Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
A NOVEL MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY, RESILIENCE, AND LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY IN CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE MIDWEST
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1008882
Grant No.
2016-69004-24784
Project No.
ND05065
Proposal No.
2015-08714
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
A5160
Project Start Date
Apr 1, 2016
Project End Date
Mar 31, 2019
Grant Year
2017
Project Director
Berti, M.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
Plant Sciences
Non Technical Summary
The use of cover crops, common in the eastern and central Corn Belt, are uncommon in corn-soybean systems in the Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains due to the short growing season and extreme fluctuations in temperature and precipitation within and across growing seasons. Lack of winter soil cover increases soil organic matter and nutrient losses, resulting in decreased crop productivity and resiliency. For these reasons, larger amounts of agricultural inputs are required to maintain or increase yields. Therefore, there is a critical need to alter current cropping systems in our region by incorporating technologies to improve long-term productivity while enhancing ecosystem services. Our objectives include: i) improving management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops; ii) improving land use efficiency in current cropping systems through the inclusion of winter camelina and field pennycress as cover/cash crops in double or relay-cropping, and improving corn-alfalfa productivity with intercropping; and iii) increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices in our region. Our central hypothesis is that maintaining or increasing long-term productivity of current cropping systems can be achieved through increased adoption of the use of cover crops, double-, relay- or intercropping systems with current corn-soybean or wheat-soybean based systems. Our project seeks to renovate current cropping systems to improve sustainability of agricultural production. If the management of current cropping systems in the northern Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains is not improved, long-term productivity will likely decrease.
Animal Health Component
30%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
70%
Applied
30%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051820108010%
2051510108010%
2051599108010%
2051899108010%
2051640108010%
2051631108010%
2051644108010%
2050110107010%
2051570107010%
2052140107010%
Goals / Objectives
Improve management of existing cropping systems for resilience and increased long-term productivity by innovative seeding and nutrient management of cover crops. We hypothesize that new or modified seeding equipment will enable growers to successfully establish second crops (cover crops) in standing corn or soybean. Also, by determining the nutrient credits for the next cash crop the grower will be able to reduce fertilizer costs as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions.Improve land use efficiency in corn-soybean or wheat-soybean cropping systems by temporal intensification through the inclusion of winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvensis L.) as cover crops and/or cash oilseed crops, and determine their impact on over-all system productivity and ecosystem services. Also, improve land use efficiency by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with corn. Alfalfa in this intercropping system has dual purpose, i) hay production and ii) soil cover in the winter. We hypothesize that including camelina and pennycress as well as alfalfa-corn intercropping will reduce soil erosion; increase crop productivity and organic matter; and provide early sources of pollen and nectar for pollinators.Increase awareness and adoption of sustainable management practices for long-term increased productivity in northern Great Plains and Upper Midwestern farms. Our working hypothesis is that our on-farm replicated trials and demonstrations, economic analyses, and extension activities including field days and workshops will increase awareness of the benefits of diverse cropping systems, resulting in increased adoption of sustainable practices by growers.
Project Methods
Task 1. Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages.Seed equipment modification to plant a cover crop into standing corn on growth stage V7 at the same time as side dressing application will be designed. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean.True aerial seeding and 'aerial seeding' by hand with a spinner will be evaluated. The airplane method will have two cover crop treatments (winter camelina and rye) at two locations, one in each state (ND and IA) in corn and soybean. Aerial data with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to determine cover crop coverage will be conducted.The trials will be conducted at three locations Fargo, ND, Ames, IA, and Lamberton, MN. The replicated small-plot experiments will have four cover crops as main treatments (rye, forage radish, camelina, and a legume) and seeding at two growth stages of the main crop (R1 and R4) as sub treatments. For rainfall predictions, a web site where rainfall forecasts based on Global Forecast System (GFS) links will be used. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models.An automated weather station with paired temperature and solar radiation observations inside and outside the canopy area will be installed. The automated weather station will be similar to that utilized by the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network . There are about 80 NDAWN stations located in North Dakota and northwest Minnesota. Climatic data will be collected continuously and archived once every 5 minutes. 4.Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops.Two experimental fields will be identified in North Dakota for cover crop experiments. One field will be in long-term no-till cultivation and the other in continuous conventional tillage. A spring wheat crop will be grown in each field the year previous to fall cover crop establishment (Year 1 and Year 2). Corn will be planted the following year immediately after terminating surviving cover crops. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications An economic analysis will be conducted to measure financial and non-financial impacts for each crop and system. Existing crop enterprise budget models will be adapted to estimate multi-year economic costs and benefits for alternative crop rotations and cropping systems. Models will be expanded to account for impacts on soil health, with economic measures of the costs and benefits resulting from changes in soil moisture, soil organic matter, and nutrient content. These values will be capitalized into the price of the land using a net present value framework. Emissions associated with alternative cropping practices using results of a LCA will be accounted for.Task 2. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. 1.Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean.The research will be conducted at three locations.The main plot will be corn and soybean; the sub-plot will be the growth stage at relay-seeding of winter camelina and pennycress. Corn and soybean experiments will be seeded from late April and mid-May depending on the location in both 2016 and 2017. Camelina and pennycress will be planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina will be planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August.The following spring (Year 2), soybean will be relay planted (i.e., interseeded) into the winter camelina and pennycress plots about bolting stage. The relayed soybean will then be harvested in early autumn (Year 2). This sequence will be repeated in years 3 and 4.2. Determining pollinator activity/visitation during the spring in camelina and pennycress. Flower cover and insect visitation will be recorded every 3-5 days throughout anthesis at each of the four sites.Anthesis duration is expected to last for 2 to 3 weeks for each species. Flower cover will be estimated visually as percent ground cover of open flowers by viewing the crop from above.3. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa.The experiment will be conducted in Prosper, ND, in Ames, IA, and Lakefield, MN. Treatments will include: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. In Year 2, alfalfa will be seeded in T1. 4.Economic analysis of cropping systems energy balance and LCA of novel cropping systems.Crop budgets for each state and system will be developed using existing models. Emissions, economic analysis, and LCA for each treatment will be determined based on field operation inputs and outputs including: i) field operations, ii) material and services, and iii) overhead.LCA will be conducted to assess the sustainability of each system, quantitatively to compare different systems in the experiment and also existing hay production systems. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data obtained from GREET, Ecoinvent, and US LC databases, as well as the industrial literature will supplement empirical data generated for corn, soybean, and wheat. Furthermore, net carbon and nitrogen addition to the environment (output- input), and other environmental benefits (reduction in soil erosion, reduced use of herbicides, enhancing biodiversity, nutrient cycling, etc.) will also be considered for the analysis, comparing corn and soybean production with and without camelina or pennycress as a cover crop.Task 3. Objective 3. On-farm, outreach, and Extension activities1.On-farm replicated trials establishmentTwo on-farm replicated studies will be included in each state. Each of the systems above will be planted and used as demonstration and education tools for Extension programming.On-farm Trial 1:Trial 1 will consider an aerial seeding of cover crops. The experiment will consist of three treatments (winter camelina, cereal rye, and no cover crop) with three replicates in randomized strips. This will be done in soybean and corn, in mid- to late August in Years 2 and 3 of the project.On-farm Trial 2:Trial 2 will be a demonstration of alfalfa-corn intercropping. The experiment will have 4 treatments, alfalfa alone, corn alone, corn+alfalfa, and corn + alfalfa + PHX with three replicates in randomized strips. The experiment will be planted in the spring of Year 1 and evaluated Years 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the established alfalfa crop.Extension activities description Our foundation in building an outreach educational program is the development of science-based knowledge educational activities in North Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa during years 1-4 of project.Research farm demonstrations, field days, large regional workshops, county based educational events, educational material development, web based education and one-on-one consultations are all part of the Extension program. Two annual regional research-based workshops will take place at a central location to the project area.Web based learning will be included in the outreach. Webinars will be organized to disseminate results to farmers, ag-industry and government agronomists. One of the components of training sessions (workshops, county meetings, and webinar) will consist of video clips, which will be taped during the growing season. These clips will present critical aspects of the research and demonstrations. These video clips will also be posted, after the educational event, on participating institutions web-sites and on 'YouTube.' A website for the CropSys-CAP will be developed.

Progress 04/01/16 to 03/31/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Includes farmers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and companies interested in bioenergy feedstocks. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Students participating in this project We have 11 graduate students working on the project. 3 PhD and 8 MS Sergio Cabello, PhD. Nutrient credits from cover crops in no-till systems in the northern Great Plains. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti and Dr. Franzen) August 2016- May 2018 Dulan Samarappuli, Ph.D. Productivity and life cycle analysis of novel cropping systems in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) April 2016- June 2017 Swetabh Patel, PhD. Interseeding cover crops and alfalfa into standing corn and soybean. Iowa State University. (Dr. Lenssen) May 2016- May 2019 Alan Peterson, MS, Interseeding camelina on standing soybean. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Berti) June 2016- December 2018 Melissa Geizler, MS, Corn row spacing and hybrid maturity effects on establishment of interseeded cover crops. North Dakota State University. (Dr. Ransom) April 2016- May 2018 Bryce Andersen, MS Integrating faba bean (Vicia faba Roth.) into cropping systems as a cover crop, intercrop, and late-season forage for grazing. North Dakota State University. Dr. Berti). January 2017- May 2019 Kyle Aasand, MS, corn and soybean relay cropping with winter rye, field pennycress, and winter Camelina. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) June 2016- December 2018 Nick Steff, MS, Interseeding winter rye, field pennycress, and winter camelina in standing corn and soybean. North Dakota State University (Dr. Johnson) January 2017-May 2019 Kory Johnson, MS. Interseeding camelina into narrow row spacing soybean of different maturity groups. North Dakota State University (Dr. Kandel) January 2017-May 2019 Nancy Stenger, MS, North Dakota State University, Microclimate under corn and soybean canopy. (Dr. Akyuz and Dr. Berti) January 2017-May 2019 Nadia Delarvarpour, PhD, North Dakota State University, Improving the twin-row interseeder guidance system. (Nowatzki and S. Bajwa) January 2017-May 2018 Postdoctoral Researchers: Maciej Kazula, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University (corn-alfalfa interseeding research, multilocation trial) Heather Dose, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in cropping systems at ARS-USDA Morris, MN (camelina and pennycress intercropping in standing corn and soybean multilocation trial) Aaron Laporte, postdoctoral research associate CAP grant in economics and decision tools June 2016-December 2016. North Dakota State University How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Yes, peer reviewed publications, conferences and symposium presentations, extension publications, bi- weekly CAP project seminar sessions forages website, phone calls, field days, winter talk meetings, andplot tours. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Objective 1 1. Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. Task completed. Fine-tuning of the new planter will continue. Improving directional system. It will be used to establish on-farm research plots in 2017. 2. A cover crop aerial seeding decision aid to seed cover crops in standing corn and soybean. This activity is planned for 2017. 3. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Research activities will continue in 2017. 4. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. Three experiment at two sites (Rutland and Gardner, ND) will be established in 2017. Experimental design will be a split plot, each experimental site rotation is stand-alone. Main plots- cover crop, no cover crop; cover crop unique to experimental site (camelina, radish rye). Subplots (to corn and to spring wheat only)-N rates- 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 lb N/acre with preplant ammonium nitrate applied broadcast. Measurements: soil moisture, weather measurements (on site), biomass, soil test nitrate-N and P, plant N, P, C, S. Yield, protein in wheat Plant nutrients include biomass, N,C,S, P of cover and main crop. 5. Economic analysis of decision aids and seeding equipment modifications. Not planned until 2018. Objective 2 All experiments established in 2016 will be continued or repeated 1. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean. Surviving camelina, rye and pennycress plants will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 both experiments corn and soybean in 2016 will be planted with soybean in 2017 in relay cropping. Then camelina, pennycress and rye will be harvested for grain the first week of July. 2. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017 and then the whole experiment will be planted with wheat at both locations. The same experiment conducted in 2016 will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. 3. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Surviving cover crops will be evaluated in the spring of 2017. The same experiment will be repeated in 2017 at two locations. Objective 3 On farm replicated trials Replicated trials will be established in Rutland and Gardner, ND, Lamberton, MN and Ames, IA. Replicated trials will vary in size and planting method among locations according to the interseeder available in the area. The treatments at each locations will include camelina, rye or camelina/rye mixture and a check both in corn and soybean. Stage of establishment also will vary according to the equipment available and the preliminary results of Year 1. Alfalfa-corn interseeding will not be evaluated on farm, since preliminary results showed a drag in corn yield.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Obj. 1. Improving cover crops management and establishment. Modification of seeding equipment, decision tool development and estimation of N credits to optimize cover crops establishment and management. a.Modification of planters, or improved seeding strategies for establishing cover crops in standing corn and soybean at different growth stages. (Breker and Nowatzki) A cover crop drill was developed by Amity Technology. The interseeder plants two twin rows spaced 6" apart in the center of two corn or soybean rows at 30" apart. The planter is a high clearance planter adapted to plant in V8 stage corn at the time of side dressing. The pilot planter was completed by the end of June 2016. The pilot planter was used to interseed radish and rye mix in a total of approximately 100 acres at two locations, Morton and Rutland, ND. Cover crops established well and provided cover in the fall after corn was harvested. No corn yield drag was observed. c. Microclimate characterization under various crop growth stages to optimize prediction models. Data was collected in corn and soybean at Prosper, ND to characterize microclimate conditions under the corn canopy with and without interseeded camelina and pennycress. An automated weather station was installed on May 2, 2016. Blocks were arranged so that the station would be able to sample weather conditions in 4 separate blocks in the first year of the project to collect preliminary data as follows: i) Seedling cover crops into corn, ii) control, iii) most aggressive treatment (rye). The same was conducted in soybean. Inside and outside the blocks, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, soil moisture/temperature was measured. d. Estimation of N credits from cover crops and increased N use efficiency by subsequent crops. (Wick and Franzen) Several studies were established in the fall of 2016 to determine N credits to corn from cover crops after wheat and interseeded cover crops in corn. Gardner site- Fargo soil- Cover crops were established into wheat stubble for land going to corn in 2017. Spring wheat left to volunteers in no-cover crop treatments. Radish and rye drilled in September, 2016. Beginning soil nitrate to 2 ft averaged about 16 lb/a with little range in variability. Soybean to soybean and soybean to spring wheat experiments will begin in same section in spring 2017. Soil nitrate samples taken on 12 Aug., 28 Sep., and 24 Oct. in cover crop and no cover crop main plots resulted in a decrease of nitrate in the soil profile with a cover. Soil nitrate at the end of the season was 15 lbs N/acre with cover crop and 114 lbs/acre with no cover crop. Also, soil with cover crops had less water than soil without cover crop. Interseeding into corn stalks, going to soybean 2017. Interseeding 23 June, 40 lbs/acre rye, 5 lbs/acre radish. Crops emerged 6 July. Rye stand averaged 140,000 plants per acre, range 87,000 to 150,000. Radish stand averaged 57,000 plants per acre, range 0- 75,000. Soil nitrate on 9 Aug. no differences between treatments cover/no-cover, no soil moisture differences- all dry. Biomass of cover crop at the end of the season 10 Novemebr, 1100lbs/acre. No reduction on corn grain yield. Obj. 2. Introducing relay-cropping and intercropping to existing cropping systems. a. Determining optimum time to seed winter camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean in conjunction with relay cropping soybean. Interseeding of camelina and pennycress into standing corn and soybean The research was conducted at Prosper, ND, Ames, IA, Morris, MN and Waseca, MN. Experimental design was a RCBD with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Corn and soybean were in separate experiments. Camelina and pennycress was planted at V6, R1, and approximately R7 in late August. Similarly, in corn, camelina was planted at growth stages V4, R1, and approximately R5 to R6 in late August. Results indicate interseeded cover crops did not reduce soybean or corn yield. Cover crop establishment varied among locations and interseeding dates. No cover crop showed superior performance. In general establishment of cover crops ranged between 10-20% under corn canopy and 40-60% under soybean canopy. Interseeding of cover crops in standing soybean. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seeding cover crops into soybean at two late stages of development, on soybean yield, cover crop establishment, potential negatives effects to soybean quality, and soil cover. Four cover crop treatments were seeded between the soybean rows a: Austrian winter pea forage radish cv. Daikon winter camelina cv. Joelle, winter rye cv. Rymin, a mixture of all four cover crops, and a check treatment with no cover crops. Cover crops were interseeded at the R4 and R6 reproductive stages of soybean on 25 and 26 July for R4 in Fargo and Prosper, respectively and on 16 August for R6. Results indicate soybean grain yield were not affected by interseeding cover crops at any of the cover crops seeding dates or locations. This indicates cover crops interseeded into soybean at R4 or R6 did not compete with soybean and provide cover in the fall. Winter peas had the best performance and coverage (69%). Camelina coverage was only 3.7%, rye and radish coverage was 18% and 39% respectively. Nitrogen in pea biomass was 70 lbs N /acre. Interseeding camelina and rye in corn at different stages, row spacing and hybrid maturity. Two experiments were established in Forman and Prosper, ND. Exp. 1 design was a RCBD arranged as a split-plot with three replicates. The treatments were a factorial combination of row spacing, cover crop, and date of cover crop interseeding. Row spacing was the main plot with cover crop and date of interseeding as the subplots. Row spacing treatments were narrow (56 cm) or wide (76 cm). All plots were planted with four corn rows to depth of 5.1 cm at a seeding rate of 79,000 live seeds ha-1. The hybrid used was Dekalb 'DKC 36-28' which has a relative maturity of 86 d. Cover crops were sown when the corn reached the V7 or R4 growth stage. Cover crops were camelina, rye and a mix of camelina and rye. Exp. 2 design was a RCBD with four replicates; treatments were a factorial combination of corn hybrid RM and cover crop. Dekalb 'DKC 30-19' with a RM of 80 d were used as the early maturing hybrid. Dekalb 'DKC 39-27' with a RM of 89 d was used as the later maturing hybrid. Cover crop treatments were sown when the corn reached the V7 growth stage. Cover crops did not reduced corn grain yield in any of the experiments. b. Intercropping of corn and alfalfa The experiment was established in Prosper, and Forman, ND, and Waseca, MN in 2016. The design for this experiment was a RCBD with four replicates. Treatments included: T1, corn at 76-cm row spacing; T2, corn +alfalfa intercropped; T3, corn +alfalfa intercropped + PHX; and T4, an alfalfa control. Corn plots were planted first with plot drill at 76 cm, and alfalfa was drilled over the corn plots with an 8-row plot seeder at 15-cm row spacing. Each experimental unit had either 4 rows of corn or 4 rows of corn and 16 rows of alfalfa seeded on top of the corn on the same date. The alfalfa and corn cultivars were glyphosate-resistant cultivar. PHX was applied to alfalfa at 20-cm in height at a rate of 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 over the alfalfa, but under the corn canopy. The results combined across three locations indicated that alfalfa decreased corn grain yield in both treatments with and without PHX. Corn check grain yield was 224 bu/acre, significantly higher than corn with interseeded alfalfa. Alfalfa with corn had 194 bu/acre a 13.4% yield reduction and corn with alfalfa and PHX had a yield of 188 bu/acre, a 16% reduction in yield. No significant differences were observed in corn yield between alfalfa treatments .Alfalfa biomass at harvest was greater for alfalfa alone. Treated or not treated alfalfa under the corn canopy had similar biomass yield.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., R.W. Gesch, C. Eynck, J. Anderson, and S. Cermak. 2016. Camelina uses, genetics, genomics, production and management. Ind. Crops Prod. 94:690-710.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Under Review Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, and A. Aponte, 2016. Environmental impact assessment of double- and relay-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Great Plains, USA. Agricultural Systems (submitted, under review)
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Submitted Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., D. Samarappuli, B.L., Johnson, and R.W., Gesch. 2017. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems. Ind. Crops Prod. (Submitted, under review)
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Wick, A. M.T. Berti, Y. Lawley, and M. Liebig. 2016. Integration of annual and perennial cover crops for improving soil quality and health In M. Al-Kaisi and B. Lowery (Eds.) Soil Health and Intensification of Agroecosystems. Elsevier Publ.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., A. Aponte, B.L. Johnson, and D. Ripplinger. 2016. Environmental sustainability of double- and relay-cropping of food, feed, and fuel crops in the northern Great Plains, USA. In 24th European Biomass Conf. and Exhibition.5-9 June, 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Available at http://www.etaflorence.it/proceedings/index.asp (verified 10 December 2016).
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti., M.T., B.L. Johnson, R.W. Gesch, J. Ransom, H.H. Kandel, M. Kazula, M.S. Wells, and A. Lenssen. 2016 Integrating camelina into corn and soybean cropping systems. p. 9 In Berti, M.T. and E. Alexopoulou (Eds.) 28th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC), Rochester, NY, 14-19 September, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Berti, M.T., J. Lukaschewsky, and M. Kazula. 2016. Alfalfa silage corn interseeding in North Dakota. North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference, Trifolium Conference and Grass Breeders Conference. Madison, WI. 12-14 July, 2016.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Forcella F., D. Wyse D, and R.W. Gesch 2016. Keep it green: Ecosystem services of year-round cropping. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium  IPM Resistance Management. November 7, 2016. (30 attendees + continuous on-line access) https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2016am/videogateway.cgi/id/25419?recordingid=25419
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Dose, H.L., R. Gesch, F. Forcella, B.L. Johnson, K. Aasand, M.S. Wells, A. Lenssen, S. Patel, M.T. Berti. 2017. Determining optimum time to seed winter cover crops into standing corn and soybean in the northern Corn Belt. Production Agriculture Symposium, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 22-23 February, 2017.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Berti, M.T. Interseeding cover crops into standing corn and soybean: what, when and how. Agriculture Production Symposium, University of Minnesota, 22-23 February 2017.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: Holin, F. 2016. New research on interseeding cover crops into standing corn begins. Clippings 17 June, 2016. Midwest Forage Association, St. Paul, MN. Available at https://www.midwestforage.org/pdf/1041.pdf (M. Berti and R. Gesch mentioned in the article) Wick, A. 2016. Planting Soybean into Cereal Rye  Observations. NDSU Soil Health, Fact Sheet.