeowners, farmers, and extension educators on BMSB biology and biological control. The webinars were each attended by ca. 125 people and the associated YouTube videos have been viewed 1000 times. Factsheets discussing barrier fabrics, natural enemies, and sustainable management were developed by multiple institutions (eOrganic, University of Kentucky, Rodale Institute, Redbud Farm).A video on egg predation:https://youtu.be/czzwuaqO1ecwas developed. Direct outreach events such as field days and grower meetings were held over 3 years of the project. Project findings were delivered to 35-4000 participants annually across MD, WV, PA, KY, TN, NC, and OH. BMSB identification materials were available to attendees from the NE IPM Center. Project team members discussed trap crops, insectary plantings, hot spots within farms, monitoring tools, and organic insecticide efficacy. Presentations at NOFA-NJ, MOSES, Great Lakes Fruit and Vegetable EXPO reached additional 200 farmers.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Mathews CR, B Blaauw, G Dively, J Kotcon, J Moore, D Pfieffer, JF Walgenbach, C Welty, G Zinati, AL Nielsen. Evaluating a polyculture trap crop for organic management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and endemic stink bugs in peppers. J. Pest Science 90:1245-1255
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Blaauw B**, C Mathews, T Leskey, RW Morisson, AL Nielsen. Measuring host plant selection and retention of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a trap crop. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 163: 197208
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Abram, PK, KA Hoelmer, A Acebes-Doria, H Andrews, EH Beers, JC Bergh, R Bessin, D Biddinger, P Botch, ML Buffington, M Cornelius, E Costi, ES Delfosse, C Dieckhoff, R Dobson, Z Donais, M Grieshop, G Hamilton, Tim Haye, Chris Hedstrom, MV Herlihy, M Hoddle, CRR Hooks, R James, P Jentsch, Thomas Kuhar, J Lara, JC Lee, A Legrand, T Leskey, D Lowenstein, L Maistrello, CR Mathews, JM Milnes, WR Morrison III, NK Joshi, AL Nielsen, E Ogburn, CH Pickett, K Poley, J Pote**, PM Shrewsbury, E Talamas, L Tavella, J Walgenbach, R Waterworth, DC Weber, C Welty, N Wiman. 2017. Indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe. J. Pest Science 90:10091020
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Pote, J. M., and A. L. Nielsen. 2017. Life stage specific predation of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) by generalist predators. Biological Control 114: 1-7
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Dobson R., M. Rogers and J.C. Moore R. Bessin. 2016. Exclusion of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug from Peppers Using Barrier Screens. HortTechnology 26:191-198


Progress 09/01/15 to 08/31/16

Outputs
Target Audience: Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?This project has provided training to graduate students at multiple institutions, post-doctoral researchers, and numerous undergraduates. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?We have provided training for the organic community through field days and extension meetings in multiple states. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We are in the final year of this project. Items still to be completed are: Webinars on biological control for BMSB, trap crops and whole-farm movement Completion of gut content analysis of predators for BMSB DNA Field evaluation of host plant volatiles as potential attractants for BMSB

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? PROJECT IMPACT: Through this large multi-state project we have developed tools to assist organic farmers and homeowners manageme brown marmorated stink bug. Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an inasive agricultural pest but also spends the winter primarily inside homes, causing significant nuisance to the general public. As part of a citizen science project we have identified that dark houses, primarily in wooded or wooded/agriucltural areas have the highest numbers of overwintering BMSB. Key research findings of this project aimed to identify management tatics consistent with organic standards that minimized the use of chemicals. We incorporated multiple assessments of natural enemies (the good bugs) and found rates of predatrion to be10-20%. This level of predation was much higher than was expected for an invasive pest.We also identified the use of barrier fabrics to protect high value, sensitive crops and we identified a trap cropping system. Trap crops use more attractive plants to deter the insects from the crop of interest. By using a combination of sorghum and sunflower we reduced levels of injury that would cause peppers to be unmarketable. We hope to incorporate flower plantings to attract key natural enemies and restructure the trap crop to improve management in the future. Our project findings have been shared with organic farmers, extension personnel and researchers across the country. We have published two manuscripts this year, with another one in review. Two extension factsheets, two webinars and two videos have also been developed. Objective 1) Develop habitat manipulation tactics for stink bugs In 2014 and 2015 we evaluated a field-scale trial in cooperation with 7 organic farmers and 3 experiment stations. A polyculture of sunflower and sorghum surrounding peppers (Aristotle var.) were evaluated for population densities of BMSB, native stink bugs, natural enemies on both the trap crops, peppers within the trap crop and the control peppers (without a trap crop). The trap crop significantly reduced minor stink bug injury, but not major (>2 feeding sites/fruit). In 2015 we investigated the behavioral basis for trap crops by looking at dispersal between trap crop and peppers through harmonic radar and protein marking. Together these results suggest that minimal movement occurs between the trap crops and peppers and that BMSB released within the peppers moved furthest. Similarly, BMSB movement from the trap crop appeared to be arrested for a a period of at least 7 days. Objective 2) Whole-farm movement We utilized a mark-release-recapture experiment to track movement of nymphs among four host plants at progressive phenological stages. We found BMSB nymphs are making feeding choices and disperse to a more suitable crop depending on plant phenology. As seedlings, BMSB nymphs were more attracted to Swiss chard. As ears of corn were forming, more nymphs dispersed to sweet corn than to any other host plant. Similarly, at the end of August, nymphs dispersed to soybean as pods were forming. Headspace volatiles from each host plant were collected over progressive phenological stages to determine if there is an olfactory component to host attractiveness to BMSB nymphs. Five host plant volatiles were identified at these critical periods that may be responsible for host plant finding. Dispersal capacity of nymphs identified that 5th instars were capable of dispersing 2m/hr with speed increasing under higher temperatures. Lee, D-H, A.L. Nielsen, and T.C. Leskey. 2014. Dispersal capacity and behavior of nymphal stages of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. J. Insect Behavior 27: 639-651 Analysis identified hotspots in ornamental and fruit trees, typically in the family Rosacea. Objective 3) Determine natural enemies of BMSB A multi-state survey identified low levels of parasitism and predation on egg masses to be about 10-15%. Grasshoppers and damsel bugs were identified as key predator taxa. A microscopic photographic library of predator impacts and defined feeding damage categories was compiled to assist with identifying key predators attacking BMSB eggs in the field. Insectary plantings were evaluated to increase natural enemy response to BMSB. In MD and OH, partridge pea was studied in organic field corn and blackberry plantings. Overall there was a high rate of parasitism and predation of all stink bug eggs assessed, but the impact of natural enemies on BMSB did not appear to be enhanced through the addition of partridge pea. In NJ, perennial wildflower plots were established in 2014 and predation and parasitism within plots were assessed in 2015 and 2016. Despite an overall increase in the natural enemy community in the wildflower plots and higher predation due to piercing- sucking predators, there was no difference in chewing predation or parasitism between the control and wildflower plots. Rutgers has developed two DNA sequences that can be used to identify field-collected predators that have recently fed on BMSB and relative rates of predation. In late 2014, the Asian parasitoid species Trissolcus japonicus was collected from BMSB egg masses. T. japonicus is the primary parasitoid and biological control agent of BMSB in Asia and are likely a major role of keeping populations below damaging levels. Surveys were conducted in DE, MD, WV, TN, and NJ in organic crops and along wooded field borders to determine if T. japonicus was established in additional areas. Parasitoids were found in additional sites in MD and WV indicating that T. japonicus had survived the winter but had not spread to organic farms beyond that location. Objective 4) Evaluate organic management options for BMSB Mechanical exclusion of stink bugs was studied using various sizes of mesh netting over organic bell peppers. Measurements on total yield, stink bug injury and natural enemy populations were made. There was a correlation between netting size and the proportion of the stink bug injury and all netting sizes reduced damage compared to the open controls. However, the finest mesh cages had secondary outbreaks of aphids due to exclusion of natural enemies.? Field trials on pepper and tomato evaluated the efficacy and rate of organic insecticides for control of stink bugs. BMSB was the most predominant species in pepper, and the most effective treatments included Veratran D at 15 lbs/acre (93% control of adults) and Azera at 56 oz/acre (68%). On tomato, the predominant stink bugs were native species, causing overall 50.6% damage to the harvestable fruit. Veratran D at 15 lbs/acre mixed with Azera at 16 oz/acre provided 46% control.? Insecticides, such as Entrust, were found to cause high mortality against egg parasitoid species Telenomus podisii and Anastatus reduvii. Objective 5) Develop and deliver extension A Facebook community page, BMSB in Organic Farming Systems, has 153 followers from 10 different countries. The Facebook page was created to inform and update growers and the public on the status and results from this project. Results from this project have been disseminated through extension training sessions and presentations. KY and TN developed a factsheet covering the results from the evaluation of barrier fabrics to manage stink bugs. The Rodale Institute published a web article entitled "Organic Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)". A factsheet on natural enemies has been published on eOrganic - a combined effort from 8 institutions.? Video on egg predation: https://youtu.be/czzwuaqO1ec

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ogburn, E.C. R. Bessin, C. Dieckhoff, R. Dobson, M. Grishop, K. A. Hoelmer, C. Mathews, J. Moore, A.L. Nielson, J.M. Pote, M. Rogers, C. Welty, and J.F. Walgenbach. 2016. Natural enemy impact on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (St�l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in organic agroecosystems: A regional assessment. Biol. Control. 101: 39-51.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2016 Citation: Blaauw B**, C Mathews, T Leskey, RW Morrison, AL Nielsen. Measuring host plant selection and retention of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a trap crop. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Ogburn, E., R. Bessin, C. Dieckhoff, R. Dobson, M. Grieshop, K. Hoelmer, C. Mathews, J. Moore, A. Nielsen, C. Welty, and J. Walgenbach. 2015. Natural enemy impact on invasive brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) eggs in organic agroecosystems: a multistate assessment. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Minneapolis, MN. November 15, 2015.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: A Nielsen Invasion Biology of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: A Behavioral and Ecological Perspective 2016 ESA North Central Branch Mtg, Cleveland, OH
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: A Nielsen Incorporating behavior and population dynamics into management of the invasive H. halys in the USA 2016 Recent Trends in H. halys Research, Universit� di Modena e Reggio Emilia , Italy
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: JM Pote, AL Nielsen 2016 Life stage specific predation of Halyomorpha halys (St�l) 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: C Mathews, B Blaauw, AL Nielsen Integrating pheromone traps in a trap crop system for managing stink bugs in organic pepper production 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: 32. Mathews CR, B Blaauw, G Dively, J Kotcon, J Moore, E Ogburn, D Pfieffer, T Trope, JF Walgenbach, C Welty, G Zinati, AL Nielsen. Evaluating a polyculture trap crop for organic management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and endemic stink bugs in peppers. Submitted to J. Pest Sci
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: A Nielsen Organic management of BMSB  year 3 2015 December BMSB Working Group Mtg, Winchester, VA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: JM Pote, DM Fonseca, R Valentin, AL Nielsen. Identifying predators of Halyomorpha halys using molecular gut content analysis. 2015 Entomol. Soc. Am, Portland, OR
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: B Blaauw, AL Nielsen Supporting natural enemies and their services with native wildflowers 2016 NE Plant, Pest, and Soils Conference, Philadelphia, PA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Walgenbach, J.F., A. Herbert, T. Kuhar, D. Reisig and M. Toews. 2015. Distribution, pest status and research programs for the brown marmorated stink bug in the southeastern US. Entomology Society of America Annual Meeting Symposium on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Group: Synergizing IPM research to deliver solutions. Minneapolis, MN.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: Walgenbach, J., S. Schoof, and E. Ogburn. 2015. Phenology of brown marmorated stink bug in NC apples. Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conference, Winchester, VA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Ogburn, E., and J. Walgenbach. 2016. The role of biocontrol in regulating brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) populations in North Carolina. SEB-Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Raleigh, NC.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Walgenbach, J.F. 2016. Impact of non-managed habitats on orchard arthropod communities. Symposium presentation at SEB-Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. Raleigh, NC.


Progress 09/01/14 to 08/31/15

Outputs
Target Audience: The research collaborators have reached a broad audience through various outputs during the first year of this OREI project to develop behaviorally-based methods to organically manage stink bugs. Through the utilization of demonstration field days, we targeted organic farmers of many agronomic, vegetable, and fruit crops, as well as extension personnel and consumers. We also publicized our work through numerous local news and online programs to inform the general public on the importance of stink bug research and management. Changes/Problems:Along with Redbud Farms in WV, we included a third treatment where pyramid traps baited with BMSB aggregation pheromone plus a synergist were placed on each side of the trap crop plot and used to as a method to remove stink bugs from these plots. A demonstration plot of trap crops was added in KY. In MD, a sticky card to monitor natural enemy community was added to the trap crop study and expanded the sampling unit area to obtain more consistent data, since the naturally-occurring stink bug infestation was low. The finding of Trissolcus japnoicus, an Asian egg parasitoid of BMSB, in the US triggered additional sentinel egg mass surveys to determine presence and impact of this critical natural enemy. The survey was expended to non-crop habitat in the wooded habitat surrounding organic farms as research suggests that this is a more suitable habitat for T. japonicus. To better understand the impact of native predators on BMSB, predation of identified predators (damsel bugs, katydids, lady beetles, etc.) were exposed to 1st and 2nd instar nymphs of BMSB. Additionally, the functional response of these predators against egg stages is being researched. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?To date this project has helped support the training of 6 post-doctoral researchers, 12 graduate students and 22+ undergraduate student interns. Three students to date have successfully completed their Masters of Science in Entomology or Plant Pathology through this project. This year, 5 scientific manuscripts have been published or accepted to peer-reviewed publications. The project team has given 23 research talks and 11 presentations at extension meetings. Project members have provided training to over 240 master gardeners. The USDA conducted a parasitoid identification workshop to identify key characteristics of native species. The 'Great Stink Bug Count' trained over 300 participants each in 2013 and 2014 on identification of BMSB and is being utilized to identify key characteristics of houses that serve as overwintering structures for BMSB.?The Walgenbach lab instructed the entomology class at Brevard College in a hands-on lab on the biology of BMSB and our work on its biology and natural enemies. Students also looked at BMSB feeding damage on apples and working with native parasitoid colonies, and gave the students a tour of the lab and research station. The Nielsen lab spoke at NOFA-NJ meetings in hands-on demonstration of trapping, natural enemies and identification. Additionally, research results have been communicated to researchers at regional and national meetings. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?The results of our project as well as basic biology and identification of BMSB have been disseminated widely to communities of interest in 11 states throughout the country through field days, grower meetings. Our project team has delivered 11 extension talks or presentations within the past year andproduced 2 factsheets, a webinar and a video. We have also worked directly with over 10 organic growers in these states by conducting research at their establishments. At field days and extension meetings, a project summary tri-fold, sunflower seed packets and BMSB identification kits have been available. In NJ, approximately 25 organic growers attended an organic community meeting where BMSB biology, trap crop methods were discussed. Another 80 small farm and sustainable growers attended a workshop to learn about BMSB biology, trap cropping and insectary plants. Rodale demonstrated the trap cropping field experiment to over 100 visitors in PA. In WV, a field day was held at Redbud Farms to 35 participants and WVU also held a field day. Both sites demonstrated trap crop trials. In the Southeast, a poster presentation on habitat manipulation for stink bugs was seen by approximately 3,000+ attendees at the SE fruit and veg conference and 1,000+ attendees at the SSAWG meeting. A webinar highlighting BMSB predators and relevant information for organic producers by Y-L Park was presented to 108 participants and has had additional 400+ views on YouTube. The general public has also been an important component of our outreach programs. The second year results of the Great Stink Bug Count were summarized and sent to our citizen scientists. Participants were asked to participate in a follow-up survey about home invasion by BMSB, including extent of the problem, tactics used to control them in the home, and other assorted issues. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?The next reporting period represents our last funding cycle. During this time period we are analzying data and preparing multiple manuscrtips for publication. Research on biological control agents, specifically on gut content analysis, life-stage specific predation, and functional response will continue. Additionally we have identified five potential host odors that might stimulate dispersal behaviora in vegetable systems. We will investigate response to these odors in laboratory experiments. Dissemination of research findings to stakeholders will continue through the development of factsheets, webinars, and extension meetings.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Objective 1) Develop habitat manipulation tactics for stink bugs: We tested a third year of the evaluation of habitat manipulation through the use of trap crops, the planting of an attractive host plant surrounding a cash crop, to prevent or slow the injury of the cash crop by stink bugs. In 2014 and 2015, we conducted a field-scale experiment on the efficacy of sunflower and sorghum as a combined trap crop to protect bell peppers from stink bug pests. In 2014 the trap crops were attractive to BMSB and native stink bugs and delayed colonization of the pepper crop. In 2015, this was repeated at 7 farms in 6 states. In 2015 populations of the invasive BMSB were lower than previous years but native stink bug species were much higher than in previous years. Preliminary analysis reveals that, similar to 2014, the trap crops provided some protection from stink bug damage compared to unprotected peppers. In the initial selection of trap crop species, colonization by native stink bugs was an important factor in deciding which plant species to use and the selection of sunflower and sorghum is predicted to buffer changes in stink bug population densities. The results from 2014 suggest that under high and medium stink bug densities, the effectiveness of a trap crop might be improved with the integration of management tactics. Thus, Rutgers University and Redbud Farm evaluated a modification of the trap cropping treatment that included baited pyramid traps to remove stink bugs and hopefully enhance retention. This was conducted to determine if adding in a 'management' approach under medium pressure farms would increase the attractiveness. The pyramid traps baited with the aggregation pheromone did not appear to benefit the removal of stink bugs and thus the reduction of pepper damage compared to trap crop plots without the traps. Objective 2) Determine factors affecting BMSB whole-farm movement: Over the 3-year period of this study we determined that BMSB nymphs have a high capacity for dispersal and readily disperse from one host to a more suitable host depending on plant phenology. During 2015 Rutgers utilized GC-mass spectrometry to identify host plant chemicals that correspond with the attractiveness of BMSB to host crops. Results show that there are five common plant odors released by the tested host plants that correspond to BMSB nymph attraction. In 2015 we analyzed data on whole-farm movement at three farms WV and NJ. Analysis identified hotspots in ornamental and fruit trees, typically in the family Rosacea. In 2015 in MD, overwintering trapping parameters to increase the efficacy of collecting overwintering BMSB were investigated. White traps were the most attractive and collected the most bugs when either placed on the ground or up to 40 ft high. A citizen science project was also initiated that surveyed the public to describe their home, landscape, and stink bug infestations. In 2013 and 2014, roughly 150 data sets were collected from participants who counted BMSB on their homes, and results suggest brown homes situated in agricultural and woodland dominated landscapes have the highest populations of overwintering BMSB. Objective 3) Determine natural enemies of BMSB: The identity, activity, and importance of extant natural enemies of stink bugs in organic agroecosystems has been evaluated during the past three field seasons through a combination of sticky cards, video surveillance, sentinel egg masses, laboratory trials, and molecular diagnostics. In 2015, Redbud Farm and the USDA completed laboratory evaluations of predator (>450 individuals in >20 taxa) impacts on BMSB eggs. These results support the finding that katydids are a key predator group. A microscopic photographic library of predator impacts and defined feeding damage categories was compiled to assist with identifying key predators attacking BMSB eggs in the field. Additionally, Rutgers evaluated predation of BMSB eggs and nymphs to assess life-stage specific predation by various potential stink bug predators in the lab and identified damsel bugs and assassin bugs as key predators of other life stages. We evaluated insectary plantings to increase natural enemy response to BMSB. In MD and OH, partridge pea was studied in organic field corn and blackberry plantings. Overall there was a high rate of parasitism and predation of all stink bug eggs assessed, but the impact of natural enemies on BMSB did not appear to be enhanced through the addition of partridge pea. At Rutgers, perennial wildflower plots were established in 2014 and predation and parasitism within plots were assessed in 2015. Despite an overall increase in the natural enemy community in the wildflower plots and higher predation due to piercing-sucking predators, there was no difference in chewing predation or parasitism between the control and wildflower plots. As an additional method of identifying the importance of extant natural enemies, Rutgers has developed two DNA sequences that can be used to identify field-collected predators that have recently fed on BMSB. This will help us identify predators of BMSB and quantify the prevalence of BMSB predation in the wild. In late 2014, the Asian parasitoid species Trissolcus japonicus was collected from BMSB egg masses. T. japonicus is the primary parasitoid and biological control agent of BMSB in Asia and are likely a major role of keeping populations below damaging levels. Surveys were conducted in DE, MD, WV, TN and NJ in organic crops and along wooded field borders to determine if T. japonicus was established in additional areas. Parasitoids were found in additional sites in MD indicating that T. japonicus had survived the winter but had not spread to organic farms beyond that location. Objective 4) Evaluate organic management options for BMSB: Completed in previous years. Objective 5) Develop and deliver extension: Our Facebook community page, BMSB in Organic Farming Systems, currently has a total of 147 followers from 10 different countries. The Facebook page was created to inform and update growers and the public on the status and results from this project. Results from this project have been disseminated through extension training sessions and presentations. KY and TN developed a factsheet covering the results from the evaluation of barrier fabrics to manage stink bugs. The Rodale Institute published a web article entitled "Organic Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)". Redbud Farm in WV developed a factsheet on sustainable management techniques. Importantly a factsheet on natural enemies has been published on eOrganic - a combined effort from 8 institutions. Direct outreach events such as field days or grower meetings were held in various states. In 2015, Rodale (PA), NC, KY and TN had field days highlighting research, specifically trap crops to over 300 people. Redbud Farm held a field day to 35 participants and was attended by project team members from 3 institutions and was covered by local press. Project team discussed trap crops, overwintering site selection, insectary strips, pheromone-based trapping methods. BMSB identification materials developed through the NE IPM Center were distributed to attendees. PI Yong-Lak Park conducted a webinar hosted by eOrganic titled "Managing Bad Stink Bugs with Good Stink Bugs", which had 108 attendees and over 400 views on YouTube. Grower meetings also played a significant role in reaching stakeholders. Presentations at NOFA-NJ, MOSES, Great Lakes Fruit and Vegetable EXPO reached additional 150+ farmers. PI Blaauw, was interviewed on organic management tactic for BMSB by the American Vegetable Grower.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Hunt, L. G. and C.R.R. Hooks. 2015. Diversifying the arthropod community with partridge pea: Increasing natural enemies and controlling pests in organic field corn. Ecological Society of America. Baltimore, MD August 09-14, 2015. (Poster Presentation).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Torri J. Hancock, D.H. Lee, J.C. Bergh, W.R. Morrison, and T. C. Leskey. 2015. Utilizing citizen science to identify characteristics important to overwintering site selection for brown marmorated stink bug. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Group Meeting. College Park, MD.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Torri J. Hancock, D.H. Lee, J.C. Bergh, and T. C. Leskey. 2015. Utilizing citizen science to identify characteristics important to overwintering site selection for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (St�l). Student Competition Poster, Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America. Rehoboth Beach, DE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Morrison, III W.R., C. Mathews, and T.C. Leskey. 2015. Pushing the frontiers of applied ecological science with the use of harmonic radar and micro-tagged insects to address questions related to the management of invasive species. 100th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, Baltimore, MD.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Morrison, III W.R. and T.C. Leskey. 2014. Defending vegetables in organic production from the brown marmorated stink bug: Attraction and retention using trap crops. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Northeast IPM Working Group Meeting, Winchester, WV.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Morrison, III W.R., C. Mathews, and T. Leskey. 2015. Using harmonic radar to measure the retention capacity of trap crops for the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in organic pepper production. 85th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America, Rehoboth, DE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Morrison, III W.R., C. Mathews, and T. Leskey. 2014. Using harmonic radar to measure the retention capacity of trap crops for the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in organic pepper plantings. 62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Portland, OR.
  • Type: Other Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Morrison, III W.R. and T.C. Leskey. 2014. Using a carrot-and-stick approach: Attraction, retention, and management of brown marmorated stink bug in fruit and vegetables. Department of Entomology Seminar Series, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Moredock, J. and Y.-L. Park. 2015. Biological control of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annual Meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America Meeting, Rehoboth Beach, DE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Goldner, J. and Y.-L. Park. 2015. Whole-farm spatial dynamics of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in organic farming systems. Annual Meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America Meeting, DE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Park, Y.-L. 2014. Brown marmorated bugs in Korea: rearing, historical occurrence, and current status. BMSB Working Group Meeting, Winchester, VA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ahn, J., C. G. Park, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Spatial distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in cornfield: Implications for sampling. Annual Entomological Society of America Meeting, Portland, OR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Goldner, J., and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Seasonal movement of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in organic farming systems. Annual Entomological Society of America Meeting, Portland, OR.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: AL Nielsen 2015 Organic management of BMSB, 8th International IPM Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Deroshia, K., Grieshop, M. J. 2015, Identifying natural enemies of Halyomorpha halys using video surveillance in organic systems. Poster at North Central Branch Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Manhattan, KS.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Deroshia, K., Grieshop, M.J. 2014, November. Monitoring for existing natural enemies of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) using video surveillance in Michigan. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: C. Mathews, W.R. Morrison and T. Leskey. 2015. CSI egg mass damage: Tracking down unexplained predation of brown marmorated stink bug egg masses by native natural enemies. Ecological Society of America Meetings, Baltimore, MD
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: C. Mathews, B. Blaauw, G. Dively, G. Zinati, J. Moore, J. Walgenbach, C. Welty, D. Pfeiffer, J. Kotcon and A. Nielsen. 2015. Developing trap crops for organic management of native and invasive stink bugs in peppers. Entomological Society of America Eastern Branch Meeting, Rehobeth, DE
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: C. Mathews, W.R. Morrison III and T. Leskey. 2014. Fate of brown marmorated stink bug egg masses exposed to common generalist predators in the laboratory and in organic vegetable plots. Entomological Society of America National Meeting, Portland, OR
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Nielsen, A., G. Dively, JM Pote, G Zinati, C Mathews. Identifying a Potential Trap Crop for a Novel Insect Pest, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Organic Farms. Accepted, 2015. Env. Entomol.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2015 Citation: Bessin, R., R. Dobson, M. Rogers and J.C. Moore. Exclusion of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug from Peppers Using Barrier Screens. HortTech. In Press.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Baek, S., Y. Son, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): implications for mass rearing and biological control. Journal of Pest Science 87:331340
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: Voshell, R. J. 2015. Interactions of brown marmorated stink bug, Colletotrichum acutatum and trap crops in organic tomato production. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Mathews, C.R. and Barry, S. 2014. Compost tea reduces egg hatch and early-stage nymphal development of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Florida Entomologist 97(4):1726-1732.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: JM Pote, R Valentin, D Fonseca, and AL Nielsen. Using Molecular Techniques to Determine Natural Enemies of BMSB. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Group Meeting. July 9, 2015. College Park, MD.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: BR Blaauw, R Isaacs, and AL Nielsen. 2015. The effect of native wildflower habitat on beneficial insects and their services. National Native Seed Conference, Santa Fe, NM.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2015 Citation: BR. Blaauw, GC Hamilton, C Rodriguez-Saona, and AL Nielsen. 2015. Understanding host choice to enhance the sustainability of brown marmorated stink bug management. Entomological Society of America  Eastern Branch Annual Meeting, Rehoboth Beach, DE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hunt, L. G. and C.R.R. Hooks. 2014. Effects of habitat manipulation on pest management in organic field corn systems. 4th Annual Northeast Area- BARC-UMD Symposium, Organic Food: Food, Health and Ecosystems. November 13, 2014. Beltsville, MD (Poster presentation).


Progress 09/01/13 to 08/31/14

Outputs
Target Audience: The research collaborators have reached a broad audience through various outputs during the first year of this OREI project to develop behaviorally-based methods to organically manage stink bugs. Through the utilization of demonstration field days, we targeted organic farmers of many agronomic, vegetable, and fruit crops, as well as extension personnel and consumers. We also publicized our work through numerous local news and online programs to inform the general public on the importance of stink bug research and management. Changes/Problems: Nationally, populations of BMSB were lower than anticipated in 2014. The cool wet spring also delyaed planting of many trials and also mitigated BMSB populations. Although populations eventually increased in late season, this emphsizes the need to repeat field trials in 2015. Obj 1: Trap crop on-farm trials at select sites will utilize a managment tactic, specifically baited pheromone traps to develop a 'pull-pull' system. Obj 2: No changes Obj 3: Based on preliminary results of the benefits of insectary plants for enhaning natural enemies, we have added a wildflower comparison trial to evaluate different perennial native wildflowers at increasing natural enemy services for BMSB. Because generalist predators appear to have a greater impact on BMSB eggs than parasitoids, we will survey the predator community and screen for the presence of BMSB DNA. Instead of focusing video on egg mass predation, in NJ we will change to observing predator interactions with 1st instar BMSB. We are currently conducting detailed observations on the impacts of predators to egg masses which will be a central part of a factsheet and video output developed. Obj 4: The integration of multiple tactics will occurr slightly differently than previously imagined. In our final project year, we now understand the dispersal capacity and behaviors of BMSB nymphs, including 'hot spots' on organic farms. This will allow recommendations to be made on placement of high risk crops and trap crops. Integration practices will recommend the use of exclusion netting on high valued crops and the use of insectary plantings in preferred oviposition sites. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? To date this project has helped support the training of 6 post-doctoral researchers, 12 graduate students and 15 undergraduate student interns. Project members have provided training to over 240 master gardeners. The USDA conducted a parasitoid identification workshop to identify key characteristics of native species. The 'Great Stink Bug Count' trained over 200 participants in 2013 and 2014 on identification of BMSB and is being utilized to identify key characteristics of houses that serve as overwintering structures for BMSB. Additionally, research results have been communicated to researchers at regional and national meetings. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? The results of our project as well as basic biology and identification of BMSB have been disseminated widely to communities of interest in 11 states throughout the country. We have also worked directly with over 10 organic growers in these states by conducting research at their establishments. In Tennessee over 60 stakeholder were reached at field days. In Maryland, at field days and openhouses over 125 individuals were taught about trap cropping methods and insectary plants. Over 100 seed packets of partridge pea were given to interested farmers who wanted to try insectary plantings to increase natural enemy activity on their own farm. In NJ, approximately 25 organic growers attended an organic community meeting where BMSB biology, trap crop methods were discussed and handouts of project results were distributed. Another 80 small farm and sustainable growers attended a workshop to learn about BMSB biology, trap cropping and insectary plants. Rodale demonstrated the trap cropping field experiment to over 200 visitors. In Kentucky, over 400 farmers attended workshops and field days where information on BMSB biology and exclusion netting was demonstrated. In North Carolina a series of workshops trained 145 extension personel and farmers on BMSB biology and natural enemies. A webinar presented by project director A. Nielsen has had 463+ views on YouTube highlighting BMSB biology and relevant information for organic producers. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Obj 1 Trap cropping - In 2014 we condcuted trap cropping trials at 11 sites at cooperating grower farms or research farms. Preliminary data looks promising but suggests that a killing agent may be needed under high population pressure. In year 2 we will continue the same project, potentially with the addition of a killing agent. Obj 2 Dispersal behavior - Whole-farm movement on-farm studies will be continued. Host plant volatiles that may contribute to nymphal host plant selection will be analyzed. Results from 2014 Great Stink Bug Count will be tabulated and analyzed. Obj 3 Natural Enemies - Surveys of egg mass predation and parasitism will continue. Molecular markers for identify of BMSB predators will be completed. Impact of insectides on natural enemies will be conducted for a second year. Obj 4 Integration - Exclusion netting experiments are completed. The integration of key tactics such as trap cropping, insectary plantings and trap crop management, nymphal dispersal behavior will be combined at selected farm sties. Obj 5 Extension and Outreach - In the final project year, we will develop and publish webinars, videos, factsheets on BMSB dispersal behavior, organic insecticides, trap cropping methods and impact by natural enemies.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This project is a cooperative effort unifying 13 institutions across 12 states. We have worked closely with organic growers to demonstrate the tactics we are researching and 9 participating growers have adopted such practices on their organic farms. Researchers have discussed the project to audiences over 500 people. Four post-doctorate scholars and 11 graduate students are receiving training through this project. The project has identified organic management tactics to reduce BMSB injury, key dispersal behavioral patterns, and important natural enemies. Our work has been communicated to a broad audience through traditional extension materials and social media. Objective 1 Develop habitat manipulation tactics for stink bugs: A trap crop is the planting of an attractive host plant surrounding a cash crop with the goal of preventing or slowing injury of the cash crop. Year 1 field trials indicated that sorghum and sunflower was the most attractive trap crop evaluated to BMSB. A field-scale experiment was conducted on the management potential of trap crops to protect bell peppers from stink bug pests. We evaluated sunflower and sorghum as a trap crop for BMSB at 11 farms in 7 states. The trap crop was attractive BMSB and native stink bugs and delayed colonization of the pepper crop. However, it may have artificially increased damage in the trap crop peppers late in the season. Similar results were observed with a sunflower trap crop for tomatoes in WV. We investigated behavior of BMSB within the trap crop to measure dispersal and utilization via inexpensive protein markers and harmonic radar in WV and NJ. Results suggest BMSB are retained longer and move less in the trap crop compared to the cash crop. In addition, the trap crop may pull BMSB from the cash crop and prevent the influx of new adults. Management within the trap crop is sometimes needed, especially with a pest that has a broad host range. Rutgers investigated management options, evaluating flaming, OMRI insecticides and BMSB aggregation pheromone. The aggregation trap removed the highest number of BMSB from the trap crop and will have minimal impact on natural enemies and will be incorporated into on-farm trap crop trials in Year 3. Azera also shows promise. Objective 2 Determine factors affecting BMSB whole-farm movement: We are investigating whole-farm movement for BMSB hotspots, nymphal dispersal, host plant choice and overwintering behaviors that will lead to management opportunities. Analysis at 3 organic farms identified hotspots in ornamental and fruit trees, typically in the family Rosacea. Crop hosts in 2014 showed BMSB favored peppers, black-eyed peas, and golden beets. We utilized a mark-release-recapture experiment to track movement of nymphs among four host plants at progressive phenological stages. We found BMSB nymphs are making feeding choices and disperse to a more suitable crop depending on plant phenology. Headspace volatiles from each host plant were collected over progressive phenological stages to determine if there is an olfactory component to host attractiveness to BMSB nymphs. We evaluated an overwintering trap to “trap out” fall populations of immigrating BMSB to help reduce the overall threat posed to crops the following spring. Traps were modified after 2013 results and are expected to provide a non-chemical management option. In fall 2013, a citizen science project was initiated to identify characteristics of human-made structures that promote their use as overwintering sites by BMSB, and the second year of data collection is currently underway. 300 participants counted BMSB on their homes, and results suggest agricultural and woodland habitats and brown colored houses had the highest populations. BMSB oriented mostly towards the North and East directions. In 2014, there are 225 participants. Objective 3 Determine natural enemies of BMSB: Natural enemy populations and activity in various organic crops are evaluated through either sticky cards or sentinel egg masses, which indicate biological control activity. The identify of predators and parasitoids of BMSB and native stink bug egg masses is being conducted through multiple approaches ranging from molecular diagnostics to 48h monitoring of egg masses to understand the impacts of natural enemies in the organic agroecosystem. Nearly 32,000 BMSB eggs were placed in 6 states to assess predation in 2014. Predation was low, averaging at 4% with feeding by chewing and sucking predators. Parasitism was very low at 0.15% but many unhatched eggs may contain unemerged parasitoids. Day/night video cameras recorded predator visits to sentinel egg masses in NJ and MI and identified katydids as an important predator of BMSB eggs. Spined soldier bug was identified as a potential predator of BMSB in 2013 and the temperature thresholds for development were identified. Surveys in KY indicate higher parasitism rates of brown stink bug eggs compared to BMSB eggs. Species identification is still in progress. Insectary plantings may increase populations of natural enemies. Partridge pea was studied in organic field corn and blackberry plants in MD and OH. At Rutgers, perennial wildflower plots were established and predation and parasitism within plots were assessed. Despite being a first year planting with few blooms, there was an increase in predation and parasitism in BMSB egg masses that were placed in flower plots when compared to non-flower plots. Laboratory and field trials evaluated the impact of four OMRI insecticides on BMSB, egg parasitoids, and the predator community in soybean. Samples are currently being processed and the data will be analyzed to show possible impacts on individual taxa of natural enemies as well as overall community effects. Objective 4 Evaluate organic management plans for BMS: Mechanical exclusion of stink bugs was studied using various sizes of mesh netting over organic bell peppers. Laboratory studies indicated that netting smaller than ¼” was needed to impede adult BMSB movement. Field studies evaluated sizes of 1/6”, 1/8”, and 1 mm mesh as a full season management tactic. Measurements on total yield, stink bug injury and natural enemy populations were made. There was a correlation between netting size and the proportion of the stink bug injury and all netting sizes reduced damage compared to the open controls. However, the finest mesh cages had secondary outbreaks of aphids due to exclusion of natural enemies. Field trials on pepper and tomato evaluated the efficacy and rate of organic insecticides for control of stink bugs. BMSB was the most predominant species in pepper, and the most effective treatments included Veratran D at 15 lbs/acre (93% control of adults) and Azera at 56 oz/acre (68%). On tomato, the predominant stink bugs were native species, causing overall 50.6% damage to the harvestable fruit. Veratran D at 15 lbs/acre mixed with Azera at 16 oz/acre provided 46% control. Objective 5) Develop and deliver extension materials: A Facebook community page, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Organic Farming Systems, was created to inform and update growers and the public on the status and results from this project. Participants from all cooperating states contributed pictures and cooperating growers were tagged in photos. Participants gave extension training sessions or talks. A handout was developed with eOrganic summarizing the project and distributed to 25 organic growers in NJ during a discussion about trap crops and biological control for BMSB. NCSU gave 2 training sessions on BMSB in organic systems to 75 people and participated in a field day at a cooperating farm with 35 extension professionals. Trap crop trials were highlighted at field days in MD, OH, KY, WV and PA for over 400 people. Our project’s trap crop work was featured in Vegetable Growers Times following a presentation at the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ahn, J, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Development of Sampling Plans for Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs on Corn. Presented at Annual Meeting of Eastern Branch Entomological Society of America, Williamsburg, VA
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Blaauw BR and AL Nielsen Whole-Farm Management Strategies for the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug 2014 MOSES Organic Farming Annual Conference, WI
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Pote J and AL Nielsen Determining the predators of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: a multidisciplinary approach 2014. Presentation at Annual Entomol. Soc Am Eastern Branch
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Lee, D-H, A.L. Nielsen, and T.C. Leskey. 2014. Dispersal capacity and behavior of nymphal stages of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Journal of Insect Behavior 27: 639-651
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Baek, S., Y. Son, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): Implications for Mass Rearing and Biological Control. J. Pest Sci. 87: 331-340
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Park, C., J. Ahn, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs in Korea: Insight from Historical and Current Data. Annual Meeting of Eastern Branch Entomological Society of America, Williamsburg, VA.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Facebook Page BMSB in Organic Farming Systems https://www.facebook.com/bmsb.organic.management?ref=bookmarks
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: eOrganic http://eorganic.info/brown-marmorated-stink-bug-organic
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Deroshia, K. and M. Grieshop. 2013. Observing natural enemies of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) using video surveillance in south- central Michigan. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America. November 11, 2013. Austin Texas
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Goldner, J. and Y.-L. Park. 2013. Assessment of spined solider bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as a predator of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Presented at Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America, Austin, TX.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2013 Citation: Baek, S., M. McKinney, J. Goldner, C. Park.B. Seo, and Y.-L. Park. 2013. Non-target effects of organic insecticides on Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Presented at Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America, Austin, TX.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Goldner, J., S. Baek, M. McKinney, and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Non-target effects of organic insecticides on Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Poster at Annual Meeting of Eastern Branch Entomological Society of America, Williamsburg, VA.


Progress 09/01/12 to 08/31/13

Outputs
Target Audience: The research collaborators have reached a broad audience through various outputs during the first year of this OREI project to develop behaviorally-based methods to organically manage stink bugs. Through the utilization of demonstration field days, we targeted organic farmers of many agronomic, vegetable, and fruit crops, as well as extension personnel and consumers. We also publicized our work through numerous local news and online programs to inform the general public on the importance of stink bug research and management. Changes/Problems: Under sub-objective 2d, “Determine characteristics of human-made structures that serve as attractive BMSB overwintering habitat,” we have initiated a new Citizen Science project aimed at identifying the cues used by BMSB to select overwintering sites. This additional project will increase the size of our sampling ability by utilizing citizen volunteers to count the number of stink bugs on their houses every day between September 15 and October 15 and filling out a form to fill out with a description of his or her house, surrounding vegetation, and a rough drawing of where the home is located. Having hundreds of volunteers will help us to determine if factors like the color, shape, size, vegetation around the house, and elevation play a role in where BMSB overwinter. Under sub-objective 2b, “Determine the abiotic and biotic factors affecting BMSB adult flight behavior,” we have postponed flight mill studies at one of our two proposed research sites. The other site will continue with flight mill studies as planned. The first site will instead increase their focus on in-lab trials of BMSB nymph dispersal and behavior as part of sub-objective 2c, “Determine factors affecting BMSB nymphal dispersal behavior.” This additional dispersal and behavior work will be used to support our field research on nymphal dispersal. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Several post-doctoral research associates, graduate and undergraduate students (including students whose PhD dissertations or masters theses will result from this work), and growers were instrumental in accomplishing this research. In order for these participants to skillfully their portions of the work, they were initially trained by the investigators at their corresponding institutions. Training consisted of brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) identification, an introduction to the overall OREI project, and education on performing and completing appropriate portions of the project. During the first year of this OREI funded project, for example, at Rutgers University a post-doctoral research associate, Brett Blaauw, a PhD student, John Pote, and two research assistants were trained to work on the OREI project. The USDA-ARS in West Virginia trained one post-doctoral research associate, Doo-Hyung Lee, a masters student from Virgina Tech, Torri Hancock, and an undergraduate research assistant. In Delaware, the USDA-ARS trained Christine Diekhoff, a post-doctoral research associate, and a research assistant was trained at the University of Delaware to work on the OREI funded project. Additionally, the University of Maryland trained three graduate students, a post-doctoral research fellow, two research associates, two grade school teachers, and several student research assistants. Jenny Moore, a post-doctoral research associate and one student research assistant were trained at the University of Tennessee. The University of Florida had one student research assistant, North Carolina State University trained Rachel Suits, a post-doctoral research associate, and two undergraduate research assistants, and the Rodale Institute trained two research assistants. Furthermore, two grower collaborators, Haroun Hallack of Redbud Farms and Warren Landis of Strawberry Creek Farms were also trained in BMSB identification and execution of research projects at their respective farms. The training these individuals received was essential for the completion of the first year objectives from this OREI project. The education and experience everyone received while participating during this first year is also important for their advancement in their career and/or development as future scientists. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Preliminary results based on Year 1 activities have been distributed to target audiences, primarily organic farmers, through an online webinar and farm field days. We have found that there is still a lot of confusion among farmers regarding identification of this species. Because of differences in management tactics and injury from native stink bugs, may extension efforts concentrated on identification. A webinar was presented by PD Nielsen and hosted through eOrganic (posted at http://eorganic.info/brown-marmorated-stink-bug-organic), which discussed a background of BMSB biology and how the project aims to investigate management in organic systems in February 2012. During the webinar there were 135 participants and the You-Tube video has received 326 views since it’s posting. In addition, there were numerous newspaper articles that discuss various aspects of the project. Three sites specifically participated in field days where aspects of our research were demonstrated. University of Maryland (UMD) held a field day at the Clarksville, MD experiment station with 4,000 attendees. During this PI’s Hooks and Dively had two posters – one on habitat manipulation to increase natural enemies of stink bugs and the other on how to use flowering borders to enhance biological control of stink bugs in organic field corn. UMD also participated in three twilight meetings where similar research on conservation biological control was presented to 65, 45, and 30 attendees on August 2, 9, and 28th respectively. West Virginia University hosted a field day at the student organic farm where PI’s Park and Kotcon showed 30 attendees how to identify and control BMSB along with explaining about the multistate OREI project in general. University of Tennessee, which is on the edge of BMSB distribution, participated in an organic crops field tour where PI Rogers discussed damaged and organic management options for BMSB and native stink bugs in April. Dr. Rogers also gave a workshop on BMSB at the University of Tennessee organic and sustainable crop production series in September. The Rodale Institute held an annual field day during which PI Zinati spoke about BMSB and trap crops to 80 people who also received a brochure on identification. Ohio State University PI Welty also presented about stink bug management at 6 field days over the summer of 2013. Three states conducted research trials on university run student organic farms at West Virginia University, University of Tennessee, and Michigan State University. Collaborating with the student groups allows us to reach a much larger group of students who are learning the ins and outs of organic farming practices and will be able to incorporate such tactics into their own farms during internships and when they run their own farm in the future. Most importantly though has been our work with the cooperating growers on this project. Many of these experiments were conducted on organic farms, including Muth Family Farm (NJ), Terhune Orchards (NJ), Rodale Institute (PA), Redbud Farm (WV), Strawberry Creek Farm (VA), Gladheart Farms (NC), Thatchmore Farms (NC), Brickel Creek Organic Farm (OH), Northridge Organic Farm (OH), Stratford Ecological Center (OH), and Three Brothers Orchards (MI), where we were able to communicate results directly to the stakeholders. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? During the second year of this project we plan to increase our emphasis on Objective 4: Extension and Outreach. With data from our first year of research having been analyzed, we are now going to disseminate our results to organic growers and the general public through printed and online extension materials, grower meetings, and various research presentations. The printed and online extension materials will be supplemented with activities from our resources with eOrganic, such as informational videos and webinars on trap cropping and crop barriers, which will be posted on our project website (http://eorganic.info/brown-marmorated-stink-bug-organic). Grower meetings will consist of field days during the spring with on-farm demonstrations to show research in action and to illustrate organic management techniques for BMSB to growers. These meetings will take place at our research sites, such as Strawberry Creek, Redbud Farm, and at the Rodale Institute. Furthermore, research presentations to reach our extended science community will be given at various meetings across the country, such as the Entomological Society of America’s Annual Meeting. In addition to disseminating results from our first year, the second year of this project will also focus on the continuation and starting of research projects. For example, as part of Objective 1, Redbud Farm, Rodale Institute, and University of Maryland will continue their work investigating the temporal susceptibility of trap crops to BMSB. This coming year will be the starting year for three other projects. A large, multi-state project to determine BMSB spatial and temporal utilization patterns of trap and cash crops will be conducted at Redbud Farm, West Virginia University, Rutgers University, Rodale Institute, University of Maryland, Virginia Tech, The Ohio State University, North Carolina State University, and University of Tennessee. A smaller-scaled project to determine the source-sink dynamics of the trap crop within the whole farm will be carried out by researchers at Rutgers University and Redbud Farm. Additionally, as part of Objective 1, Rutgers University will investigate management techniques for BMSB within trap crops. Projects associated with Objective 2 are all continuations from the first year of research. For instance, researchers at West Virginia University, Rutgers University, and Redbud Farm will continue during this second year to assess patterns of BMSB within-farm movement. Also, project team members from Rutgers University and USDA-ARS in Virginia will continue to investigate the abiotic and biotic factors affecting BMSB adult flight behavior as well as the factors affecting BMSB nymphal dispersal behavior. As a multi-state project, Rodale Institute, University of Florida, USDA-ARS Virginia, and Rutgers University will carry on an investigation into an optimal overwintering trap for BMSB and researchers at the USDA-ARS in Virginia will continue to work on a project to determine the characteristics of human made structures that serve as attractive BMSB overwintering habitat. Determining the identity and importance of natural enemies of stink bugs is the key component of Objective 3, and as part of this objective we will be focusing on the continuation and starting of new research projects to address this issue. Continuing a large, multi-state project from our first year, project team members from Rutgers University, West Virginia University, Virginia Tech, University of Maryland, USDA-ARS Newark, University of Kentucky, North Carolina State University, The Ohio State University, University of Tennessee, and Michigan State University will be investigating species composition of parasitoids and predators, as well as the rates of egg parasitism and predation for native and invasive sting bug herbivores. Also as a continuation from our previous year, a project to investigate the potential of insectary plants to enhance BMSB and native pentatomid predation/parasitism will be conducted by researchers at the University of Maryland and The Ohio State University. As a new project for year two, the University of Maryland, Redbud Farm, USDA-ARS Newark, The Ohio State University, North Carolina State University, and Rutgers University will assess the impacts of trap crops on natural enemies of BMSB and native pentatomids. Another new project, as part of Objective 3, is to determine natural enemy mortality due to organic insecticides, which will by carried out by researchers at the University of Maryland, North Carolina State University, West Virginia University, and USDA-ARS Newark. Additionally, early in January 2014 the project team will meet with the advisory panel: Shearer, Cullen, Tooker, Koan, and Schonbeck. This meeting will allow the researchers to receive feedback from the panel on their thoughts and concerns about the status of the OREI project. By meeting with them early in the year, any advice or suggestions that they may have can then be used to modify our project plans for the rest of the year. In conjunctions with the advisory panel meeting, the project team will also meet in early January 2014 for a project planning meeting to make sure everyone is up-to-date on the status of the project and to make sure everyone is ready for the second year of this project. Furthermore, the project team will continue to participate in monthly conference calls to answer any questions people may have and to keep everyone up-to-date on the project.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Organic famers in the mid-Atlantic states and some southern states are experiencing significant crop loss due to Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB). As an invasive species there are no co-evolved predators that mitigate population growth. The primary goal of this large, multi-state research project is to rapidly identify management tactics that will integrate with a whole-farm approach for BMSB while conserving the main ideals of organic farming, including conservation of natural enemies and biodiversity. This project unifies 13 institutions across 12 states with expertise in entomology, horticulture and organic management. We have conducted work in direct collaboration with organic growers and will seek further input from them in Years 2 and 3. To date, the project has trained 8 graduate students and 5 post-docs. Our primary outputs for Year 1 were to establish relationships with the organic growing community and collect data on management tactics and behavior. Many researchers in our team have focused on grower education and natural enemy surveys. We made significant accomplishments on the development of trap crops and natural enemy services, and filling knowledge gaps regarding dispersal behavior. In January 2013 researchers and cooperating growers met to discuss research updates and refine field trials for Year 1. We have continued to meet monthly through web-conferencing hosted by eOrganic and disseminate information through grower meetings. Obj. 1: Habitat manipulation tactics. Trap crops are a core tactic for managing insects by attracting and retaining the pest in a non-crop plant. Due to the broad feeding habits and mobile behaviors of BMSB we hypothesized this would be a suitable tactic. We tested four potential organic trap crops (sunflower, millet, sorghum, and okra) in four states for their effectiveness at attracting and retaining stink bugs. Results varied across the states, but sorghum was the most attractive trap crop tested (MD P=0.046; NJ P=0.020, WV P=0.001). For example, at Rodale Institute (PA) relative attractiveness of each trap crop to BMSB was 0.58, 0.29, 0.08 and 0.04 for sorghum, sunflower, millet, and okra, respectively. Across states, sunflower and millet had the highest number of BMSB eggs and native stink bugs. In Year 2 we will evaluate a polyculture of the top three trap crops. Pfeiffer (VT) and Kotcon (WVU) separately evaluated sunflower and/or sweet corn as trap crops. These appeared effective at attracting BMSB but injury was still reported on the tomato cash crop. PD Nielsen’s lab began testing BMSB management strategies within the trap crop and found flaming to be the most effective organic management tactic evaluated. Obj. 2: Factors affecting whole-farm movement. We evaluated BMSB on-farm movement throughout the year at different spatial scales. At the field level we identified that nymphs are making feeding choices and will readily disperse to a more suitable crop depending on plant phenology. PD Nielsen and PI Hamilton (Rutgers) compared four organic crops; Swiss chard, bell pepper, sweet corn, and soybean. As seedlings, BMSB nymphs were more attracted to Swiss chard (P=0.005). As ears of corn were forming, more nymphs dispersed to sweet corn than to any other host plant (P<0.001). Similarly, at the end of August, nymphs dispersed to soybean as pods were forming (P<0.001). PI Leskey completed trials establishing flight dispersal capacity from wild BMSB populations. Leskey also began quantifying the rate of nymph dispersal and found 5th instars capable of dispersing 2m/hr with speed increasing under higher temperatures. Whole-farm movement was evaluated at 3 organic farms. PI Park characterized movement as aggregation within sheds moved to wooded areas and blackberry hosts. At one farm BMSB populations were then found in cherry and pear before moving to grape and then soybean. Final movement prior to overwintering was to corn and black locust. At the landscape level, year-long dispersal to/from overwintering sites was evaluated on-farm. Using pheromone traps, it was difficult to trap BMSB as they dispersed from shelters in the spring. We developed a simple trap to capture and remove BMSB in the fall as they dispersed to overwintering sites. PI Leskey also initiated a Citizen Science project aimed at identifying cues used by BMSB to select overwintering sites with 200+ volunteers. Together these projects will permit removal of source populations to reduce the following year’s population. Obj 3: Impact of natural enemies on stink bugs. There are two main types of insect natural enemies: predators and parasitoids. Predators, like lady beetles and big-eyed bugs, eat many prey in a lifetime, generally feeding as juveniles and as adults. Parasitoids, which are generally small wasps or flies, are specialized insects that develop as a juvenile in one host, eventually killing it. Ten states covering Eastern, mid-Western, and Southern regions participated in this objective. Sentinel BMSB egg masses were deployed throughout the growing season to measure the impact of natural enemies in pepper, tomato, apple, soybean, corn, and numerous other crops. As an invasive species, BMSB has no specific predators or parasitoids. However, organic agriculture supports higher levels of natural enemies than conventional production and we hypothesized that their impact would be greater on BMSB, despite being generalists. Our results support this: PI Walgenbach (NCSU) identified ca. 11.75% of BMSB eggs in organic systems were fed on compared to ca. 2.25% in conventional crops. WV organic field corn had 51% of eggs fed upon by generalist predators where as only 0.1% eggs were parasitized by wasps. Across all states, organic corn, soybean, and apple had the highest portion of eggs fed on by natural enemies. A portion of the predator activity in NJ and MI was recorded with video cameras. In NJ we made the first observation of katydids consuming BMSB egg masses. Video has shown that the natural enemies attacking BMSB eggs include parasitoid wasps, lady beetles, sucking predators, katydids, and ants. Endemic stink bug species in MD field crops had a 5% hatch rate due to natural enemy activity whereas BMSB had a 55% hatch rate. BMSB egg masses had 38% parasitism while native species had 70%. While this is an excellent representation of natural enemy activity, it is clear that the natural enemy community does not ‘prefer’ BMSB eggs. To enhance natural enemy activity on BMSB eggs, conservation of parasitoids was investigated by PI Hooks (UMD) to identify insectary plants. Hook’s data suggests that partridge pea should be evaluated further. The use of compost teas has also been evaluated by PI Mathews (Redbud Farm). Obj 4: Cultural control tactics specific to organic systems. In Year 1 PI Rogers (UTK) and Bessin (UK) and farmer Landis (Strawberry Creek Farm) investigated the use of barrier fabrics to prevent stink bug injury in vegetables. These row covers are able to reduce damage by BMSB and native stink bugs, with fine mesh fabrics providing more protection from insects and sunscald. However, fine netting reduced fruit production and natural enemy colonization. Exclusion may be a viable approach, but only under high levels of stink bug activity. Obj 5: Outreach. Outreach activities are in the early stages for this project after the first year of studies. WVU, Rodale Institute, UTK and UMD held field days where BMSB identification was discussed to groups ranging from 60-4000 participants. The tactics being investigated as part of this project were discussed, specifically predation of egg masses, organic insecticides and trap crops. eOrganic hosted a webinar by PD Nielsen and attended by 134 people describing BMSB biology, preliminary results and project objectives. Next year, our extension efforts will continue to evolve as data is analyzed.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2014 Citation: Baek, S., Y. Son, and Y.-L. Park. 2013. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): Implications for Mass Rearing and Biological Control. J. Pest Sci.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Gawaly, S. and Y.-L. Park. 2014. Feeding Potential and Prey Acceptance of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): Implications for Biological Pest Control. J. Plant Biol. Soil Heal.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Anne Nielsen, Brett Blaauw, and John McQueen. 2013. Website through eOrganic titled, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Organic Farming Systems. (http://eorganic.info/brown-marmorated-stink-bug-organic) This website summarizes our OREI project and displays images, descriptions, and status updates from the first year of our project.